Abstract

Fresnel Incoherent Correlation Holography (FINCH) enables holograms to be recorded from incoherent light with just a digital camera and spatial light modulator. We previously described its application to general three dimensional incoherent imaging and specifically to fluorescence microscopy, wherein one complex hologram contains the three dimensional information in the field of view, obviating the need for scanning or serial sectioning. We have now further analyzed FINCH in view of linear system theory and in comparison to conventional coherent and incoherent two dimensional imaging systems. We demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, improved resolution by FINCH, when compared to conventional imaging.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Yeom, B. Javidi, P. Ferraro, D. Alfieri, S. Denicola, and A. Finizio, “Three-dimensional color object visualization and recognition using multi-wavelength computational holography,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9394–9402 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Simultaneous amplitude-contrast and quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by numerical reconstruction of Fresnel off-axis holograms,” Appl. Opt. 38(34), 6994–7001 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. T. Shaked, T. M. Newpher, M. D. Ehlers, and A. Wax, “Parallel on-axis holographic phase microscopy of biological cells and unicellular microorganism dynamics,” Appl. Opt. 49(15), 2872–2878 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. Mico, Z. Zalevsky, P. García-Martínez, and J. García, “Superresolved imaging in digital holography by superposition of tilted wavefronts,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 822–828 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. F. Almoro, G. Pedrini, P. N. Gundu, W. Osten, and S. G. Hanson, “Phase microscopy of technical and biological samples through random phase modulation with a diffuser,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1028–1030 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T.-W. Su, S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Multi-angle lensless digital holography for depth resolved imaging on a chip,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9690–9711 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Lee, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable reflection and transmission microscopy based on lensless holography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(9), 2721–2730 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree super-resolution holographic microscopy using wetting films on a chip,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17378–17389 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Q. Xu, K. Shi, H. Li, K. Choi, R. Horisaki, D. Brady, D. Psaltis, and Z. Liu, “Inline holographic coherent anti-Stokes Raman microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8213–8219 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Digital spatially incoherent Fresnel holography,” Opt. Lett. 32(8), 912–914 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier optics, 3rd Ed., (Roberts and Company Publishers, 2005).
  12. B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, “Three-dimensional holographic fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 22(19), 1506–1508 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. T. Shaked, B. Katz, and J. Rosen, “Review of three-dimensional holographic imaging by multiple-viewpoint-projection based methods,” Appl. Opt. 48(34), H120–H136 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Fluorescence incoherent color holography,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2244–2250 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Non-scanning motionless fluorescence three-dimensional holographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 190–195 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Brooker, N. Siegel, V. Wang, and J. Rosen, “Optimal resolution in Fresnel incoherent correlation holographic fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5047–5062 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. B. Katz, D. Wulich, and J. Rosen, “Optimal noise suppression in Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) configured for maximum imaging resolution,” Appl. Opt. 49(30), 5757–5763 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. Katz and J. Rosen, “Super-resolution in incoherent optical imaging using synthetic aperture with Fresnel elements,” Opt. Express 18(2), 962–972 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. Katz and J. Rosen, “Could SAFE concept be applied for designing a new synthetic aperture telescope?” Opt. Express 19(6), 4924–4936 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Tone, K. Nitta, O. Matoba, and Y. Awatsuji, “Analysis of reconstruction characteristics in fluorescence digital holography,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging, OSA Techinal Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper DTuC13.
  21. P. Bouchal, J. Kapitán, R. Chmelík, and Z. Bouchal, “Point spread function and two-point resolution in Fresnel incoherent correlation holography,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15603–15620 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22(16), 1268–1270 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

2009

2008

J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Non-scanning motionless fluorescence three-dimensional holographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 190–195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

1999

1997

Alfieri, D.

Almoro, P. F.

Bishara, W.

Bouchal, P.

Bouchal, Z.

Brady, D.

Brooker, G.

Chmelík, R.

Choi, K.

Cuche, E.

Denicola, S.

Depeursinge, C.

Ehlers, M. D.

Erlinger, A.

Ferraro, P.

Finizio, A.

García, J.

García-Martínez, P.

Gundu, P. N.

Hanson, S. G.

Horisaki, R.

