Abstract

We present a novel concept to design apertureless plasmonic probes for near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) with enhanced optical power throughput and near-field enhancement. Specifically, we combine unidirectional surface plasmon polariton (SPP) generation along the tip lateral walls with nanofocusing of SPPs through adiabatic propagation towards an apertureless tip. Three key design parameters are considered: the nanoslit width, the pitch period of nanogrooves for unidirectional plasmonic excitation and the pyramidal geometry of the NSOM probe for SPP focusing. Optimal design parameters are obtained with 2D analysis and two realistic probe geometries with patterned plasmonic surfaces are proposed using the optimized designs. The electromagnetic properties of the designed probes are characterized in the near-field and compared to those of a conventional single-aperture probe with same pyramidal shape. The optimized probes feature FWHM around 150nm, comparable with conventional NSOM designs, but over 3 orders of magnitude larger field enhancement, without degrading its spatial resolution. Our ideas effectively combine the resolution of apertureless probes with throughput levels much larger than those available even in aperture-based devices.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Hecht and A. R. Ganesan, Optics (Pearson Education, 2001).
  2. E. Abbe, “Beiträge zur theorie des mikroskops und der mikroskopischen wahrnehmung,” Archiv. Mikros. Anat. 9, 413 (1873).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Lieberman, S. Harush, A. Lewis, and R. Kopelman, “A light source smaller than the optical wavelength,” Science 247(4938), 59–61 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Lewis and K. Lieberman, “Near-field optical imaging with a non-evanescently excited high-brightness light source of sub-wavelength dimensions,” Nature 354(6350), 214–216 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Bachelot, F. H'dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput, G. Lampel, J.-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2060–2072 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Adiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by a sharp metal wedge on a dielectric substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 104312 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field localization in plasmonic superfocusing: a nanoemitter on a tip,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 592–596 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Wang, W. Srituravanich, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nearfield scanning probe with high transmission,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 3041–3045 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, and X. J. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanograting tip design for high power throughput near-field scanning aperture probe,” Opt. Express 18(13), 14004–14011 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Kim and B. Lee, “Unidirectional surface plasmon polariton excitation on single slit with oblique backside illumination,” Plasmonics 4(2), 153–159 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Takakura, “Optical resonance in a narrow slit in a thick metallic screen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5601–5603 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Soohoo and G. E. Mevers, “Cavity mode analysis using the fourier transform method,” Proc. IEEE 62(12), 1721–1723 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Petit, Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1980).
  21. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  22. S. Astilean, Ph. Lalanneb, and M. Palamarua, “Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 175(4-6), 265–273 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E.D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).
  24. H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. S. Hyun, J. S. Moon, J. H. Parka, J. W. Kima, Y. D. Kimaand, and J. H. Boo, “Fabrication of near-field optical probes using advanced functional thin films for MEMS and NEMS applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 149, 292–298 (2008).

2010 (2)

C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field localization in plasmonic superfocusing: a nanoemitter on a tip,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 592–596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, and X. J. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanograting tip design for high power throughput near-field scanning aperture probe,” Opt. Express 18(13), 14004–14011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

H. Kim and B. Lee, “Unidirectional surface plasmon polariton excitation on single slit with oblique backside illumination,” Plasmonics 4(2), 153–159 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. S. Hyun, J. S. Moon, J. H. Parka, J. W. Kima, Y. D. Kimaand, and J. H. Boo, “Fabrication of near-field optical probes using advanced functional thin films for MEMS and NEMS applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 149, 292–298 (2008).

