Abstract

A novel approach for broadband microwave frequency measurement by employing a single-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Based on bias manipulations of the modulator, conventional frequency-to-power mapping technique is developed by performing a two-stage frequency measurement cooperating with digital signal processing. In the experiment, 10GHz measurement range is guaranteed and the average uncertainty of estimated microwave frequency is 5.4MHz, which verifies the measurement accuracy is significantly improved by achieving an unprecedented 10−3 relative error. This high accuracy frequency measurement technique is a promising candidate for high-speed electronic warfare and defense applications.

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  1. J. Yao, “Microwave Photonics,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 314–335 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. N. Saddik, R. S. Singh, and E. R. Brown, “Ultra-wideband multifunctional communications/radar system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1431–1437 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Frigyes and A. J. Seeds, “Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2378–2386 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. B. Hunter, L. G. Edvell, and M. A. Englund, “Wideband microwave photonic channelised receiver,” in Proceedings of 2005 IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 249–252.
  5. S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, M. W. Austin, J. Canning, and A. Mitchell, “A microwave channelizer and spectroscope based on an integrated optical Bragg-grating Fabry-Pérot and integrated hybrid fresnel lens system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 868–872 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Fu, J. Zhou, P. P. Shum, and K. Lee, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using programmable differential group delay (DGD) modules,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 966–973 (2010).
  7. H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1249–1251 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Zou, S. Pan, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved measurement range and resolution based on simultaneous phase modulation and intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 5314–5318 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Li, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and B. Zhou, “Dispersion induced fading frequency shifting technology in Radio-over-Fiber link,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 321–322.

2010 (1)

S. Fu, J. Zhou, P. P. Shum, and K. Lee, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using programmable differential group delay (DGD) modules,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 966–973 (2010).

2009 (2)

J. Yao, “Microwave Photonics,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 314–335 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zou, S. Pan, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved measurement range and resolution based on simultaneous phase modulation and intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 5314–5318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1249–1251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

G. N. Saddik, R. S. Singh, and E. R. Brown, “Ultra-wideband multifunctional communications/radar system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1431–1437 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, M. W. Austin, J. Canning, and A. Mitchell, “A microwave channelizer and spectroscope based on an integrated optical Bragg-grating Fabry-Pérot and integrated hybrid fresnel lens system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 868–872 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

I. Frigyes and A. J. Seeds, “Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2378–2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Austin, M. W.

S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, M. W. Austin, J. Canning, and A. Mitchell, “A microwave channelizer and spectroscope based on an integrated optical Bragg-grating Fabry-Pérot and integrated hybrid fresnel lens system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 868–872 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E. R.

G. N. Saddik, R. S. Singh, and E. R. Brown, “Ultra-wideband multifunctional communications/radar system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1431–1437 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, M. W. Austin, J. Canning, and A. Mitchell, “A microwave channelizer and spectroscope based on an integrated optical Bragg-grating Fabry-Pérot and integrated hybrid fresnel lens system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 868–872 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chi, H.

H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1249–1251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Edvell, L. G.

D. B. Hunter, L. G. Edvell, and M. A. Englund, “Wideband microwave photonic channelised receiver,” in Proceedings of 2005 IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 249–252.

Englund, M. A.

D. B. Hunter, L. G. Edvell, and M. A. Englund, “Wideband microwave photonic channelised receiver,” in Proceedings of 2005 IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 249–252.

Frigyes, I.

I. Frigyes and A. J. Seeds, “Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2378–2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fu, S.

S. Fu, J. Zhou, P. P. Shum, and K. Lee, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using programmable differential group delay (DGD) modules,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 966–973 (2010).

Hunter, D. B.

D. B. Hunter, L. G. Edvell, and M. A. Englund, “Wideband microwave photonic channelised receiver,” in Proceedings of 2005 IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 249–252.

Lee, K.

S. Fu, J. Zhou, P. P. Shum, and K. Lee, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using programmable differential group delay (DGD) modules,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 966–973 (2010).

Li, S.

S. Li, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and B. Zhou, “Dispersion induced fading frequency shifting technology in Radio-over-Fiber link,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 321–322.

Lindsay, A. C.

S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, M. W. Austin, J. Canning, and A. Mitchell, “A microwave channelizer and spectroscope based on an integrated optical Bragg-grating Fabry-Pérot and integrated hybrid fresnel lens system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 868–872 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, A.

