Abstract

We outline the most recent technological advancements in the design, fabrication and characterization of polymer microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) for applications in the terahertz waveband. Focusing on specific experimental demonstrations, we show that polymer optical fibers provide a very flexible route towards THz wave guiding. Crucial incentives include the large variety of the low-cost and relatively low absorption loss polymers, the facile fiber preform fabrication by molding, drilling, stacking and extrusion, and finally, the simple fabrication through fiber drawing at low forming temperatures.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, N. Laman, X. G. Peralta, C. C. Roth, C. Z. Cerna, B. D. Rivest, J. E. Grundt, and W. P. Roach, “Development of a compact terahertz time-domain spectrometer for the measurement of the optical properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dupuis, K. Stoeffler, B. Ung, C. Dubois, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Transmission measurements of hollow-core THz Bragg Fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(4), 896–907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Rozé, B. Ung, A. Mazhorova, M. Walther, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Suspended core subwavelength fibers: towards practical designs for low-loss terahertz guidance,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9127–9138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ung, A. Dupuis, K. Stoeffler, C. Dubois, and M. Skorobogatiy, “High-refractive-index composite materials for terahertz waveguides: trade-off between index contrast and absorption loss,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(4), 917–921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, P. U. Jepsen, and O. Bang, “Porous-core honeycomb bandgap THz fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 666–668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Atakaramians, S. V. Afshar, M. Nagel, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, T. M. Monro, and D. Abbott, “Direct probing of evanescent fields for characterization of porous terahertz fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121104 (2011).

M. Walther and A. Bitzer, “Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Close to Microstructures Studied by Time and Phase-Resolved THz Near-Field Imaging,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves 32(8-9), 1020–1030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

O. Mitrofanov and J. A. Harrington, “Dielectric-lined cylindrical metallic THz waveguides: mode structure and dispersion,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1898–1903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Knab, A. J. L. Adam, R. Chakkittakandy, and P. C. M. Planken, “Terahertz near-field microspectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bitzer, A. Ortner, and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field microscopy with subwavelength spatial resolution based on photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E1–E6 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H.-C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tang, H. Minamide, Y. Wang, T. Notake, S. Ohno, and H. Ito, “Dual-wavelength single-crystal double-pass KTP optical parametric oscillator and its application in terahertz wave generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1698–1700 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dupuis, A. Mazhorova, F. Désévédavy, M. Rozé, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Spectral characterization of porous dielectric subwavelength THz fibers fabricated using a microstructured molding technique,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13813–13828 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “THz interferometric imaging using subwavelength plastic fiber based THz endoscopes,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2494–2501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Low loss porous terahertz fibers containing multiple subwavelength holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Porous polymer fibers for low-loss Terahertz guiding,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6340–6351 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Karpowicz, J. Chen, T. Tongue, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent millimetre wave to mid-infrared measurements with continuous bandwidth reaching 40 THz,” Electron. Lett. 44(8), 544–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and T. M. Monro, “Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15086–15092 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Skorobogatiy and A. Dupuis, “Ferroelectric all-polymer hollow Bragg fibers for terahertz guidance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2001

1998

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: Direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

S. Atakaramians, S. V. Afshar, M. Nagel, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, T. M. Monro, and D. Abbott, “Direct probing of evanescent fields for characterization of porous terahertz fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121104 (2011).

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, M. Nagel, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “THz porous fibers: design, fabrication and experimental characterization,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14053–15062 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adam, A. J. L.

J. R. Knab, A. J. L. Adam, R. Chakkittakandy, and P. C. M. Planken, “Terahertz near-field microspectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, A. J. L. Adam, P. C. M. Planken, O. Bang, and P. U. Jepsen, “Bendable, low-loss Topas fibers for the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8592–8601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Afshar, S. V.

S. Atakaramians, S. V. Afshar, M. Nagel, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, T. M. Monro, and D. Abbott, “Direct probing of evanescent fields for characterization of porous terahertz fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121104 (2011).

Afshar V, S.

Allard, J.-F.

Atakaramians, S.

S. Atakaramians, S. V. Afshar, M. Nagel, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, T. M. Monro, and D. Abbott, “Direct probing of evanescent fields for characterization of porous terahertz fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121104 (2011).

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, M. Nagel, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “THz porous fibers: design, fabrication and experimental characterization,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14053–15062 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bang, O.

Bitzer, A.

M. Walther and A. Bitzer, “Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Close to Microstructures Studied by Time and Phase-Resolved THz Near-Field Imaging,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves 32(8-9), 1020–1030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Bitzer, A. Ortner, and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field microscopy with subwavelength spatial resolution based on photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E1–E6 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bliss, D.

Bowden, B.