Indebetouw, G.

Isikman, S. O.

Javidi, B.

Kapitán, J.

Katz, B.

Lee, M.

Li, H.

Liu, Z.

Marquet, P.

Mico, V.

Mudanyali, O.

Newpher, T. M.

Osten, W.

Ozcan, A.

Pedrini, G.

Poon, T.-C.

Psaltis, D.

Rosen, J.

Schilling, B. W.

Shaked, N. T.

Shi, K.

Shinoda, K.

Siegel, N.

Storrie, B.

Su, T.-W.

Suzuki, Y.

Tseng, D.

Wang, V.

Wax, A.

Wu, M. H.

Wulich, D.

Xu, Q.

Yaglidere, O.

Yamaguchi, I.

Yeom, S.

Zalevsky, Z.

Zhang, T.

Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Opt. Express

Nat. Photonics

J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Non-scanning motionless fluorescence three-dimensional holographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 190–195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

G. Brooker, N. Siegel, V. Wang, and J. Rosen, “Optimal resolution in Fresnel incoherent correlation holographic fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5047–5062 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bouchal, J. Kapitán, R. Chmelík, and Z. Bouchal, “Point spread function and two-point resolution in Fresnel incoherent correlation holography,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15603–15620 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree super-resolution holographic microscopy using wetting films on a chip,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17378–17389 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, K. Shi, H. Li, K. Choi, R. Horisaki, D. Brady, D. Psaltis, and Z. Liu, “Inline holographic coherent anti-Stokes Raman microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8213–8219 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Katz and J. Rosen, “Super-resolution in incoherent optical imaging using synthetic aperture with Fresnel elements,” Opt. Express 18(2), 962–972 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Katz and J. Rosen, “Could SAFE concept be applied for designing a new synthetic aperture telescope?” Opt. Express 19(6), 4924–4936 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Fluorescence incoherent color holography,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2244–2250 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yeom, B. Javidi, P. Ferraro, D. Alfieri, S. Denicola, and A. Finizio, “Three-dimensional color object visualization and recognition using multi-wavelength computational holography,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9394–9402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-W. Su, S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Multi-angle lensless digital holography for depth resolved imaging on a chip,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9690–9711 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier optics, 3rd Ed., (Roberts and Company Publishers, 2005).

Y. Tone, K. Nitta, O. Matoba, and Y. Awatsuji, “Analysis of reconstruction characteristics in fluorescence digital holography,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging, OSA Techinal Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper DTuC13.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparisons of the optical configuration for (a) FINCH with only one diffractive lens and (b) A regular optical imaging system with the same parameters used in (a).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Summary of the main features of the three linear systems discussed in the text. As and Is stand for a complex amplitude and intensity of the input object, respectively. x and fx are the space and the spatial frequency coordinate, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) FINCH with two diffractive lenses, one is positive and the other is negative. (b) FINCH with two diffractive lenses, both are positive. (c) A practical setup that emulates the setup of (b), with one positive diffractive lens displayed on the SLM and one positive glass lens placed near to the SLM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic representation of the microscope for comparison of FINCH to standard fluorescence microscopy on the same identical sample without change in position or focus. The position of the two sliders and the diffractive lens pattern displayed on the SLM determines the imaging mode selected. The position of the sliders is shown for FINCH. Imaging of the sample using the SLM as a tube lens was possible by moving the input polarizer to the open position and displaying a diffractive lens pattern with a focal length equivalent to the distance between the SLM and camera. Reversing the position of the two sliders shown in the schematic allowed direction of the fluorescent emission to pass through the NIKON tube lens to the monocular viewing port and associated imaging camera for conventional fluorescence microscopy.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Representative full field USAF slide images captured in standard microscope operating mode (left panel). Middle panel: zoomed-in group 8 and 9 features from full field standard microscope image. Right panel: Digitally linear reconstructed FINCH image of the small central pattern shown in the middle image, slightly cropped to match the middle image. All images were taken with a 5 mm aperture placed at the back plane of the objective.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cropped sections of images taken with: standard Nikon tube lens configured for standard fluorescence microscopy (first column); with the SLM acting as a tube lens (second column); and with either the linear and non-linear reconstruction of FINCH holograms. The FINCH images were recorded with a z-ratio of 1.8. Images with the SLM as the tube lens or with the FINCH method were taken at a SLM-camera distance of 1380 mm. The four sets of images were taken with varying apertures in the back plane of the objective as indicated on each row.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The visibility of the three smallest features of the USAF test pattern in three imaging modes as a function of the size of the aperture placed on the back plane of the objective. Data with the Nikon tube lens was taken with the lens and camera configured for standard fluorescence microscopy. Data for the SLM as the tube lens or with the FINCH method (z-ratio 1.8) were taken at a SLM-camera distance of 1380 mm. Data for the FINCH images are shown for both linear and non-linear reconstructions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Linear reconstructions of FINCH images taken at varying z-ratios. At low z-ratio below 1, the SLM is focusing behind the camera while at high z-ratio above 1, it is focusing in front of the camera. Images were taken with a 5 mm aperture at the back plane of the objective, with a zh of 1380 mm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Non-linear reconstructions of FINCH images taken at varying z-ratios. At low z-ratio below 1, the SLM is focusing behind the camera while at high z-ratio above 1, it is focusing in front of the camera. Images were taken with a 5 mm aperture at the back plane of the objective, with a zh of 1380 mm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Plots of the visibility of the three smallest USAF features in FINCH as a function of the z-ratio, taken with a 5 mm aperture in the back plane of the objective. Data for both linear and non-linear reconstructions are shown. These data were taken with a zh of 1380 mm. For comparison, the visibility in standard microscopy is approximately 0.1 when the aperture is 5 mm (see Fig. 7). The lines are a polynomial fit of the data. For FINCH Non-linear, y = −0.5769x2 + 2.1313x - 1.1801 R2 = 0.8074 and for FINCH Linear, y = −0.4848x2 + 1.7946x - 1.1604 R2 = 0.7866 .

