Abstract

The sensitivity of the four-dimensional modulation format, polarization-switched quadrature phase shift keying (PS-QPSK), is compared with polarization division multiplexed QPSK (PDM-QPSK), binary phase shift keying (PDM-BPSK) and 8-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (PDM-8QAM) at a constant bitrate (12.5 Gbit/s) using a preamplified signal to improve receiver sensitivity. The sensitivity without preamplification is also obtained. PS-QPSK is found to maintain a sensitivity advantage over the reference formats in line with theory with an absolute sensitivity of −52.7 dBm (4.2 photons/bit), assuming hard decision FEC.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1 Gbit/s for everyone,” paper 10.5.5 in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2009.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29(4), 543–551 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. P. Lloyd, “Least Squares Quantization in PCM,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 28(2), 129–137 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill2008)

2011

2009

M. Karlsson and E. Agrell, “Which is the most power-efficient modulation format in optical links?,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10814–10819 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and S. J. Savory, “Blind Equalization and Carrier Phase Recovery in a 16-QAM Optical Coherent System,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27(15), 3042–3049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26(13), 1817–1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Savory, “Digital filters for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 16(2), 804–817 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

1983

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

S. P. Lloyd, “Least Squares Quantization in PCM,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 28(2), 129–137 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Agrell, E.

Andrekson, P. A.

Bayvel, P.

Behrens, C.

D. S. Millar, D. Lavery, S. Makovejs, C. Behrens, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Generation and long-haul transmission of polarization-switched QPSK at 42.9 Gb/s,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9296–9302 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lavery, C. Behrens, and S. J. Savory, “A Comparison of Modulation Formats for Passive Optical Networks,” paper Tu.5.C.5 in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC)2011.

Ellis, A. D.

Fatadin, I.

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and S. J. Savory, “Blind Equalization and Carrier Phase Recovery in a 16-QAM Optical Coherent System,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27(15), 3042–3049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gavioli, G.

Gottwald, E.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1 Gbit/s for everyone,” paper 10.5.5 in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2009.

Ives, D.

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and S. J. Savory, “Blind Equalization and Carrier Phase Recovery in a 16-QAM Optical Coherent System,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27(15), 3042–3049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johannisson, P.

Karlsson, M.

Kikuchi, K.

K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26(13), 1817–1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Killey, R. I.

Kloppe, K.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1 Gbit/s for everyone,” paper 10.5.5 in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2009.

Lavery, D.

D. S. Millar, D. Lavery, S. Makovejs, C. Behrens, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Generation and long-haul transmission of polarization-switched QPSK at 42.9 Gb/s,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9296–9302 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lavery, E. Torrengo, and S. J. Savory, “Bidirectional 10 Gbit/s long-reach WDM-PON using digital coherent receivers,” paper OTuB4 in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC)2011.

D. Lavery, C. Behrens, and S. J. Savory, “A Comparison of Modulation Formats for Passive Optical Networks,” paper Tu.5.C.5 in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC)2011.

Lloyd, S. P.

S. P. Lloyd, “Least Squares Quantization in PCM,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 28(2), 129–137 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mac Suibhne, N.

Magill, P.

Makovejs, S.

Millar, D. S.

Nelson, L. E.

Proakis, J. G.

J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill2008)

Rohde, H.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1 Gbit/s for everyone,” paper 10.5.5 in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2009.

Salehi, M.

J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill2008)

Savory, S. J.

D. S. Millar and S. J. Savory, “Blind Adaptive Equalization of Polarization Switched QPSK Modulation,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8533–8538 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Millar, D. Lavery, S. Makovejs, C. Behrens, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Generation and long-haul transmission of polarization-switched QPSK at 42.9 Gb/s,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9296–9302 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and S. J. Savory, “Blind Equalization and Carrier Phase Recovery in a 16-QAM Optical Coherent System,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27(15), 3042–3049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Savory, “Digital filters for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 16(2), 804–817 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Savory, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, and P. Bayvel, “Electronic compensation of chromatic dispersion using a digital coherent receiver,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2120–2126 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lavery, C. Behrens, and S. J. Savory, “A Comparison of Modulation Formats for Passive Optical Networks,” paper Tu.5.C.5 in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC)2011.

D. Lavery, E. Torrengo, and S. J. Savory, “Bidirectional 10 Gbit/s long-reach WDM-PON using digital coherent receivers,” paper OTuB4 in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC)2011.

Sjödin, M.

Smolorz, S.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1 Gbit/s for everyone,” paper 10.5.5 in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2009.

Thomsen, B. C.

Torrengo, E.

D. Lavery, E. Torrengo, and S. J. Savory, “Bidirectional 10 Gbit/s long-reach WDM-PON using digital coherent receivers,” paper OTuB4 in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC)2011.

Tsukamoto, S.

K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26(13), 1817–1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Viterbi, A. J.

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Viterbi, A. M.

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wymeersch, H.

Zhou, X.

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Lloyd, “Least Squares Quantization in PCM,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 28(2), 129–137 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightw. Technol.

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and S. J. Savory, “Blind Equalization and Carrier Phase Recovery in a 16-QAM Optical Coherent System,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27(15), 3042–3049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26(13), 1817–1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill2008)

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1 Gbit/s for everyone,” paper 10.5.5 in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2009.

D. Lavery, C. Behrens, and S. J. Savory, “A Comparison of Modulation Formats for Passive Optical Networks,” paper Tu.5.C.5 in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC)2011.

D. Lavery, E. Torrengo, and S. J. Savory, “Bidirectional 10 Gbit/s long-reach WDM-PON using digital coherent receivers,” paper OTuB4 in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC)2011.

Forward error correction for high bit-rate DWDM submarine systems, Telecommunication Standardization Sector, International Telecommunication Union, Recommendation G. 975.1, (2004).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental transmitter configurations for generating (a) PDM-BPSK, (b) PS-QSPK, (c) PDM-QPSK and (d) PDM-8QAM. Shown adjacent to each configuration is the recovered constellation at a received power corresponding to a BER of 3 × 10−3. The receiver configuration is shown in (e). In this configuration, the two EDFAs shown amplify the signal and the LO. In practice, the LO preamplifier could be removed if the LO laser had sufficient output power. In the case where no preamplification is considered, the EDFA shown as boxed is removed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sensitivity of different modulation formats at a datarate of 12.5 Gbit/s using the configuration shown in Fig. 1. Shown in (a) are the theoretical shot noise sensitivity limits (QPSK and BPSK have the same sensitivity limit). The experimental data points are shown (b) with receiver preamplification and (c) without receiver preamplification. The horizontal black line indicates the 1.3 × 10−2 FEC limit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical (open markers) and experimental (filled markers) sensitivities for the modulation formats under test. To highlight the trend, theoretical values for higher order QAM are also shown. The sensitivity for each format at a target BER of 1.3 × 10−3 is shown in (a), where a 7% overhead is assumed for FEC. The sensitivity at a target BER of 1.3 × 10−2 is shown in (b), where a 25% overhead is assumed for FEC.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sensitivity and Maximum Information Rate of Test Formats at 12.5 Gbit/s

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