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: Direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: Direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cerna, C. Z.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, N. Laman, X. G. Peralta, C. C. Roth, C. Z. Cerna, B. D. Rivest, J. E. Grundt, and W. P. Roach, “Development of a compact terahertz time-domain spectrometer for the measurement of the optical properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chakkittakandy, R.

J. R. Knab, A. J. L. Adam, R. Chakkittakandy, and P. C. M. Planken, “Terahertz near-field microspectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.-C.

Chen, H.-W.

Chen, J.

N. Karpowicz, J. Chen, T. Tongue, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent millimetre wave to mid-infrared measurements with continuous bandwidth reaching 40 THz,” Electron. Lett. 44(8), 544–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-J.

Chiu, C.-M.

Cunningham, P. D.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Désévédavy, F.

Dubois, C.

Dupuis, A.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Engeness, T.

Evans, M.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J. F.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: Direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fermann, M. E.

Fink, Y.

Fischer, B. M.

Gordon, K. C.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grundt, J. E.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, N. Laman, X. G. Peralta, C. C. Roth, C. Z. Cerna, B. D. Rivest, J. E. Grundt, and W. P. Roach, “Development of a compact terahertz time-domain spectrometer for the measurement of the optical properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrington, J. A.

O. Mitrofanov and J. A. Harrington, “Dielectric-lined cylindrical metallic THz waveguides: mode structure and dispersion,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1898–1903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

Hassani, A.

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Low loss porous terahertz fibers containing multiple subwavelength holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Porous polymer fibers for low-loss Terahertz guiding,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6340–6351 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayden, L. M.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ho, L.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hochrein, T.

Huang, H.-Y.

Huang, Y.-R.

Hwang, Y.-J.

Ibanescu, M.

Ibey, B. L.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, N. Laman, X. G. Peralta, C. C. Roth, C. Z. Cerna, B. D. Rivest, J. E. Grundt, and W. P. Roach, “Development of a compact terahertz time-domain spectrometer for the measurement of the optical properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imeshev, G.

Ito, H.

Jacobs, S.

Jansen, C.

Jen, A. K.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.-Y.

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-Y. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513–517 (2006).

Jepsen, P. U.

Jin, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-Y. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513–517 (2006).

Joannopoulos, J.

Johnson, S.

Jördens, C.

Kao, T.-F.

Karpowicz, N.

N. Karpowicz, J. Chen, T. Tongue, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent millimetre wave to mid-infrared measurements with continuous bandwidth reaching 40 THz,” Electron. Lett. 44(8), 544–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-J.

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-Y. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513–517 (2006).

Kleinebudde, P.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Knab, J. R.

J. R. Knab, A. J. L. Adam, R. Chakkittakandy, and P. C. M. Planken, “Terahertz near-field microspectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

Krumbholz, N.

Kuo, C.-C.

Kurz, H.

Lai, C.-H.

Laman, N.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, N. Laman, X. G. Peralta, C. C. Roth, C. Z. Cerna, B. D. Rivest, J. E. Grundt, and W. P. Roach, “Development of a compact terahertz time-domain spectrometer for the measurement of the optical properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, W.-J.

Liu, T.-A.

Lopata, J.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: Direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.-Y.

Luo, J.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, C.

Marchewka, A.

Mark, P. R.

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

May, R. K.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mazhorova, A.

Minamide, H.

Mitrofanov, O.

O. Mitrofanov and J. A. Harrington, “Dielectric-lined cylindrical metallic THz waveguides: mode structure and dispersion,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1898–1903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

Morris, D.

Müller, R.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, M.

Nielsen, K.

Notake, T.

Ohno, S.

Ortner, A.

Pan, C.-L.

Peng, J.-L.

Pepper, M.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peralta, X. G.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, N. Laman, X. G. Peralta, C. C. Roth, C. Z. Cerna, B. D. Rivest, J. E. Grundt, and W. P. Roach, “Development of a compact terahertz time-domain spectrometer for the measurement of the optical properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, O.

Pfeiffer, L.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: Direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

J. R. Knab, A. J. L. Adam, R. Chakkittakandy, and P. C. M. Planken, “Terahertz near-field microspectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, A. J. L. Adam, P. C. M. Planken, O. Bang, and P. U. Jepsen, “Bendable, low-loss Topas fibers for the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8592–8601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polishak, B.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rades, T.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, H. K.

