Abstract

The cladding thickness of trench-assisted multi-core fibers was theoretically and experimentally investigated in terms of excess losses of outer cores. No significant micro-bending loss increase was observed on multi-core fibers with the cladding thickness of about 30 µm. The tolerance for the micro-bending loss of a multi-core fiber is larger than that of the single core fiber. However, the cladding thickness will be limited by the occurrence of the excess loss on outer cores. The reduction of cladding thickness is probably limited around 40 µm in terms of the excess loss. The multi-core fiber with an effective area of 110 µm2 at 1.55 µm and 181-µm cladding diameter was realized without any excess loss.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. K. Takenaga, S. Tanigawa, N. Guan, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Reduction of crosstalk by quasi-homogeneous solid multi-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OWK7.
  2. K. Imamura, K. Mukasa, and T. Yagi, “Effective space division multiplexing by multi-core fibers,” in Proceedings of 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2010), paper P1.09.
  3. K. Imamura, K. Mukasa, and T. Yagi, “Design optimization of large Aeff multi-core fiber,” in Proceedings of 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC 2010), paper 7C2–2.
  4. K. Takenaga, Y. Arakawa, S. Tanigawa, N. Guan, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Reduction of crosstalk by trench-assisted multi-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWJ4.
  5. T. Hayashi, T. Taru, O. Shimakawa, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, “Low-crosstalk and low-loss multi-core fiber utilizing fiber bend,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWJ3.
  6. S. Matsuo, M. Ikeda, and K. Himeno, “Low-bending-loss and suppressed-splice-loss optical fibers for FTTH indoor wiring,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper ThI3.
  7. P. Sillard, S. Richard, L.-A. de Montmorillon, and M. Bigot-Astruc, “Micro-bend losses of trench-assisted single-mode fibers,” in Proceedings of 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2010), paper We.8.F.3.
  8. IEC TR-62221, Optical fibres - Measurement methods - Microbending sensitivity, 1st ed., (BSI, 2001).
  9. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Multi-core fiber design and analysis” in Proceedings of 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2011), paper Mo.1.LeCervin.5.
  11. K. Imamura, K. Mukasa, and R. Sugizaki, “Trench assisted multi-core fiber with large Aeff over 100 μm2 and low attenuation loss,” in Proceedings of 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2011), paper Mo.1.LeCervin.1.

2002 (1)

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, K.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Multi-core fiber design and analysis” in Proceedings of 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2011), paper Mo.1.LeCervin.5.

K. Imamura, K. Mukasa, and R. Sugizaki, “Trench assisted multi-core fiber with large Aeff over 100 μm2 and low attenuation loss,” in Proceedings of 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2011), paper Mo.1.LeCervin.1.

K. Takenaga, S. Tanigawa, N. Guan, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Reduction of crosstalk by quasi-homogeneous solid multi-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OWK7.

K. Imamura, K. Mukasa, and T. Yagi, “Effective space division multiplexing by multi-core fibers,” in Proceedings of 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2010), paper P1.09.

K. Imamura, K. Mukasa, and T. Yagi, “Design optimization of large Aeff multi-core fiber,” in Proceedings of 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC 2010), paper 7C2–2.

K. Takenaga, Y. Arakawa, S. Tanigawa, N. Guan, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Reduction of crosstalk by trench-assisted multi-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWJ4.

T. Hayashi, T. Taru, O. Shimakawa, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, “Low-crosstalk and low-loss multi-core fiber utilizing fiber bend,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWJ3.

S. Matsuo, M. Ikeda, and K. Himeno, “Low-bending-loss and suppressed-splice-loss optical fibers for FTTH indoor wiring,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper ThI3.

P. Sillard, S. Richard, L.-A. de Montmorillon, and M. Bigot-Astruc, “Micro-bend losses of trench-assisted single-mode fibers,” in Proceedings of 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2010), paper We.8.F.3.

IEC TR-62221, Optical fibres - Measurement methods - Microbending sensitivity, 1st ed., (BSI, 2001).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross section of a seven-core trench-assisted multi-core fiber. (b) Trench index profile.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Micro-bending loss of different kinds of single-core fibers as a function of cladding thickness: Symbols are measurement results. Dashed lines are exponential fitting lines on the measurement results.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated confinement loss of a center core and an outer core as a function of OCT: A blue line is the confinement loss of a center core (CLc). A red line is the confinement loss of outer core (CLo).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated excess loss of an outer core as a function of OCT: A red solid line is simulation results. A black dashed line is an exponential fitting line to the simulation results.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross section of a seven-core TA-MCF (Fiber A).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Core pitch Λ dependence of (a) cable cutoff wavelength and (b) 100-km crosstalk: Lines are simulation results. Symbols are measurement results.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cladding thickness dependence of measured micro-bending loss of MCFs and single-core fibers at 1.625 µm: Red open symbols are averaged loss of the outer cores of MCFs. The error bar indicates maximum and minimum values of outer cores. Solid symbols and dashed line are data shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Outer cladding diameter (OCT) dependence of measured excess loss (ELmeas) of fabricated MCFs at 1.625 µm: Symbols are averaged excess loss of fabricated MCFs. Error bars denote maximum and minimum ELmeas. The dashed line is the exponential fitting line shown in Fig. 4. The solid line is an approximation line on measured data with the same slope as the dashed line.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Contour plot of RCMF on a 7-core MCF for various Aeff and cladding diameter: Red symbols are measured data presented in this paper. Green symbols are previously reported data. Solid lines indicate counter lines of RCMF.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measurement results of fabricated fibers. (* Optical properties of center core)

Equations (3)

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E L sim =C L o C L c
E L meas = α outer α center ,
CMF= n A eff π (D/2) 2 ,

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