S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, M. W. Austin, J. Canning, and A. Mitchell, “A microwave channelizer and spectroscope based on an integrated optical Bragg-grating Fabry-Pérot and integrated hybrid fresnel lens system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 868–872 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S.

X. Zou, S. Pan, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved measurement range and resolution based on simultaneous phase modulation and intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 5314–5318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saddik, G. N.

G. N. Saddik, R. S. Singh, and E. R. Brown, “Ultra-wideband multifunctional communications/radar system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1431–1437 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seeds, A. J.

I. Frigyes and A. J. Seeds, “Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2378–2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P. P.

S. Fu, J. Zhou, P. P. Shum, and K. Lee, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using programmable differential group delay (DGD) modules,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 966–973 (2010).

Singh, R. S.

G. N. Saddik, R. S. Singh, and E. R. Brown, “Ultra-wideband multifunctional communications/radar system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1431–1437 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Winnall, S. T.

S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, M. W. Austin, J. Canning, and A. Mitchell, “A microwave channelizer and spectroscope based on an integrated optical Bragg-grating Fabry-Pérot and integrated hybrid fresnel lens system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 868–872 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, “Microwave Photonics,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 314–335 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zou, S. Pan, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved measurement range and resolution based on simultaneous phase modulation and intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 5314–5318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1249–1251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

S. Li, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and B. Zhou, “Dispersion induced fading frequency shifting technology in Radio-over-Fiber link,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 321–322.

Zheng, X.

S. Li, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and B. Zhou, “Dispersion induced fading frequency shifting technology in Radio-over-Fiber link,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 321–322.

Zhou, B.

S. Li, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and B. Zhou, “Dispersion induced fading frequency shifting technology in Radio-over-Fiber link,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 321–322.

Zhou, J.

S. Fu, J. Zhou, P. P. Shum, and K. Lee, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using programmable differential group delay (DGD) modules,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 966–973 (2010).

Zou, X.

X. Zou, S. Pan, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved measurement range and resolution based on simultaneous phase modulation and intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 5314–5318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1249–1251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Yao, “Microwave Photonics,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 314–335 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zou, S. Pan, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved measurement range and resolution based on simultaneous phase modulation and intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 5314–5318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1249–1251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

S. Fu, J. Zhou, P. P. Shum, and K. Lee, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using programmable differential group delay (DGD) modules,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 966–973 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (3)

S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, M. W. Austin, J. Canning, and A. Mitchell, “A microwave channelizer and spectroscope based on an integrated optical Bragg-grating Fabry-Pérot and integrated hybrid fresnel lens system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 868–872 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Saddik, R. S. Singh, and E. R. Brown, “Ultra-wideband multifunctional communications/radar system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1431–1437 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Frigyes and A. J. Seeds, “Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2378–2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. B. Hunter, L. G. Edvell, and M. A. Englund, “Wideband microwave photonic channelised receiver,” in Proceedings of 2005 IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 249–252.

S. Li, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and B. Zhou, “Dispersion induced fading frequency shifting technology in Radio-over-Fiber link,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 321–322.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Bias arrangement of a SD-DPMZM for frequency measurement and the illustrative diagram of RF output power vs φ3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the high accuracy frequency measurement system. LD: laser diode. PC: polarization controller. PD: photodiode. A/D and D/A: analog to digital converter and digital to analog converter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Coarse measurement stage: PCF versus input RF frequency for different RF power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Coarse measurement stage: (a) Measured RF frequency versus input reference frequency for different RF power. (b) Absolute measurement error versus input reference frequency for different RF power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fine measurement stage: (a) Error range for ten times fine measurements. (b) Error comparison of coarse and fine measurement.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absolute error effected by the MZM3 bias drift.

Equations (5)

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P out ( φ 3 ) cos 2 ( β 2 L 2 Ω 2 + φ 3 )
P C F ( φ 3 ) = P out ( φ 3 | t 1 ) P out ( φ 3 | t 1 = φ 3 | t 1 + π 2 )
Ω ˜ = f ( φ 3 | t 1 ) = 2 ( arccot ( PCF ( φ 3 | t 1 ) ) φ 3 | t 1 ) β 2 L
φ 3 * | t 2 = β 2 L 2 Ω ˜ 2
Ω * = f ( φ 3 * | t 2 )

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