Y. Wang, W. Srituravanich, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nearfield scanning probe with high transmission,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 3041–3045 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Adiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by a sharp metal wedge on a dielectric substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 104312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. Bachelot, F. H'dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput, G. Lampel, J.-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2060–2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Takakura, “Optical resonance in a narrow slit in a thick metallic screen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5601–5603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Astilean, Ph. Lalanneb, and M. Palamarua, “Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 175(4-6), 265–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lewis and K. Lieberman, “Near-field optical imaging with a non-evanescently excited high-brightness light source of sub-wavelength dimensions,” Nature 354(6350), 214–216 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Lieberman, S. Harush, A. Lewis, and R. Kopelman, “A light source smaller than the optical wavelength,” Science 247(4938), 59–61 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

J. Soohoo and G. E. Mevers, “Cavity mode analysis using the fourier transform method,” Proc. IEEE 62(12), 1721–1723 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

1873 (1)

E. Abbe, “Beiträge zur theorie des mikroskops und der mikroskopischen wahrnehmung,” Archiv. Mikros. Anat. 9, 413 (1873).
[CrossRef]

Abbe, E.

E. Abbe, “Beiträge zur theorie des mikroskops und der mikroskopischen wahrnehmung,” Archiv. Mikros. Anat. 9, 413 (1873).
[CrossRef]

Abeysinghe, D. C.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astilean, S.

S. Astilean, Ph. Lalanneb, and M. Palamarua, “Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 175(4-6), 265–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

R. Bachelot, F. H'dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput, G. Lampel, J.-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2060–2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

R. Bachelot, F. H'dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput, G. Lampel, J.-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2060–2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berweger, S.

C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field localization in plasmonic superfocusing: a nanoemitter on a tip,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 592–596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boilot, J.-P.

R. Bachelot, F. H'dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput, G. Lampel, J.-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2060–2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boo, J. H.

J. S. Hyun, J. S. Moon, J. H. Parka, J. W. Kima, Y. D. Kimaand, and J. H. Boo, “Fabrication of near-field optical probes using advanced functional thin films for MEMS and NEMS applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 149, 292–298 (2008).

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. E.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byeon, C. C.

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chaput, F.

R. Bachelot, F. H'dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput, G. Lampel, J.-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2060–2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. B.

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fikri, R.

R. Bachelot, F. H'dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput, G. Lampel, J.-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2060–2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

González, M. U.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Adiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by a sharp metal wedge on a dielectric substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 104312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harush, S.

K. Lieberman, S. Harush, A. Lewis, and R. Kopelman, “A light source smaller than the optical wavelength,” Science 247(4938), 59–61 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H'dhili, F.

R. Bachelot, F. H'dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput, G. Lampel, J.-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2060–2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hiller, J. M.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. Y.

Hyun, J. S.

J. S. Hyun, J. S. Moon, J. H. Parka, J. W. Kima, Y. D. Kimaand, and J. H. Boo, “Fabrication of near-field optical probes using advanced functional thin films for MEMS and NEMS applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 149, 292–298 (2008).

Jeong, M. S.

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y. K.

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim and B. Lee, “Unidirectional surface plasmon polariton excitation on single slit with oblique backside illumination,” Plasmonics 4(2), 153–159 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kima, J. W.

J. S. Hyun, J. S. Moon, J. H. Parka, J. W. Kima, Y. D. Kimaand, and J. H. Boo, “Fabrication of near-field optical probes using advanced functional thin films for MEMS and NEMS applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 149, 292–298 (2008).

Kimaand, Y. D.

J. S. Hyun, J. S. Moon, J. H. Parka, J. W. Kima, Y. D. Kimaand, and J. H. Boo, “Fabrication of near-field optical probes using advanced functional thin films for MEMS and NEMS applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 149, 292–298 (2008).

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopelman, R.

K. Lieberman, S. Harush, A. Lewis, and R. Kopelman, “A light source smaller than the optical wavelength,” Science 247(4938), 59–61 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lahlil, K.

R. Bachelot, F. H'dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput, G. Lampel, J.-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2060–2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lalanneb, Ph.

S. Astilean, Ph. Lalanneb, and M. Palamarua, “Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 175(4-6), 265–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lampel, G.

R. Bachelot, F. H'dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput, G. Lampel, J.-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2060–2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Landraud, N.

