Abstract

We report on experimental demonstration of 2x2 MIMO-OFDM 5.6-GHz radio over fiber signaling over 20 km WDM-PON with directly modulated (DM) VCSELs for femtocells application. MIMO-OFDM algorithms effectively compensate for impairments in the wireless link. Error-free signal demodulation of 64 subcarrier 4-QAM signals modulated at 198.5 Mb/s net data rate is achieved after fiber and 2 m indoor wireless transmission. We report BER of 7x10−3 at the receiver for 16-QAM signals modulated at 397 Mb/s after 1 m of wireless transmission. Performance dependence on different wireless transmission path lengths, antenna separation, and number of subcarriers have been investigated.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (2)

K. Iwatsuki, T. Tashiro, K. Hara, T. Taniguchi, J.- Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Miyamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Higashino, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, “Broadband Ubiquitous Femto-cell Network with DAS over WDM-PON (invited paper),” Proc. SPIE 7958, 79580I (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Beltran, J. B. Jensen, R. Llorente, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Experimental Analysis of 60-GHz VCSEL and ECL Photonic Generation and Transmission of Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wideband Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1055–1057 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

R. Rodes, J. B. Jensen, D. Zibar, C. Neumeyr, E. Roenneberg, J. Rosskopf, M. Ortsiefer, and I. T. Monroy, “All-VCSEL based digital coherent detection link for multi Gbit/s WDM passive optical networks,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24969–24974 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tsukamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Yamagami, T. Higashino, S. Komaki, R. Kubo, T. Taniguchi, J.-I. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, and K. Iwatsuki, “Convergence of WDM Access and Ubiquitous Antenna Architecture for Broadband Wireless Services,” PIERS Online 6(4), 385–389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Nema, A. Goel, and R. P. Singh, “Integrated DWDM and MIMO-OFDM System for 4G High Capacity Mobile Communication,” Signal Process. Int. J. 3(5), 132–143 (2010).

A. Kobyakov, M. Sauer, A. Ng’oma, and J. H. Winters, “Effect of Optical Loss and Antenna Separation in 2x2 MIMO Fiber-Radio Systems,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(1), 187–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

E. Kapon and A. Sirbu, “Long-wavelength VCSELs: Power-efficient answer,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 27–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

W.-S. Tsai, H.-H. Lu, S.-J. Tzeng, T.-S. Chien, S.-H. Chen, and Y.-C. Chi, “Bidirectional dense wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical network based on injection-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers and a data comparator,” Opt. Eng. 45(9), 095003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. J. Paulraj, D. A. Gore, R. U. Nabar, and H. Bolcskei, “An overview of MIMO communications - a key to gigabit wireless,” Proc. IEEE 92(2), 198–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. H. Winters, “Smart antennas for wireless systems,” IEEE Personal Commun. 5(1), 23–27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. J. Cooper, “Fiber/Radio for the provision of cordless/mobile telephony services in the access network,” Electron. Lett. 26(24), 2054–2056 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Beltran, M.

M. Beltran, J. B. Jensen, R. Llorente, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Experimental Analysis of 60-GHz VCSEL and ECL Photonic Generation and Transmission of Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wideband Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1055–1057 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bolcskei, H.

A. J. Paulraj, D. A. Gore, R. U. Nabar, and H. Bolcskei, “An overview of MIMO communications - a key to gigabit wireless,” Proc. IEEE 92(2), 198–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-H.

W.-S. Tsai, H.-H. Lu, S.-J. Tzeng, T.-S. Chien, S.-H. Chen, and Y.-C. Chi, “Bidirectional dense wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical network based on injection-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers and a data comparator,” Opt. Eng. 45(9), 095003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chi, Y.-C.

W.-S. Tsai, H.-H. Lu, S.-J. Tzeng, T.-S. Chien, S.-H. Chen, and Y.-C. Chi, “Bidirectional dense wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical network based on injection-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers and a data comparator,” Opt. Eng. 45(9), 095003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chien, T.-S.

