Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a digital signal processing (DSP)-based optical performance monitoring (OPM) algorithm for in-service monitoring of chromatic dispersion (CD) in coherent transport networks. Dispersion accumulated in 40 Gbit/s QPSK signal after 80 km of fiber transmission is successfully monitored and automatically compensated without prior knowledge of fiber dispersion coefficient. Four different metrics for assessing CD mitigation are implemented and simultaneously verified proving to have high estimation accuracy. No observable penalty is measured when the monitoring module drives an adaptive digital CD equalizer.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. J. Savory, “Digital filters for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 16, 804–817 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OThW2.
  3. M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Adaptive chromatic dispersion equalization for non-dispersion managed coherent systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMT1.
  4. F. N. Hauske, C. Xie, Z. P. Zhang, C. Li, L. Li, and Q. Xiong, “Frequency domain chromatic dispersion estimation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThA11.
  5. D. Wang, C. Lu, A.P.T Lau, and S. He, “Adaptive chromatic dispersion compensation for coherent communication systems using delay-tap sampling technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1016–1018 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Spinnler, “Equalizer design and complexity for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1180–1192 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M.S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “DSP for coherent single-carrier receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3614–3622 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Haykin, Adaptive filter theory (Prentice-Hall, 2002).

2011 (1)

D. Wang, C. Lu, A.P.T Lau, and S. He, “Adaptive chromatic dispersion compensation for coherent communication systems using delay-tap sampling technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1016–1018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

B. Spinnler, “Equalizer design and complexity for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1180–1192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

Alfiad, M.S.

de Waardt, H.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OThW2.

Duthel, T.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OThW2.

Fludger, C.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OThW2.

Geyer, J.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OThW2.

Hauske, F.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OThW2.

Hauske, F. N.

M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M.S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “DSP for coherent single-carrier receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3614–3622 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Adaptive chromatic dispersion equalization for non-dispersion managed coherent systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMT1.

F. N. Hauske, C. Xie, Z. P. Zhang, C. Li, L. Li, and Q. Xiong, “Frequency domain chromatic dispersion estimation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThA11.

Haykin, S.

S. Haykin, Adaptive filter theory (Prentice-Hall, 2002).

He, S.

D. Wang, C. Lu, A.P.T Lau, and S. He, “Adaptive chromatic dispersion compensation for coherent communication systems using delay-tap sampling technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1016–1018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuschnerov, M.

M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M.S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “DSP for coherent single-carrier receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3614–3622 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Adaptive chromatic dispersion equalization for non-dispersion managed coherent systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMT1.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OThW2.

Lankl, B.

M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M.S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “DSP for coherent single-carrier receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3614–3622 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Adaptive chromatic dispersion equalization for non-dispersion managed coherent systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMT1.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OThW2.

Lau, A.P.T

D. Wang, C. Lu, A.P.T Lau, and S. He, “Adaptive chromatic dispersion compensation for coherent communication systems using delay-tap sampling technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1016–1018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

F. N. Hauske, C. Xie, Z. P. Zhang, C. Li, L. Li, and Q. Xiong, “Frequency domain chromatic dispersion estimation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThA11.

Li, L.

F. N. Hauske, C. Xie, Z. P. Zhang, C. Li, L. Li, and Q. Xiong, “Frequency domain chromatic dispersion estimation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThA11.

Lu, C.

D. Wang, C. Lu, A.P.T Lau, and S. He, “Adaptive chromatic dispersion compensation for coherent communication systems using delay-tap sampling technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1016–1018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Napoli, A.

M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M.S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “DSP for coherent single-carrier receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3614–3622 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Adaptive chromatic dispersion equalization for non-dispersion managed coherent systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMT1.

Piyawanno, K.

M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M.S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “DSP for coherent single-carrier receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3614–3622 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Adaptive chromatic dispersion equalization for non-dispersion managed coherent systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMT1.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OThW2.

Savory, S. J.

Schmidt, E.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OThW2.

Spinnler, B.