Rivest, B. D.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, N. Laman, X. G. Peralta, C. C. Roth, C. Z. Cerna, B. D. Rivest, J. E. Grundt, and W. P. Roach, “Development of a compact terahertz time-domain spectrometer for the measurement of the optical properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roach, W. P.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, N. Laman, X. G. Peralta, C. C. Roth, C. Z. Cerna, B. D. Rivest, J. E. Grundt, and W. P. Roach, “Development of a compact terahertz time-domain spectrometer for the measurement of the optical properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, C. C.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, N. Laman, X. G. Peralta, C. C. Roth, C. Z. Cerna, B. D. Rivest, J. E. Grundt, and W. P. Roach, “Development of a compact terahertz time-domain spectrometer for the measurement of the optical properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rozé, M.

Salhi, M.

Scheller, M.

Schulkin, B.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, N. Laman, X. G. Peralta, C. C. Roth, C. Z. Cerna, B. D. Rivest, J. E. Grundt, and W. P. Roach, “Development of a compact terahertz time-domain spectrometer for the measurement of the optical properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y.-C.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M.

A. Dupuis, K. Stoeffler, B. Ung, C. Dubois, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Transmission measurements of hollow-core THz Bragg Fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(4), 896–907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Rozé, B. Ung, A. Mazhorova, M. Walther, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Suspended core subwavelength fibers: towards practical designs for low-loss terahertz guidance,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9127–9138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ung, A. Dupuis, K. Stoeffler, C. Dubois, and M. Skorobogatiy, “High-refractive-index composite materials for terahertz waveguides: trade-off between index contrast and absorption loss,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(4), 917–921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Dupuis, A. Mazhorova, F. Désévédavy, M. Rozé, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Spectral characterization of porous dielectric subwavelength THz fibers fabricated using a microstructured molding technique,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13813–13828 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dupuis, J.-F. Allard, D. Morris, K. Stoeffler, C. Dubois, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Fabrication and THz loss measurements of porous subwavelength fibers using a directional coupler method,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8012–8028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Low loss porous terahertz fibers containing multiple subwavelength holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Porous polymer fibers for low-loss Terahertz guiding,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6340–6351 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Skorobogatiy and A. Dupuis, “Ferroelectric all-polymer hollow Bragg fibers for terahertz guidance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S. Jacobs, J. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core OmniGuide fibers,” Opt. Express 9(13), 748–779 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soljacic, M.

Stark, J. B.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: Direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stoeffler, K.

Sun, C.-K.

Taday, P. F.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tan, T.

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, M.

Tongue, T.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, N. Laman, X. G. Peralta, C. C. Roth, C. Z. Cerna, B. D. Rivest, J. E. Grundt, and W. P. Roach, “Development of a compact terahertz time-domain spectrometer for the measurement of the optical properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Karpowicz, J. Chen, T. Tongue, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent millimetre wave to mid-infrared measurements with continuous bandwidth reaching 40 THz,” Electron. Lett. 44(8), 544–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ung, B.

Valdes, N. N.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vallejo, F. A.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vieweg, N.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Walther, M.

Wang, Y.

Weisberg, O.

Wietzke, S.

Williams, J. C.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilmink, G. J.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, N. Laman, X. G. Peralta, C. C. Roth, C. Z. Cerna, B. D. Rivest, J. E. Grundt, and W. P. Roach, “Development of a compact terahertz time-domain spectrometer for the measurement of the optical properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: Direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wynn, J.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: Direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

You, B.

Yu, X.

Zeitler, J. A.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: Direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Chen, T. Tongue, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent millimetre wave to mid-infrared measurements with continuous bandwidth reaching 40 THz,” Electron. Lett. 44(8), 544–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, S.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.-H.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Atakaramians, S. V. Afshar, M. Nagel, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, T. M. Monro, and D. Abbott, “Direct probing of evanescent fields for characterization of porous terahertz fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121104 (2011).

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Knab, A. J. L. Adam, R. Chakkittakandy, and P. C. M. Planken, “Terahertz near-field microspectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Skorobogatiy and A. Dupuis, “Ferroelectric all-polymer hollow Bragg fibers for terahertz guidance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: Direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Low loss porous terahertz fibers containing multiple subwavelength holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

N. Karpowicz, J. Chen, T. Tongue, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent millimetre wave to mid-infrared measurements with continuous bandwidth reaching 40 THz,” Electron. Lett. 44(8), 544–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, N. Laman, X. G. Peralta, C. C. Roth, C. Z. Cerna, B. D. Rivest, J. E. Grundt, and W. P. Roach, “Development of a compact terahertz time-domain spectrometer for the measurement of the optical properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves

M. Walther and A. Bitzer, “Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Close to Microstructures Studied by Time and Phase-Resolved THz Near-Field Imaging,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves 32(8-9), 1020–1030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc.

