Abstract

This paper proposes a novel scheme to reduce energy consumption of digital transceivers with OFDM as the modulation scheme. The energy consumption of transceivers is saved based on two key techniques: 1) adaptively tune the bandwidth and sampling rate of the OFDM signal; 2) selectively power off individual block of parallel modules in the transceiver. Performance analysis illustrate that the newly designed transceiver consumes a significantly less amount of energy as compared to the conventional transceiver.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. A. Plepys, “The grey side of ICT,” Environmental Impact Assessment Review 22, 509–523 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Towards energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep-aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, S33–S38 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. http://www.ams-ix.net/ .
  4. F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in 14th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), (IEEE, 2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Time-aware energy conservation in IP-over-WDM networks,” in Photonics in Switching, (Optical Society of America, 2010).
  6. J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in The 27th Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), (IEEE, 2008), pp. 457–465.
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Li, Y. Ofek, and M. Yung, “Time-driven priority flow control for real-time heterogeneous internetworking,” in The fifteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer Societies, (IEEE, 1996), vol. 1, pp. 189–197.
  8. Y. Chen and A. Jaekel, “Energy efficient grooming of scheduled sub-wavelength traffic demands,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011).
  9. M. Feng, K. Hinton, R. Ayre, and R. Tucker, “Energy efficiency in optical IP networks with multi-layer switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011).
  10. C. Cavdar, “Energy-efficient connection provisioning in WDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011).
  11. D. Qian, M. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115*100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4Bits/s/HZ spectral efficiency over 10181km,” in ECOC, (PDP2011).
  12. Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tbit/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with orthogonal-band multiplexing and subwavelength bandwidth access,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 308–315 (2010).
  13. S. Weinstein and P. Ebert, “Data transmission by frequency-division multiplexing using the discrete fourier transform,” IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. 19, 628–634 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Chiou, S. Chen, S. Chang, and C. Yeh, “Timing driven power gating,” in Proceedings of the 43rd annual Design Automation Conference, (ACM, 2006), pp. 121–124.
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Towards energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep-aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, S33–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tbit/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with orthogonal-band multiplexing and subwavelength bandwidth access,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 308–315 (2010).

2002 (1)

A. Plepys, “The grey side of ICT,” Environmental Impact Assessment Review 22, 509–523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

S. Weinstein and P. Ebert, “Data transmission by frequency-division multiplexing using the discrete fourier transform,” IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. 19, 628–634 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ansari, N.

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Towards energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep-aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, S33–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, Y.

D. Qian, M. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115*100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4Bits/s/HZ spectral efficiency over 10181km,” in ECOC, (PDP2011).

Ayre, R.

M. Feng, K. Hinton, R. Ayre, and R. Tucker, “Energy efficiency in optical IP networks with multi-layer switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011).

Barford, P.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in The 27th Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), (IEEE, 2008), pp. 457–465.
[CrossRef]

Cavdar, C.

C. Cavdar, “Energy-efficient connection provisioning in WDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011).

Chabarek, J.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in The 27th Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), (IEEE, 2008), pp. 457–465.
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.

D. Chiou, S. Chen, S. Chang, and C. Yeh, “Timing driven power gating,” in Proceedings of the 43rd annual Design Automation Conference, (ACM, 2006), pp. 121–124.
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tbit/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with orthogonal-band multiplexing and subwavelength bandwidth access,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 308–315 (2010).

D. Chiou, S. Chen, S. Chang, and C. Yeh, “Timing driven power gating,” in Proceedings of the 43rd annual Design Automation Conference, (ACM, 2006), pp. 121–124.
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen and A. Jaekel, “Energy efficient grooming of scheduled sub-wavelength traffic demands,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011).

Chiou, D.

D. Chiou, S. Chen, S. Chang, and C. Yeh, “Timing driven power gating,” in Proceedings of the 43rd annual Design Automation Conference, (ACM, 2006), pp. 121–124.
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, P.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Time-aware energy conservation in IP-over-WDM networks,” in Photonics in Switching, (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Ebert, P.

S. Weinstein and P. Ebert, “Data transmission by frequency-division multiplexing using the discrete fourier transform,” IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. 19, 628–634 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Estan, C.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in The 27th Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), (IEEE, 2008), pp. 457–465.
[CrossRef]

Feng, M.

M. Feng, K. Hinton, R. Ayre, and R. Tucker, “Energy efficiency in optical IP networks with multi-layer switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011).

Hinton, K.

M. Feng, K. Hinton, R. Ayre, and R. Tucker, “Energy efficiency in optical IP networks with multi-layer switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011).

Huang, M.

D. Qian, M. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115*100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4Bits/s/HZ spectral efficiency over 10181km,” in ECOC, (PDP2011).

Idzikowski, F.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in 14th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), (IEEE, 2010).
[CrossRef]

Inada, Y.

D. Qian, M. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115*100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4Bits/s/HZ spectral efficiency over 10181km,” in ECOC, (PDP2011).

Jaekel, A.

Y. Chen and A. Jaekel, “Energy efficient grooming of scheduled sub-wavelength traffic demands,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011).

Ji, P.

D. Qian, M. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115*100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4Bits/s/HZ spectral efficiency over 10181km,” in ECOC, (PDP2011).

Li, C.

C. Li, Y. Ofek, and M. Yung, “Time-driven priority flow control for real-time heterogeneous internetworking,” in The fifteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer Societies, (IEEE, 1996), vol. 1, pp. 189–197.

Ma, Y.

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tbit/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with orthogonal-band multiplexing and subwavelength bandwidth access,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 308–315 (2010).

Mateo, E.

