Abstract

We demonstrate a flexible-bandwidth network testbed with a real-time, adaptive control plane that adjusts modulation format and spectrum-positioning to maintain quality of service (QoS) and high spectral efficiency. Here, low-speed supervisory channels and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) enabled real-time impairment detection of high-speed flexible bandwidth channels (flexpaths). Using premeasured correlation data between the supervisory channel quality of transmission (QoT) and flexpath QoT, the control plane adapted flexpath spectral efficiency and spectral location based on link quality. Experimental demonstrations show a back-to-back link with a 360-Gb/s flexpath in which the control plane adapts to varying link optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) by adjusting the flexpath’s spectral efficiency (i.e., changing the flexpath modulation format) between binary phase-shift keying (BPSK), quaternary phase-shift keying (QPSK), and eight phase-shift keying (8PSK). This enables maintaining the data rate while using only the minimum necessary bandwidth and extending the OSNR range over which the bit error rate in the flexpath meets the quality of service (QoS) requirement (e.g. the forward error correction (FEC) limit). Further experimental demonstrations with two flexpaths show a control plane adapting to changes in OSNR on one link by changing the modulation format of the affected flexpath (220 Gb/s), and adjusting the spectral location of the other flexpath (120 Gb/s) to maintain a defragmented spectrum.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. E. Willner, “The optical network of the future: can optical performance monitoring enable automated, intelligent and robust systems?” Opt. Photonics News 17(3), 30–35 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 294–304 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Azodolmolky, J. Perello, M. Angelou, F. Agraz, L. Velasco, S. Spadaro, Y. Pointurier, A. Francescon, C. V. Saradhi, P. Kokkinos, E. A. Varvarigos, S. Al Zahr, M. Gagnaire, M. Gunkel, D. Klonidis, and I. Tomkos, “Experimental demonstration of an impairment aware network planning and operation tool for transparent/translucent optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 439–448 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (3)

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of a flexible bandwidth optical transmitter/receiver system scalable to terahertz bandwidths,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1013–1022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, and P. Castoldi, “Experimental demonstration of impairment-aware PCE for multi-bit-rate WSONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Networking 3(8), 610–619 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Azodolmolky, J. Perello, M. Angelou, F. Agraz, L. Velasco, S. Spadaro, Y. Pointurier, A. Francescon, C. V. Saradhi, P. Kokkinos, E. A. Varvarigos, S. Al Zahr, M. Gagnaire, M. Gunkel, D. Klonidis, and I. Tomkos, “Experimental demonstration of an impairment aware network planning and operation tool for transparent/translucent optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 439–448 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and measurement,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18655–18670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE),” Opt. Express 18(21), 22105–22118 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, Y. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

C. V. Saradhi and S. Subramaniam, “Physical layer impairment aware routing (PLIAR) in WDM optical networks: issues and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials 11(4), 109–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Gagnaire and S. Zahr, “Impairment-aware routing and wavelength assignment in translucent networks: state of the art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(5), 55–61 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, T. He, R. P. Scott, L. Paraschis, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Modulation-format agile, reconfigurable Tb/s transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15911–15925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

A. E. Willner, “The optical network of the future: can optical performance monitoring enable automated, intelligent and robust systems?” Opt. Photonics News 17(3), 30–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

Agraz, F.

Al Zahr, S.

Angelou, M.

Azodolmolky, S.

Bach, R.

Blumenthal, D. J.

Castoldi, P.

F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, and P. Castoldi, “Experimental demonstration of impairment-aware PCE for multi-bit-rate WSONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Networking 3(8), 610–619 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cugini, F.

F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, and P. Castoldi, “Experimental demonstration of impairment-aware PCE for multi-bit-rate WSONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Networking 3(8), 610–619 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

Dorrer, C.

Einstein, D.

Fontaine, N. K.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of a flexible bandwidth optical transmitter/receiver system scalable to terahertz bandwidths,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1013–1022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and measurement,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18655–18670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, T. He, R. P. Scott, L. Paraschis, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Modulation-format agile, reconfigurable Tb/s transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15911–15925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francescon, A.

Gagnaire, M.

Geisler, D. J.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of a flexible bandwidth optical transmitter/receiver system scalable to terahertz bandwidths,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1013–1022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, T. He, R. P. Scott, L. Paraschis, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Modulation-format agile, reconfigurable Tb/s transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15911–15925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giorgetti, A.

F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, and P. Castoldi, “Experimental demonstration of impairment-aware PCE for multi-bit-rate WSONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Networking 3(8), 610–619 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gunkel, M.

He, T.

Heritage, J. P.

Hirano, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, Y. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Izutsu, M.

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, Y. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE),” Opt. Express 18(21), 22105–22118 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, I.

Kawanishi, T.

Kilper, D. C.

Klonidis, D.

Kokkinos, P.

Kozicki, B.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE),” Opt. Express 18(21), 22105–22118 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, Y. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Landolsi, T.

Leuthold, J.

Ostar, L.

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paolucci, F.

F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, and P. Castoldi, “Experimental demonstration of impairment-aware PCE for multi-bit-rate WSONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Networking 3(8), 610–619 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paraschis, L.

Perello, J.

Pointurier, Y.

Preiss, M.

Ryf, R.