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-Y. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513–517 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

M. Nagel, A. Marchewka, and H. Kurz, “Low-index discontinuity terahertz waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9944–9954 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “THz interferometric imaging using subwavelength plastic fiber based THz endoscopes,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2494–2501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Imeshev, M. E. Fermann, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, “High-power source of THz radiation based on orientation-patterned GaAs pumped by a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4439–4444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Porous polymer fibers for low-loss Terahertz guiding,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6340–6351 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dupuis, J.-F. Allard, D. Morris, K. Stoeffler, C. Dubois, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Fabrication and THz loss measurements of porous subwavelength fibers using a directional coupler method,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8012–8028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dupuis, A. Mazhorova, F. Désévédavy, M. Rozé, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Spectral characterization of porous dielectric subwavelength THz fibers fabricated using a microstructured molding technique,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13813–13828 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, M. Nagel, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “THz porous fibers: design, fabrication and experimental characterization,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14053–15062 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and T. M. Monro, “Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15086–15092 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, A. J. L. Adam, P. C. M. Planken, O. Bang, and P. U. Jepsen, “Bendable, low-loss Topas fibers for the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8592–8601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mitrofanov and J. A. Harrington, “Dielectric-lined cylindrical metallic THz waveguides: mode structure and dispersion,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1898–1903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rozé, B. Ung, A. Mazhorova, M. Walther, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Suspended core subwavelength fibers: towards practical designs for low-loss terahertz guidance,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9127–9138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H.-C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S. Jacobs, J. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core OmniGuide fibers,” Opt. Express 9(13), 748–779 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lasers Eng.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

M. Skorobogatiy and J. Yang, Fundamentals of Photonic Crystal Guiding (Cambridge University Press, 2009).

A. Dupuis, Dielectric THz waveguides (PhD thesis, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal, 2010).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Refractive index and (b) bulk absorption coefficient in (cm−1) of common polymers used in the fabrication of THz waveguides. Legend: low-density polyethylene (LDPE), cyclic olefin copolymer (TOPAS®), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), Poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polycarbonate (PC), polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA), polyimide (Kapton®), polystyrene (PS), Polypropylene (PP). Data taken from Refs [810].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the cross-section of a porous fiber with N = 3 layers of holes. (b) Fundamental mode profile at 1 THz in a subwavelength porous core PE fiber (dfiber = 120 µm, dhole = 9 µm), and (c) in a subwavelength solid core PE fiber (dfiber = 120 µm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission and cutback loss measurements of porous and non-porous subwavelength PE fibers of (a)-(b)-(c) small diameter fibers (d ~450 μm), and (d)-(e)-(f) larger diameter fiber (d ~700 μm). Adapted from [19]

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematics of the fabrication procedures of porous subwavelength fibers via (a) the sacrificial polymer technique, and (b) the microstructured molding technique. Adapted from [19].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Dispersion parameter of non-porous (a) and porous (b) PE fibers based on finite-element simulations. Porosity is defined as the ratio of the net surface of all the air holes to the total area of the fiber cross-section. Adapted from [19].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Refractive index maps of (a) the suspended solid core fiber (OD = 5.1 mm; dcore = 150 µm), and (b) the suspended porous core fiber (OD = 3 mm; dcore = 900 µm), retrieved from the microscope images (Insets) of the fiber cross-sections.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Near-field microscopy images of the output modal profile of the (top row) suspended small solid core fiber at 0.16, 0.30 and 0.48 THz, and (bottom row) the suspended large porous core fiber at 0.10, 0.16 and 0.30 THz. Adapted from [24].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Images of cross-sections of (a) 1.6 mm thick PE tube and (c) 0.30 mm thin PTFE tube. Transmission intensity through the (b) thick-walled and (d) thin-walled ARROW fibers. Reproduced from [31] with permission.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Schematic of hollow Bragg fiber with N = 5 bilayers of high-index and low-index layers. (b) Fabricated Bragg fiber with high-index TiO2 doped layers and low-index PE layers. (c) Fabricated Bragg fiber with high-index PE layers separated by PMMA particles from the low-index air layers. (d) Fundamental HE11 mode profile at 1 THz inside the TiO2-doped Bragg fiber of Fig. (b) with dcore = 6.63 mm, dH = 135 µm and dL = 100 µm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Schematic of the THz-TDS setup for waveguide measurements: E: Emitter, D: Detector, PM: Parabolic Mirror, BS: Beam Splitter, FM: Flat Mirror. (b) Photograph of the actual setup capable of accommodating a waveguide of up to 50 cm in length. Adapted from [19].

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Schematic of the THz near-field microscopy setup for fiber mode profiling. Adapted from [35].

Equations (3)

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f α = α mode α mat = Re( n mat ) mat | E | 2 dA 2 total S z dA
β 2 = 2 c d n eff dω + ω c d 2 n eff d ω 2
Δf= c 2t n clad 2 n core 2 ,

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