W.-S. Tsai, H.-H. Lu, S.-J. Tzeng, T.-S. Chien, S.-H. Chen, and Y.-C. Chi, “Bidirectional dense wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical network based on injection-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers and a data comparator,” Opt. Eng. 45(9), 095003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, A. J.

A. J. Cooper, “Fiber/Radio for the provision of cordless/mobile telephony services in the access network,” Electron. Lett. 26(24), 2054–2056 (1990).
[CrossRef]

George, J.

Goel, A.

S. Nema, A. Goel, and R. P. Singh, “Integrated DWDM and MIMO-OFDM System for 4G High Capacity Mobile Communication,” Signal Process. Int. J. 3(5), 132–143 (2010).

Gore, D. A.

A. J. Paulraj, D. A. Gore, R. U. Nabar, and H. Bolcskei, “An overview of MIMO communications - a key to gigabit wireless,” Proc. IEEE 92(2), 198–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hara, K.

K. Iwatsuki, T. Tashiro, K. Hara, T. Taniguchi, J.- Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Miyamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Higashino, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, “Broadband Ubiquitous Femto-cell Network with DAS over WDM-PON (invited paper),” Proc. SPIE 7958, 79580I (2011).
[CrossRef]

Higashino, T.

K. Iwatsuki, T. Tashiro, K. Hara, T. Taniguchi, J.- Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Miyamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Higashino, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, “Broadband Ubiquitous Femto-cell Network with DAS over WDM-PON (invited paper),” Proc. SPIE 7958, 79580I (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsukamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Yamagami, T. Higashino, S. Komaki, R. Kubo, T. Taniguchi, J.-I. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, and K. Iwatsuki, “Convergence of WDM Access and Ubiquitous Antenna Architecture for Broadband Wireless Services,” PIERS Online 6(4), 385–389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Iwatsuki, K.

K. Iwatsuki, T. Tashiro, K. Hara, T. Taniguchi, J.- Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Miyamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Higashino, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, “Broadband Ubiquitous Femto-cell Network with DAS over WDM-PON (invited paper),” Proc. SPIE 7958, 79580I (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsukamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Yamagami, T. Higashino, S. Komaki, R. Kubo, T. Taniguchi, J.-I. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, and K. Iwatsuki, “Convergence of WDM Access and Ubiquitous Antenna Architecture for Broadband Wireless Services,” PIERS Online 6(4), 385–389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, S. L.

Jensen, J. B.

M. Beltran, J. B. Jensen, R. Llorente, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Experimental Analysis of 60-GHz VCSEL and ECL Photonic Generation and Transmission of Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wideband Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1055–1057 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Rodes, J. B. Jensen, D. Zibar, C. Neumeyr, E. Roenneberg, J. Rosskopf, M. Ortsiefer, and I. T. Monroy, “All-VCSEL based digital coherent detection link for multi Gbit/s WDM passive optical networks,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24969–24974 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kani, J.-

K. Iwatsuki, T. Tashiro, K. Hara, T. Taniguchi, J.- Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Miyamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Higashino, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, “Broadband Ubiquitous Femto-cell Network with DAS over WDM-PON (invited paper),” Proc. SPIE 7958, 79580I (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kani, J.-I.

K. Tsukamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Yamagami, T. Higashino, S. Komaki, R. Kubo, T. Taniguchi, J.-I. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, and K. Iwatsuki, “Convergence of WDM Access and Ubiquitous Antenna Architecture for Broadband Wireless Services,” PIERS Online 6(4), 385–389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kapon, E.

E. Kapon and A. Sirbu, “Long-wavelength VCSELs: Power-efficient answer,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 27–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, H.

K. Tsukamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Yamagami, T. Higashino, S. Komaki, R. Kubo, T. Taniguchi, J.-I. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, and K. Iwatsuki, “Convergence of WDM Access and Ubiquitous Antenna Architecture for Broadband Wireless Services,” PIERS Online 6(4), 385–389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kobyakov, A.

