Abstract

Long-path pulse-to-pulse interferometers of two-color frequency combs are developed using fundamental and second harmonics of a mode-locked fiber laser. Interferometric phase difference between two-color frequency combs was precisely measured by stabilizing the fundamental fringe phase by controlling the repetition frequency of the comb, and a stability of 10−10 for 1000 s was achieved in the measurement of an optical path length difference between two wavelengths. In long-term measurements performed for 10 h, results of phase variation of interferometric measurements were highly consistent with the fluctuations in the calculated difference of refractive indices of air at two wavelengths with an accuracy of 10−10. The difference between the measured optical distances corresponding to two wavelengths and the optical distance corresponding to the fundamental wavelength were used in the two-color method; high-accuracy self-correction of the fluctuation of refractive index of air was performed with an uncertainty of 5 × 10−8 for 10-h measurements when the maximum refractive index change was on the order of 10−6.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. G. Boensch and E. Potulski, “Measurement of the refractive index of air and comparison with modified Edlen's formulae,” Metrologia 35(2), 133–139 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. E. Ciddor, “Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Opt. 35(9), 1566–1573 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. P. L. Bender and J. C. Owens, “Correction of optical distance measurements for the fluctuating atmospheric index of refraction,” J. Geophys. Res. 70(10), 2461–2462 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. C. Owens, “The use of atmospheric dispersion in optical distance measurement,” Bull. Geod. 89(1), 277–291 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Matsumoto and T. Honda, “High-accuracy length-measuring interferometer using the two-colour method of compensating for the refractive index of air,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3(11), 1084–1086 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Matsumoto, Y. Zhu, S. Iwasaki, and T. O’ishi, “Measurement of the changes in air refractive index and distance by means of a two-color interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 31(22), 4522–4526 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. K. Minoshima and H. Matsumoto, “High-accuracy measurement of 240-m distance in an optical tunnel by use of a compact femtosecond laser,” Appl. Opt. 39(30), 5512–5517 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, “Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 084004 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Yasui, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Stabilization of femtosecond mode-locked Ti: Sapphire laser for high-accuracy pulse interferometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(1), 12–19 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Yamaoka, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Direct measurement of the group refractive index of air with interferometry between adjacent femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Opt. 41(21), 4318–4324 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. W. C. Swann and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-resolved coherent lidar using a femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 826–828 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  17. P. Balling, P. Kren, P. Masika, and S. A. van den Berg, “Femtosecond frequency comb based distance measurement in air,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9300–9313 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. Wei, S. Takahashi, K. Takamasu, and H. Matsumoto, “Analysis of the temporal coherence function of a femtosecond optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7011–7018 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 716–720 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Cui, M. G. Zeitouny, N. Bhattacharya, S. A. van den Berg, and H. P. Urbach, “Long distance measurement with femtosecond pulses using a dispersive interferometer,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6549–6562 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, M. Yasuda, T. Kohno, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, T. Katsuyama, and F.-L. Hong, “A multi-branch, fiber-based frequency comb with millihertz-level relative linewidths using an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1667–1676 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5223–5231 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, “Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 084004 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

T. Yasui, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Stabilization of femtosecond mode-locked Ti: Sapphire laser for high-accuracy pulse interferometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(1), 12–19 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

G. Boensch and E. Potulski, “Measurement of the refractive index of air and comparison with modified Edlen's formulae,” Metrologia 35(2), 133–139 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1992 (2)

H. Matsumoto and T. Honda, “High-accuracy length-measuring interferometer using the two-colour method of compensating for the refractive index of air,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3(11), 1084–1086 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Matsumoto, Y. Zhu, S. Iwasaki, and T. O’ishi, “Measurement of the changes in air refractive index and distance by means of a two-color interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 31(22), 4522–4526 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

J. C. Owens, “The use of atmospheric dispersion in optical distance measurement,” Bull. Geod. 89(1), 277–291 (1968).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

P. L. Bender and J. C. Owens, “Correction of optical distance measurements for the fluctuating atmospheric index of refraction,” J. Geophys. Res. 70(10), 2461–2462 (1965).
[Crossref]

Abou-Zeid, A.

K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, “Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 084004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Balling, P.

Bender, P. L.

P. L. Bender and J. C. Owens, “Correction of optical distance measurements for the fluctuating atmospheric index of refraction,” J. Geophys. Res. 70(10), 2461–2462 (1965).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, N.

Bitou, Y.

Boensch, G.

G. Boensch and E. Potulski, “Measurement of the refractive index of air and comparison with modified Edlen's formulae,” Metrologia 35(2), 133–139 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ciddor, P. E.

Cui, M.

Daimon, Y.

Dändliker, R.

Hirano, M.

Holzwarth, R.

Honda, T.

H. Matsumoto and T. Honda, “High-accuracy length-measuring interferometer using the two-colour method of compensating for the refractive index of air,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3(11), 1084–1086 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hong, F. L.

Hong, F.-L.

Hosaka, K.

Hyun, S.

S. Hyun, Y. J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S. W. Kim, “Absolute length measurement with the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(9), 6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Inaba, H.

Iwasaki, S.

Jin, J.

S. Hyun, Y. J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S. W. Kim, “Absolute length measurement with the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(9), 6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Katsuyama, T.

Kawato, S.

Kim, S. W.

S. Hyun, Y. J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S. W. Kim, “Absolute length measurement with the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(9), 6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-W.