D. Qian, M. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115*100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4Bits/s/HZ spectral efficiency over 10181km,” in ECOC, (PDP2011).

Mukherjee, B.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Time-aware energy conservation in IP-over-WDM networks,” in Photonics in Switching, (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Ofek, Y.

C. Li, Y. Ofek, and M. Yung, “Time-driven priority flow control for real-time heterogeneous internetworking,” in The fifteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer Societies, (IEEE, 1996), vol. 1, pp. 189–197.

Ogata, T.

D. Qian, M. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115*100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4Bits/s/HZ spectral efficiency over 10181km,” in ECOC, (PDP2011).

Orlowski, S.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in 14th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), (IEEE, 2010).
[CrossRef]

Plepys, A.

A. Plepys, “The grey side of ICT,” Environmental Impact Assessment Review 22, 509–523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qian, D.

D. Qian, M. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115*100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4Bits/s/HZ spectral efficiency over 10181km,” in ECOC, (PDP2011).

Raack, C.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in 14th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), (IEEE, 2010).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Y.

D. Qian, M. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115*100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4Bits/s/HZ spectral efficiency over 10181km,” in ECOC, (PDP2011).

Shieh, W.

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tbit/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with orthogonal-band multiplexing and subwavelength bandwidth access,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 308–315 (2010).

Sommers, J.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in The 27th Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), (IEEE, 2008), pp. 457–465.
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tbit/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with orthogonal-band multiplexing and subwavelength bandwidth access,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 308–315 (2010).

Tornatore, M.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Time-aware energy conservation in IP-over-WDM networks,” in Photonics in Switching, (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Tsiang, D.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in The 27th Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), (IEEE, 2008), pp. 457–465.
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R.

M. Feng, K. Hinton, R. Ayre, and R. Tucker, “Energy efficiency in optical IP networks with multi-layer switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011).

Wang, T.

D. Qian, M. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115*100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4Bits/s/HZ spectral efficiency over 10181km,” in ECOC, (PDP2011).

Weinstein, S.

S. Weinstein and P. Ebert, “Data transmission by frequency-division multiplexing using the discrete fourier transform,” IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. 19, 628–634 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Woesner, H.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in 14th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), (IEEE, 2010).
[CrossRef]

Wolisz, A.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in 14th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), (IEEE, 2010).
[CrossRef]

Wright, S.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in The 27th Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), (IEEE, 2008), pp. 457–465.
[CrossRef]

Yaman, F.

D. Qian, M. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115*100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4Bits/s/HZ spectral efficiency over 10181km,” in ECOC, (PDP2011).

Yang, Q.

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tbit/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with orthogonal-band multiplexing and subwavelength bandwidth access,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 308–315 (2010).

Yeh, C.

D. Chiou, S. Chen, S. Chang, and C. Yeh, “Timing driven power gating,” in Proceedings of the 43rd annual Design Automation Conference, (ACM, 2006), pp. 121–124.
[CrossRef]

Yung, M.

C. Li, Y. Ofek, and M. Yung, “Time-driven priority flow control for real-time heterogeneous internetworking,” in The fifteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer Societies, (IEEE, 1996), vol. 1, pp. 189–197.

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Towards energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep-aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, S33–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

D. Qian, M. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115*100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4Bits/s/HZ spectral efficiency over 10181km,” in ECOC, (PDP2011).

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Time-aware energy conservation in IP-over-WDM networks,” in Photonics in Switching, (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Environmental Impact Assessment Review (1)

A. Plepys, “The grey side of ICT,” Environmental Impact Assessment Review 22, 509–523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Towards energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep-aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, S33–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. (1)

S. Weinstein and P. Ebert, “Data transmission by frequency-division multiplexing using the discrete fourier transform,” IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. 19, 628–634 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tbit/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with orthogonal-band multiplexing and subwavelength bandwidth access,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 308–315 (2010).

Other (10)

D. Chiou, S. Chen, S. Chang, and C. Yeh, “Timing driven power gating,” in Proceedings of the 43rd annual Design Automation Conference, (ACM, 2006), pp. 121–124.
[CrossRef]

http://www.ams-ix.net/ .

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in 14th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), (IEEE, 2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Time-aware energy conservation in IP-over-WDM networks,” in Photonics in Switching, (Optical Society of America, 2010).

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in The 27th Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), (IEEE, 2008), pp. 457–465.
[CrossRef]

C. Li, Y. Ofek, and M. Yung, “Time-driven priority flow control for real-time heterogeneous internetworking,” in The fifteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer Societies, (IEEE, 1996), vol. 1, pp. 189–197.

Y. Chen and A. Jaekel, “Energy efficient grooming of scheduled sub-wavelength traffic demands,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011).

M. Feng, K. Hinton, R. Ayre, and R. Tucker, “Energy efficiency in optical IP networks with multi-layer switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011).

C. Cavdar, “Energy-efficient connection provisioning in WDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011).

D. Qian, M. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115*100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4Bits/s/HZ spectral efficiency over 10181km,” in ECOC, (PDP2011).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

An example of the high-speed ADC structure

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The system block diagram of the proposed transceiver

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

An illustration of the bandwidth adaptation process

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation results. (a). Performances vs. load (Stabilizing time=0, upper bound=25k bytes, lower bound=2.5k bytes), (b). Performances vs. stabilizing time (load=18.3Gbit/s, upper bound=25k bytes, lower bound=2.5k bytes)

Equations (1)

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10 s P ( 100 ) [ T ( 25 ) P ( 25 ) + T ( 50 ) P ( 50 ) + T ( 100 ) P ( 100 ) ] 10 s P ( 100 )

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