R. Bachelot, F. H'dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput, G. Lampel, J.-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2060–2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

H. Kim and B. Lee, “Unidirectional surface plasmon polariton excitation on single slit with oblique backside illumination,” Plasmonics 4(2), 153–159 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lerondel, G.

R. Bachelot, F. H'dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput, G. Lampel, J.-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2060–2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

A. Lewis and K. Lieberman, “Near-field optical imaging with a non-evanescently excited high-brightness light source of sub-wavelength dimensions,” Nature 354(6350), 214–216 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Lieberman, S. Harush, A. Lewis, and R. Kopelman, “A light source smaller than the optical wavelength,” Science 247(4938), 59–61 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieberman, K.

A. Lewis and K. Lieberman, “Near-field optical imaging with a non-evanescently excited high-brightness light source of sub-wavelength dimensions,” Nature 354(6350), 214–216 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Lieberman, S. Harush, A. Lewis, and R. Kopelman, “A light source smaller than the optical wavelength,” Science 247(4938), 59–61 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

López-Tejeira, F.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mevers, G. E.

J. Soohoo and G. E. Mevers, “Cavity mode analysis using the fourier transform method,” Proc. IEEE 62(12), 1721–1723 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. S.

J. S. Hyun, J. S. Moon, J. H. Parka, J. W. Kima, Y. D. Kimaand, and J. H. Boo, “Fabrication of near-field optical probes using advanced functional thin films for MEMS and NEMS applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 149, 292–298 (2008).

Neacsu, C. C.

C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field localization in plasmonic superfocusing: a nanoemitter on a tip,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 592–596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, R. L.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olmon, R. L.

C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field localization in plasmonic superfocusing: a nanoemitter on a tip,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 592–596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palamarua, M.

S. Astilean, Ph. Lalanneb, and M. Palamarua, “Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 175(4-6), 265–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. J.

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q.-H.

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Parka, J. H.

J. S. Hyun, J. S. Moon, J. H. Parka, J. W. Kima, Y. D. Kimaand, and J. H. Boo, “Fabrication of near-field optical probes using advanced functional thin films for MEMS and NEMS applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 149, 292–298 (2008).

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peretti, J.

R. Bachelot, F. H'dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput, G. Lampel, J.-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2060–2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Adiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by a sharp metal wedge on a dielectric substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 104312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Radko, I. P.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raschke, M. B.

C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field localization in plasmonic superfocusing: a nanoemitter on a tip,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 592–596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrigo, S. G.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ropers, C.

C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field localization in plasmonic superfocusing: a nanoemitter on a tip,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 592–596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Royer, P.

R. Bachelot, F. H'dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput, G. Lampel, J.-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2060–2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saraf, L. V.

C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field localization in plasmonic superfocusing: a nanoemitter on a tip,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 592–596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soohoo, J.

J. Soohoo and G. E. Mevers, “Cavity mode analysis using the fourier transform method,” Proc. IEEE 62(12), 1721–1723 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

Y. Wang, W. Srituravanich, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nearfield scanning probe with high transmission,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 3041–3045 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Y. Wang, W. Srituravanich, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nearfield scanning probe with high transmission,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 3041–3045 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takakura, Y.

Y. Takakura, “Optical resonance in a narrow slit in a thick metallic screen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5601–5603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vernon, K. C.

K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Adiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by a sharp metal wedge on a dielectric substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 104312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkov, V. S.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, and X. J. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanograting tip design for high power throughput near-field scanning aperture probe,” Opt. Express 18(13), 14004–14011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Srituravanich, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nearfield scanning probe with high transmission,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 3041–3045 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weeber, J. C.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, Y. C.