A. Kobyakov, M. Sauer, A. Ng’oma, and J. H. Winters, “Effect of Optical Loss and Antenna Separation in 2x2 MIMO Fiber-Radio Systems,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(1), 187–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, and J. George, “Radio over fiber for picocellular network architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3301–3320 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Komaki, S.

K. Iwatsuki, T. Tashiro, K. Hara, T. Taniguchi, J.- Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Miyamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Higashino, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, “Broadband Ubiquitous Femto-cell Network with DAS over WDM-PON (invited paper),” Proc. SPIE 7958, 79580I (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsukamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Yamagami, T. Higashino, S. Komaki, R. Kubo, T. Taniguchi, J.-I. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, and K. Iwatsuki, “Convergence of WDM Access and Ubiquitous Antenna Architecture for Broadband Wireless Services,” PIERS Online 6(4), 385–389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, R.

K. Tsukamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Yamagami, T. Higashino, S. Komaki, R. Kubo, T. Taniguchi, J.-I. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, and K. Iwatsuki, “Convergence of WDM Access and Ubiquitous Antenna Architecture for Broadband Wireless Services,” PIERS Online 6(4), 385–389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Llorente, R.

M. Beltran, J. B. Jensen, R. Llorente, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Experimental Analysis of 60-GHz VCSEL and ECL Photonic Generation and Transmission of Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wideband Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1055–1057 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.-H.

W.-S. Tsai, H.-H. Lu, S.-J. Tzeng, T.-S. Chien, S.-H. Chen, and Y.-C. Chi, “Bidirectional dense wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical network based on injection-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers and a data comparator,” Opt. Eng. 45(9), 095003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, K.

K. Iwatsuki, T. Tashiro, K. Hara, T. Taniguchi, J.- Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Miyamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Higashino, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, “Broadband Ubiquitous Femto-cell Network with DAS over WDM-PON (invited paper),” Proc. SPIE 7958, 79580I (2011).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, I. T.

Morita, I.

Nabar, R. U.

A. J. Paulraj, D. A. Gore, R. U. Nabar, and H. Bolcskei, “An overview of MIMO communications - a key to gigabit wireless,” Proc. IEEE 92(2), 198–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nema, S.

S. Nema, A. Goel, and R. P. Singh, “Integrated DWDM and MIMO-OFDM System for 4G High Capacity Mobile Communication,” Signal Process. Int. J. 3(5), 132–143 (2010).

Neumeyr, C.

Ng’oma, A.

A. Kobyakov, M. Sauer, A. Ng’oma, and J. H. Winters, “Effect of Optical Loss and Antenna Separation in 2x2 MIMO Fiber-Radio Systems,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(1), 187–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nishiumi, T.

K. Iwatsuki, T. Tashiro, K. Hara, T. Taniguchi, J.- Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Miyamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Higashino, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, “Broadband Ubiquitous Femto-cell Network with DAS over WDM-PON (invited paper),” Proc. SPIE 7958, 79580I (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsukamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Yamagami, T. Higashino, S. Komaki, R. Kubo, T. Taniguchi, J.-I. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, and K. Iwatsuki, “Convergence of WDM Access and Ubiquitous Antenna Architecture for Broadband Wireless Services,” PIERS Online 6(4), 385–389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ortsiefer, M.

Paulraj, A. J.

A. J. Paulraj, D. A. Gore, R. U. Nabar, and H. Bolcskei, “An overview of MIMO communications - a key to gigabit wireless,” Proc. IEEE 92(2), 198–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rodes, R.

Roenneberg, E.

Rosskopf, J.

Sauer, M.

A. Kobyakov, M. Sauer, A. Ng’oma, and J. H. Winters, “Effect of Optical Loss and Antenna Separation in 2x2 MIMO Fiber-Radio Systems,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(1), 187–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, and J. George, “Radio over fiber for picocellular network architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3301–3320 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schenk, T. C.

Singh, R. P.

S. Nema, A. Goel, and R. P. Singh, “Integrated DWDM and MIMO-OFDM System for 4G High Capacity Mobile Communication,” Signal Process. Int. J. 3(5), 132–143 (2010).