Sakamoto, T.

Sambo, N.

F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, and P. Castoldi, “Experimental demonstration of impairment-aware PCE for multi-bit-rate WSONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Networking 3(8), 610–619 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saradhi, C. V.

Scott, R. P.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of a flexible bandwidth optical transmitter/receiver system scalable to terahertz bandwidths,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1013–1022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and measurement,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18655–18670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, T. He, R. P. Scott, L. Paraschis, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Modulation-format agile, reconfigurable Tb/s transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15911–15925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soares, F. M.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, Y. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spadaro, S.

Subramaniam, S.

C. V. Saradhi and S. Subramaniam, “Physical layer impairment aware routing (PLIAR) in WDM optical networks: issues and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials 11(4), 109–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, Y. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE),” Opt. Express 18(21), 22105–22118 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, Y.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, Y. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tomkos, I.

Tsukishima, Y.

Varvarigos, E. A.

Velasco, L.

Watanabe, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, Y. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Willner, “The optical network of the future: can optical performance monitoring enable automated, intelligent and robust systems?” Opt. Photonics News 17(3), 30–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 294–304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Yonenaga, K.

Yoo, S. J. B.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of a flexible bandwidth optical transmitter/receiver system scalable to terahertz bandwidths,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1013–1022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and measurement,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18655–18670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, T. He, R. P. Scott, L. Paraschis, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Modulation-format agile, reconfigurable Tb/s transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15911–15925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshimatsu, T.

Yu, C.

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zahr, S.

M. Gagnaire and S. Zahr, “Impairment-aware routing and wavelength assignment in translucent networks: state of the art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(5), 55–61 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, Y. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Gagnaire and S. Zahr, “Impairment-aware routing and wavelength assignment in translucent networks: state of the art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(5), 55–61 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials (1)

C. V. Saradhi and S. Subramaniam, “Physical layer impairment aware routing (PLIAR) in WDM optical networks: issues and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials 11(4), 109–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of a flexible bandwidth optical transmitter/receiver system scalable to terahertz bandwidths,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1013–1022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Commun. Networking (1)

F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, and P. Castoldi, “Experimental demonstration of impairment-aware PCE for multi-bit-rate WSONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Networking 3(8), 610–619 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

A. E. Willner, “The optical network of the future: can optical performance monitoring enable automated, intelligent and robust systems?” Opt. Photonics News 17(3), 30–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. P. Scott, X. Cai, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.13.K.2.

Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, D. Li, and G. Martinelli, “A framework for the control of wavelength switched optical networks (WSON) with impairments,” IETF Internet Draft (Nov. 23, 2011).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Flexible bandwidth networking scenario including time-varying OSNR on Link 2. Possible control plane adaptations to OSNR variations on link 2 include: (b) a single flexpath scenario in which flexpath (A) changes between 8PSK, QPSK, and BPSK to minimize spectral usage, or (c) a two flexpath scenario in which flexpath (A) changes between QPSK and BPSK to minimize spectral usage while flexpath (B) is spectrally shifted to maintain a defragmented spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Flexible bandwidth wavelength cross connect (WXC) node detail. (b) Quality of transmission (QoT) monitor detail. WSS: wavelength-selective switch. OAWG: optical arbitrary waveform generation. OAWM: optical arbitrary waveform measurement. OTP: optical transponder. PM: performance monitoring. FPGA: field programmable gate array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental arrangement. Detail of (b) the receiver and (c) the performance monitor (PM). OFCG: optical frequency comb generator. OAWG: optical arbitrary waveform generation. MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator. LEAF: low effective area fiber. WSS: wavelength selective switch. FPGA: field programmable gate array. OTP: optical transponder.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

State (A), state (B), and state (C) BER curves for the 360 Gb/s flexpath taken back-to-back with (*) and without the supervisory channel. Insets show constellation diagrams taken at an OSNR of 40 dB @ 0.1 nm noise bandwidth. State (A) (8PSK)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Correlation between BPSK, QPSK, and 8PSK BER of the flexpath and supervisory channel BER. Gray arrows indicate transition points between modulation formats and letters indicate supervisory channel BER regions. (b) Signal BER over time with time varying OSNR. Color changes for the flexpath indicate changes in modulation format state. Gray arrows indicate path of BER change of the signal over time. Inset constellation diagrams correspond to flexpath (A) BER points outlined in green.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Experimental arrangement. Detail of (b) the receiver and (c) the performance monitor (PM). OFCG: optical frequency comb generator. OAWG: optical arbitrary waveform generation. MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator. LEAF: low effective area fiber. LCP: local control plane. WSS: wavelength selective switch. FPGA: field programmable gate array. OTP: optical transponder.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

State 1 (a) and state 2 (b) BER curves for 220 Gb/s flexpath (A) and 120 Gb/s flexpath (B) taken back-to-back with (*) and without the supervisory channel, and with fiber.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Correlation between BPSK and QPSK BER of flexpath (A) and supervisory channel BER. Gray arrows indicate transition points between modulation formats. (b) Signal BER over time with time varying OSNR. Color changes for flexpath (A) indicate changes in modulation format. Gray arrows indicate path of BER change of the signal over time. Inset constellation diagrams correspond to flexpath (A) BER points outlined in green.

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