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

S. Hyun, Y. J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S. W. Kim, “Absolute length measurement with the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(9), 6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. J.

S. Hyun, Y. J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S. W. Kim, “Absolute length measurement with the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(9), 6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-J.

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

Kohno, T.

Kren, P.

Lee, J.

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lévêque, S.

Lu, Z. H.

Masika, P.

Matsumoto, H.

D. Wei, S. Takahashi, K. Takamasu, and H. Matsumoto, “Analysis of the temporal coherence function of a femtosecond optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7011–7018 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, Y. Bitou, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Displacement metrology with sub-pm resolution in air based on a fs-comb wavelength synthesizer,” Opt. Express 14(13), 5984–5993 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yamaoka, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Direct measurement of the group refractive index of air with interferometry between adjacent femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Opt. 41(21), 4318–4324 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Stabilization of femtosecond mode-locked Ti: Sapphire laser for high-accuracy pulse interferometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(1), 12–19 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Minoshima and H. Matsumoto, “High-accuracy measurement of 240-m distance in an optical tunnel by use of a compact femtosecond laser,” Appl. Opt. 39(30), 5512–5517 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Matsumoto and T. Honda, “High-accuracy length-measuring interferometer using the two-colour method of compensating for the refractive index of air,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3(11), 1084–1086 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Matsumoto, Y. Zhu, S. Iwasaki, and T. O’ishi, “Measurement of the changes in air refractive index and distance by means of a two-color interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 31(22), 4522–4526 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meiners-Hagen, K.

K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, “Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 084004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Minoshima, K.

Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, M. Yasuda, T. Kohno, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, T. Katsuyama, and F.-L. Hong, “A multi-branch, fiber-based frequency comb with millihertz-level relative linewidths using an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1667–1676 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, Y. Bitou, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Displacement metrology with sub-pm resolution in air based on a fs-comb wavelength synthesizer,” Opt. Express 14(13), 5984–5993 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yamaoka, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Direct measurement of the group refractive index of air with interferometry between adjacent femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Opt. 41(21), 4318–4324 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Stabilization of femtosecond mode-locked Ti: Sapphire laser for high-accuracy pulse interferometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(1), 12–19 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Minoshima and H. Matsumoto, “High-accuracy measurement of 240-m distance in an optical tunnel by use of a compact femtosecond laser,” Appl. Opt. 39(30), 5512–5517 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakajima, Y.

Nakazawa, M.

Newbury, N. R.

O’ishi, T.

Okuno, T.

Onae, A.

Onishi, M.

Owens, J. C.

J. C. Owens, “The use of atmospheric dispersion in optical distance measurement,” Bull. Geod. 89(1), 277–291 (1968).
[Crossref]

P. L. Bender and J. C. Owens, “Correction of optical distance measurements for the fluctuating atmospheric index of refraction,” J. Geophys. Res. 70(10), 2461–2462 (1965).
[Crossref]

Potulski, E.

G. Boensch and E. Potulski, “Measurement of the refractive index of air and comparison with modified Edlen's formulae,” Metrologia 35(2), 133–139 (1998).
[Crossref]

Salvadé, Y.

Schibli, T. R.

Schuhler, N.

Swann, W. C.

Takahashi, S.

Takamasu, K.

Urbach, H. P.

van den Berg, S. A.

Wang, L. J.

Wei, D.

Yamaoka, Y.

Yasuda, M.

Yasui, T.

T. Yasui, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Stabilization of femtosecond mode-locked Ti: Sapphire laser for high-accuracy pulse interferometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(1), 12–19 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

Zeitouny, M. G.

Zhang, J.

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Bull. Geod. (1)

J. C. Owens, “The use of atmospheric dispersion in optical distance measurement,” Bull. Geod. 89(1), 277–291 (1968).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Yasui, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Stabilization of femtosecond mode-locked Ti: Sapphire laser for high-accuracy pulse interferometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(1), 12–19 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

P. L. Bender and J. C. Owens, “Correction of optical distance measurements for the fluctuating atmospheric index of refraction,” J. Geophys. Res. 70(10), 2461–2462 (1965).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (3)

H. Matsumoto and T. Honda, “High-accuracy length-measuring interferometer using the two-colour method of compensating for the refractive index of air,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3(11), 1084–1086 (1992).
[Crossref]

K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, “Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 084004 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Hyun, Y. J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S. W. Kim, “Absolute length measurement with the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(9), 6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Metrologia (1)

G. Boensch and E. Potulski, “Measurement of the refractive index of air and comparison with modified Edlen's formulae,” Metrologia 35(2), 133–139 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, Y. Bitou, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Displacement metrology with sub-pm resolution in air based on a fs-comb wavelength synthesizer,” Opt. Express 14(13), 5984–5993 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wei, S. Takahashi, K. Takamasu, and H. Matsumoto, “Analysis of the temporal coherence function of a femtosecond optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7011–7018 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Balling, P. Kren, P. Masika, and S. A. van den Berg, “Femtosecond frequency comb based distance measurement in air,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9300–9313 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, M. Yasuda, T. Kohno, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, T. Katsuyama, and F.-L. Hong, “A multi-branch, fiber-based frequency comb with millihertz-level relative linewidths using an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1667–1676 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cui, M. G. Zeitouny, N. Bhattacharya, S. A. van den Berg, and H. P. Urbach, “Long distance measurement with femtosecond pulses using a dispersive interferometer,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6549–6562 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

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