Abstract

Multi-hop operation is demonstrated with a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router for optical packet switched networks. The router is realized by combining key optical/optoelectronic device/sub-system technologies and complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor electronics. Using the hop count monitored via the time-to-live field in the packet label, the optoelectronic buffer of the router performs buffering with forward error correction selectively for packets degraded due to multiple hopping every N hops. Experimental results for 10-Gb/s optical packets confirm that the scheme can expand the number of hops while keeping the bit error rate low without the need for optical 3R regenerators at each node.

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References

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  1. S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4468–4492 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” J. Opt. Networking 3(12), 914–930 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, “First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router,” in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2009. ECOC '09(2009), paper PD3.2.
  4. D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 2010 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD3.5.
  5. R. Urata, T. Nakahara, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, A. Ohki, H. Sugiyama, and R. Takahashi, “Multi-hop characteristics of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router,” in Photonics in Switching, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PTuA5.
  6. R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Suemitsu, T. Nakahara, and H. Suzuki, “An optically clocked transistor array for high-speed asynchronous label swapping: 40 Gb/s and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(6), 692–703 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Kakitsuka, T. Sato, Y. Kondo, and R. Takahashi, “Semiconductor double-ring-resonator-coupled tunable laser for wavelength routing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(7), 892–899 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Nakahara, R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, and H. Suzuki, “Optical clock-pulse-train generator for processing preamble-free asynchronous optical packets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1849–1851 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Nakahara, H. Takenouchi, R. Urata, H. Yamazaki, and R. Takahashi, “Hybrid optoelectronic buffer using CMOS memory and optical interfaces for 10-Gbit/s asynchronous variable-length optical packets,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20565–20571 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Kakitsuka, T. Sato, Y. Kondo, and R. Takahashi, “Semiconductor double-ring-resonator-coupled tunable laser for wavelength routing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(7), 892–899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

T. Nakahara, R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, and H. Suzuki, “Optical clock-pulse-train generator for processing preamble-free asynchronous optical packets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1849–1851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4468–4492 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” J. Opt. Networking 3(12), 914–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kakitsuka, T.

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Kakitsuka, T. Sato, Y. Kondo, and R. Takahashi, “Semiconductor double-ring-resonator-coupled tunable laser for wavelength routing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(7), 892–899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, N.

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” J. Opt. Networking 3(12), 914–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Kakitsuka, T. Sato, Y. Kondo, and R. Takahashi, “Semiconductor double-ring-resonator-coupled tunable laser for wavelength routing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(7), 892–899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Kakitsuka, T. Sato, Y. Kondo, and R. Takahashi, “Semiconductor double-ring-resonator-coupled tunable laser for wavelength routing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(7), 892–899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakahara, T.

T. Nakahara, H. Takenouchi, R. Urata, H. Yamazaki, and R. Takahashi, “Hybrid optoelectronic buffer using CMOS memory and optical interfaces for 10-Gbit/s asynchronous variable-length optical packets,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20565–20571 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Suemitsu, T. Nakahara, and H. Suzuki, “An optically clocked transistor array for high-speed asynchronous label swapping: 40 Gb/s and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(6), 692–703 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakahara, R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, and H. Suzuki, “Optical clock-pulse-train generator for processing preamble-free asynchronous optical packets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1849–1851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” J. Opt. Networking 3(12), 914–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Kakitsuka, T. Sato, Y. Kondo, and R. Takahashi, “Semiconductor double-ring-resonator-coupled tunable laser for wavelength routing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(7), 892–899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Segawa, T.

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Kakitsuka, T. Sato, Y. Kondo, and R. Takahashi, “Semiconductor double-ring-resonator-coupled tunable laser for wavelength routing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(7), 892–899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suemitsu, T.

Suzuki, H.

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Suemitsu, T. Nakahara, and H. Suzuki, “An optically clocked transistor array for high-speed asynchronous label swapping: 40 Gb/s and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(6), 692–703 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakahara, R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, and H. Suzuki, “Optical clock-pulse-train generator for processing preamble-free asynchronous optical packets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1849–1851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” J. Opt. Networking 3(12), 914–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, R.

T. Nakahara, H. Takenouchi, R. Urata, H. Yamazaki, and R. Takahashi, “Hybrid optoelectronic buffer using CMOS memory and optical interfaces for 10-Gbit/s asynchronous variable-length optical packets,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20565–20571 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Kakitsuka, T. Sato, Y. Kondo, and R. Takahashi, “Semiconductor double-ring-resonator-coupled tunable laser for wavelength routing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(7), 892–899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Suemitsu, T. Nakahara, and H. Suzuki, “An optically clocked transistor array for high-speed asynchronous label swapping: 40 Gb/s and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(6), 692–703 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakahara, R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, and H. Suzuki, “Optical clock-pulse-train generator for processing preamble-free asynchronous optical packets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1849–1851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” J. Opt. Networking 3(12), 914–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takahata, K.

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” J. Opt. Networking 3(12), 914–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takenouchi, H.

T. Nakahara, H. Takenouchi, R. Urata, H. Yamazaki, and R. Takahashi, “Hybrid optoelectronic buffer using CMOS memory and optical interfaces for 10-Gbit/s asynchronous variable-length optical packets,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20565–20571 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” J. Opt. Networking 3(12), 914–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Urata, R.

Yamazaki, H.

Yasui, T.

T. Nakahara, R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, and H. Suzuki, “Optical clock-pulse-train generator for processing preamble-free asynchronous optical packets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1849–1851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” J. Opt. Networking 3(12), 914–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Kakitsuka, T. Sato, Y. Kondo, and R. Takahashi, “Semiconductor double-ring-resonator-coupled tunable laser for wavelength routing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(7), 892–899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Nakahara, R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, and H. Suzuki, “Optical clock-pulse-train generator for processing preamble-free asynchronous optical packets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1849–1851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Networking

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” J. Opt. Networking 3(12), 914–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

H. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, “First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router,” in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2009. ECOC '09(2009), paper PD3.2.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 2010 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD3.5.

R. Urata, T. Nakahara, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, A. Ohki, H. Sugiyama, and R. Takahashi, “Multi-hop characteristics of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router,” in Photonics in Switching, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PTuA5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hybrid optoelectronic router architecture (left) and multi-hop transmission scheme in OPS network (right). The packet is forwarded to the shared buffer (red line, left) every N hops for 3R regeneration and FEC. TTL: time-to-live. AWG: arrayed waveguide grating. SPC: serial-to-parallel converter. PSC: parallel-to-serial converter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagrams of (a) the shared buffer connected to the label processor and switch (one overlayed plane in Fig. 1, left), (b) a single label processor, (c) a 6 × 6 switch, and (d) a shared buffer. (e) Photograph of the prototype hybrid optoelectronic router. ECG: electrical clock-pulse generator. TWC: tunable wavelength converter. FWC: fixed wavelength converter. APD-TIA: avalanche photodiode and transimpedance amplifier. LN: lithium niobate. OCPTG: optical clock pulse-train generator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setups for (a) 1–5 hops and (b) 5–9 hops without and with buffering (FEC), respectively. PPG: pulse pattern generator. BERT: bit error rate tester.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

BER results for packets after (a) 1–5 hops from PPG and (b) 5–9 hops from buffer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

BER as a function of hop count.

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