B. Spinnler, “Equalizer design and complexity for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1180–1192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M.S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “DSP for coherent single-carrier receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3614–3622 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Adaptive chromatic dispersion equalization for non-dispersion managed coherent systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMT1.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OThW2.

van den Borne, D.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OThW2.

Wang, D.

D. Wang, C. Lu, A.P.T Lau, and S. He, “Adaptive chromatic dispersion compensation for coherent communication systems using delay-tap sampling technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1016–1018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

F. N. Hauske, C. Xie, Z. P. Zhang, C. Li, L. Li, and Q. Xiong, “Frequency domain chromatic dispersion estimation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThA11.

Xiong, Q.

F. N. Hauske, C. Xie, Z. P. Zhang, C. Li, L. Li, and Q. Xiong, “Frequency domain chromatic dispersion estimation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThA11.

Zhang, Z. P.

F. N. Hauske, C. Xie, Z. P. Zhang, C. Li, L. Li, and Q. Xiong, “Frequency domain chromatic dispersion estimation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThA11.

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Spinnler, “Equalizer design and complexity for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1180–1192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Wang, C. Lu, A.P.T Lau, and S. He, “Adaptive chromatic dispersion compensation for coherent communication systems using delay-tap sampling technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1016–1018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (4)

S. Haykin, Adaptive filter theory (Prentice-Hall, 2002).

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OThW2.

M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Adaptive chromatic dispersion equalization for non-dispersion managed coherent systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMT1.

F. N. Hauske, C. Xie, Z. P. Zhang, C. Li, L. Li, and Q. Xiong, “Frequency domain chromatic dispersion estimation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThA11.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical structure of a digital coherent receiver with CD monitoring and equalization block. The receiver in the figure monitors CD from time domain samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of all metrics after normalization to [0,1] range. Pav metric was subtracted from 1 for clearness of comparison. Bold dashed vertical line shows the actual value of CD present in the channel (1280 ps/nm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of the transmission system. CW: continuous wave laser, PRBS: pseudorandom binary sequence generator, PC: polarization controller, PBC: polarization beam combiner, EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier, ASE loading: amplified spontaneous emission noise loading, VOA: variable optical attenuator.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

BER vs. OSNR curves for each metric under investigation. Preset: reference line based on a priori known CD filter, CMA: constant modulus algorithm, Pav: mean signal power, Eig. spread: eigenvalue spread, Freq. AC: frequency spectrum autocorrelation.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H C D = exp ( j f 2 π λ 2 c C D ) ,
J [ C D ] = 1 N k = 0 N 1 ( | | q [ 2 k + 1 ] | 2 R 1 | + | | q [ 2 k ] | 2 R 2 | ) .
q ¯ 1 = 1 N k = 0 N 1 ( q [ 2 k + 1 ] ) 2 q ¯ 2 = 1 N k = 0 N 1 ( q [ 2 k ] ) 2 .
[ R 1 R 2 ] = { [ R a R c ] if q ¯ 2 q ¯ 1 > ξ [ R b R b ] if ξ 1 q ¯ 2 q ¯ 1 ξ [ R c R a ] if q ¯ 2 q ¯ 1 < ξ 1
P = 1 N k = 0 N 1 | p [ k ] | 2
P ^ = 2 N k = 0 N 2 1 | q [ 2 k ] | 2 .
J [ C D ] = | P P ^ | ,
R = [ r ( 0 ) r * ( 1 ) r * ( L 1 ) r ( 1 ) r ( 0 ) r * ( L 2 ) r ( L 1 ) r ( L 2 ) r ( 0 ) ]
r ( m ) = k = L N 2 1 q [ 2 k ] q * [ 2 ( k m ) ]
J [ C D ] = χ ( R ) = λ max λ min ,
L = C D max C D min 75 ,
U [ m ] = 1 N k = 0 N 1 csgn ( m ( Q [ k ] ) ) Q * [ k ] ,
J [ C D ] = m | U [ m ] | 2 ,

Metrics