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Q.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Y. Wang, W. Srituravanich, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nearfield scanning probe with high transmission,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 3041–3045 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Archiv. Mikros. Anat. (1)

E. Abbe, “Beiträge zur theorie des mikroskops und der mikroskopischen wahrnehmung,” Archiv. Mikros. Anat. 9, 413 (1873).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Adiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by a sharp metal wedge on a dielectric substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 104312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, F. H'dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput, G. Lampel, J.-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2060–2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. (1)

J. S. Hyun, J. S. Moon, J. H. Parka, J. W. Kima, Y. D. Kimaand, and J. H. Boo, “Fabrication of near-field optical probes using advanced functional thin films for MEMS and NEMS applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 149, 292–298 (2008).

Nano Lett. (5)

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field localization in plasmonic superfocusing: a nanoemitter on a tip,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 592–596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Srituravanich, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nearfield scanning probe with high transmission,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 3041–3045 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Lewis and K. Lieberman, “Near-field optical imaging with a non-evanescently excited high-brightness light source of sub-wavelength dimensions,” Nature 354(6350), 214–216 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Astilean, Ph. Lalanneb, and M. Palamarua, “Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 175(4-6), 265–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takakura, “Optical resonance in a narrow slit in a thick metallic screen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5601–5603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plasmonics (1)

H. Kim and B. Lee, “Unidirectional surface plasmon polariton excitation on single slit with oblique backside illumination,” Plasmonics 4(2), 153–159 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. Soohoo and G. E. Mevers, “Cavity mode analysis using the fourier transform method,” Proc. IEEE 62(12), 1721–1723 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lieberman, S. Harush, A. Lewis, and R. Kopelman, “A light source smaller than the optical wavelength,” Science 247(4938), 59–61 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

E. Hecht and A. R. Ganesan, Optics (Pearson Education, 2001).

R. Petit, Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1980).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E.D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conceptual schematic of infinite metal slit for unidirectional SPP generation. A transverse-magnetic (TM) polarized plane wave is incident on the back side of a slit; the blue arrow denotes the wave vector of incident wave with incident angle θ=54.7° . Tilting angle and incident angle have identical value, determined by the pyramidal probe geometry introduced in the next section. We tailor the slit width w slit and metal thickness t metal to maximize the SPP generation and directivity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Unidirectional surface plasmon polariton (SPP) generation by tilted slit near a grating. TM polarized plane wave is incident on backside; the blue arrow indicates the incident wave vector with angle θ = 54.7. The considered design parameters are the groove period pgroove, slit width wslit, thickness of metal film tmetal, distance between the slit and the first groove d and the groove depth tgroove.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Unidirectional properties and transmission characteristics of two different slit geometries: (a) slit A, corresponding to the geometry of Fig. 1, and (b) slit B with wslit = 100 nm, corresponding to the geometry of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

H y field distribution around slit and near-field space. (a) 100nm (b) type A and (c) type B slit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

NSOM probe designs: (a) canonical single aperture probe, (b) type A probe: a plasmonic probe with optimized slit width, consistent with the geometry of Fig. 1, (c) type B probe: a plasmonic probe with a slit and a groove array, consistent with the geometry of Fig. 2. We consider the following design parameters: tip radius a = t1 = t2 = 100 nm, tip-slit distance r1 = r2 = 1 µm, slit width of type A w1 = 371 nm, slit and groove width of type B w2 = w3 = 100 nm, tip-to-1st groove distance d = 484 nm and groove period of type B probe p = 308.5 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

|E| field distributions of 3 different probes in x-z plane (left column) and |E | 2 distribution along x axis with tip-sample distance of 20 nm (right column): (a) a classic single aperture probe with 100 nm-sized rectangular aperture, (b) type A probe, and (c) type B probe.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Near-field characteristics of three probes: type A, type B and classical single aperture probe. All data are measured at 20 nm above the tip apex.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral characteristics of three probes: type A, type B and classical single aperture probe. (a) Maximum electric energy density and (b) FWHM along x-axis are calculated at tip-sample distance of 20 nm.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A( k x ,z )= u( x,z ) (x,z) exp [ j k x x ]dx
k spp =nπ/ p groove
D= | H y right | | H y left |

Metrics