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I H ( u,v )=      | I s C( r ¯ s )L( r ¯ s f o )Q( 1 f o )Q( 1 f o )*Q( 1 d )[ B+B'exp( iθ )Q( 1 f d ) ]*Q( 1 z h )P( R H ) | 2 ,
H( ρ ¯ )= C ' I s P( R H )L( r ¯ r z r )Q( 1 z r ),  
r ¯ r =( x r , y r )= r ¯ s z h f o  . 
h F ( r ¯ )=C' I s ν[ 1 λ z r ]{ L( r ¯ r z r )P( R H ) } =C'' I s Jinc( 2π R H λ z r ( x M T x s ) 2 + ( y M T y s ) 2 ),
I i L ( r ¯ )= I s ( r ¯ )* h F ( r ¯ ). 
I i N ( r ¯ )= | I s ( r ¯ )* h F ( r ¯ ) | 2 .  
R H ={ R o | z h f d | f d         f d z h 2    R o                Otherwise , 
Δ= 1.22λ z r R H = 1.22λ| z h f d | f d R o | z h f d | = 1.22λ f d R o . 
Δ e ={ 1.22λ z r f d R H z h = 1.22λ f d 2 R o z h                                     f d 1 2 z h     1.22λ z r f d R o z h = 1.22λ f d ( 1 f d / z h ) R o             0< f d < 1 2 z h  .
h F ( r ¯ )=C'' I s Jinc( 4π R o λ f d ( x M T x s /2 ) 2 + ( y M T y s /2 ) 2 ) . 
tanφ= 2 R o z h λ 2δ  ,
Δ e = 1.22λ z r f d R H z h  .
I H ( u,v )=| I s C( r ¯ s )L( r ¯ s f o )Q( 1 f o )Q( 1 f o )*Q( 1 d ) ×[ BQ( 1 f 2 )+B'exp( iθ )Q( 1 f d ) ]*Q( 1 z h )P( R H ) | 2 .
z r =±| ( z h f d )( z h + f 2 ) f d + f 2 | . 
R H = R o z h f d f d  ,
z h f d f d = z h + f 2 f 2  .
Δ e = 0.61·λ f d R o  .
z r =±| ( z h f d )( z h f 2 ) f d f 2 |, 
f 2 z h f 2 = z h f d f d  .

Metrics