Sirbu, A.

E. Kapon and A. Sirbu, “Long-wavelength VCSELs: Power-efficient answer,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 27–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tafur Monroy, I.

M. Beltran, J. B. Jensen, R. Llorente, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Experimental Analysis of 60-GHz VCSEL and ECL Photonic Generation and Transmission of Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wideband Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1055–1057 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

Taniguchi, T.

K. Iwatsuki, T. Tashiro, K. Hara, T. Taniguchi, J.- Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Miyamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Higashino, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, “Broadband Ubiquitous Femto-cell Network with DAS over WDM-PON (invited paper),” Proc. SPIE 7958, 79580I (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsukamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Yamagami, T. Higashino, S. Komaki, R. Kubo, T. Taniguchi, J.-I. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, and K. Iwatsuki, “Convergence of WDM Access and Ubiquitous Antenna Architecture for Broadband Wireless Services,” PIERS Online 6(4), 385–389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tashiro, T.

K. Iwatsuki, T. Tashiro, K. Hara, T. Taniguchi, J.- Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Miyamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Higashino, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, “Broadband Ubiquitous Femto-cell Network with DAS over WDM-PON (invited paper),” Proc. SPIE 7958, 79580I (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, W.-S.

W.-S. Tsai, H.-H. Lu, S.-J. Tzeng, T.-S. Chien, S.-H. Chen, and Y.-C. Chi, “Bidirectional dense wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical network based on injection-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers and a data comparator,” Opt. Eng. 45(9), 095003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, K.

K. Iwatsuki, T. Tashiro, K. Hara, T. Taniguchi, J.- Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Miyamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Higashino, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, “Broadband Ubiquitous Femto-cell Network with DAS over WDM-PON (invited paper),” Proc. SPIE 7958, 79580I (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsukamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Yamagami, T. Higashino, S. Komaki, R. Kubo, T. Taniguchi, J.-I. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, and K. Iwatsuki, “Convergence of WDM Access and Ubiquitous Antenna Architecture for Broadband Wireless Services,” PIERS Online 6(4), 385–389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, S.-J.

W.-S. Tsai, H.-H. Lu, S.-J. Tzeng, T.-S. Chien, S.-H. Chen, and Y.-C. Chi, “Bidirectional dense wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical network based on injection-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers and a data comparator,” Opt. Eng. 45(9), 095003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Winters, J. H.

A. Kobyakov, M. Sauer, A. Ng’oma, and J. H. Winters, “Effect of Optical Loss and Antenna Separation in 2x2 MIMO Fiber-Radio Systems,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(1), 187–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Winters, “Smart antennas for wireless systems,” IEEE Personal Commun. 5(1), 23–27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamagami, T.

K. Tsukamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Yamagami, T. Higashino, S. Komaki, R. Kubo, T. Taniguchi, J.-I. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, and K. Iwatsuki, “Convergence of WDM Access and Ubiquitous Antenna Architecture for Broadband Wireless Services,” PIERS Online 6(4), 385–389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimoto, N.

K. Iwatsuki, T. Tashiro, K. Hara, T. Taniguchi, J.- Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Miyamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Higashino, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, “Broadband Ubiquitous Femto-cell Network with DAS over WDM-PON (invited paper),” Proc. SPIE 7958, 79580I (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsukamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Yamagami, T. Higashino, S. Komaki, R. Kubo, T. Taniguchi, J.-I. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, and K. Iwatsuki, “Convergence of WDM Access and Ubiquitous Antenna Architecture for Broadband Wireless Services,” PIERS Online 6(4), 385–389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zibar, D.

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. J. Cooper, “Fiber/Radio for the provision of cordless/mobile telephony services in the access network,” Electron. Lett. 26(24), 2054–2056 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Personal Commun. (1)

J. H. Winters, “Smart antennas for wireless systems,” IEEE Personal Commun. 5(1), 23–27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Beltran, J. B. Jensen, R. Llorente, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Experimental Analysis of 60-GHz VCSEL and ECL Photonic Generation and Transmission of Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wideband Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1055–1057 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

A. Kobyakov, M. Sauer, A. Ng’oma, and J. H. Winters, “Effect of Optical Loss and Antenna Separation in 2x2 MIMO Fiber-Radio Systems,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(1), 187–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

E. Kapon and A. Sirbu, “Long-wavelength VCSELs: Power-efficient answer,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 27–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

W.-S. Tsai, H.-H. Lu, S.-J. Tzeng, T.-S. Chien, S.-H. Chen, and Y.-C. Chi, “Bidirectional dense wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical network based on injection-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers and a data comparator,” Opt. Eng. 45(9), 095003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

PIERS Online (1)

K. Tsukamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Yamagami, T. Higashino, S. Komaki, R. Kubo, T. Taniguchi, J.-I. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, and K. Iwatsuki, “Convergence of WDM Access and Ubiquitous Antenna Architecture for Broadband Wireless Services,” PIERS Online 6(4), 385–389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. J. Paulraj, D. A. Gore, R. U. Nabar, and H. Bolcskei, “An overview of MIMO communications - a key to gigabit wireless,” Proc. IEEE 92(2), 198–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Iwatsuki, T. Tashiro, K. Hara, T. Taniguchi, J.- Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Miyamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Higashino, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, “Broadband Ubiquitous Femto-cell Network with DAS over WDM-PON (invited paper),” Proc. SPIE 7958, 79580I (2011).
[CrossRef]

Signal Process. Int. J. (1)

S. Nema, A. Goel, and R. P. Singh, “Integrated DWDM and MIMO-OFDM System for 4G High Capacity Mobile Communication,” Signal Process. Int. J. 3(5), 132–143 (2010).

Other (8)

M. B. Othman, L. Deng, X. Pang, J. Caminos, W. Kozuch, K. Prince, J. B. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Directly-modulated VCSELs for 2×2 MIMO-OFDM radio over fiber in WDM-PON,” ECOC (2011).

Y. S. Cho, J. Kim, W. Y. Yang, and C.-G. Kang, MIMO-OFDM Wireless Communication with MATLAB, Chap. 6 (Wiley, 2010).

X. Liu and F. Buchali, “A novel channel estimation method for PDM-OFDM enabling improved tolerance to WDM nonlinearity,” OFC/NFOEC (2009).

S. R. Saunders, S. Carlaw, A. Giustina, R. R. Bhat, V. S. Rao, and R. Siegberg, Femtocells: Opportunities and Challenges for Business and Technology (Wiley, 2009).

I. Harjula, A. Ramirez, F. Martinez, D. Zorrilla, M. Katz, and V. Polo, “Practical issues in the combining of MIMO techniques and RoF in OFDM/A systems,” Proc. of the 7th WSEAS, 244–248 (2008).

V. Tarokh, New Directions in Wireless Communications Research, Chap. 2 (Springer, 2009).

W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communication, Chaps. 1, 4, 12 (Elsevier, 2010).

J. Zhang and G. de la Roche, Femtocells: Technologies and Deployment, Chaps. 2, 4, 9 (Wiley, 2010).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Femtocell in home and office environment for radio over fiber network.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experiment setup for all-VCSELs for WDM-PON with 4-QAM OFDM signals over 20 km NZDSF and 2x2 wireless MIMO. RF carrier frequency of 5.65 GHz was used for both branches of the MIMO channel.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Showing variation of (a) BER with ROP after fiber transmission, at various distances between RAU and MS: and (b) BER with ROP after fiber transmission, for different antenna separation, with fixed 1 meter distance between RAU and MS. (c) BER with ROP with 4-QAM modulation using different subcarriers: (d) BER with ROP for 4-QAM and 16-QAM modulation scheme with 64 subcarriers and fixed 1 meter distance between RAU and MS. MIMO signal elements which are upconverted using mixer (solid symbols) and VSG (hollow symbols) are identified. Insets show constellation obtained at FEC limit (BER = 2x10−3).

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