Abstract

Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with reduced series resistance in lateral PN junction rib-waveguide phase shifters for enhanced high-speed response are fabricated and characterized. Extinction ratio higher than 10dB is obtained at 10.3-11.7 Gbps with mask margins of 27% (10.3-Gbps 10GBE), 16% (10.7-Gbps STM-64/OC-192) and 10% (11.3-Gbps STM-64/OC-192) in eye-diagram measurements incorporating mask tests using a RF cut-off filter. In unfiltered eye-diagram measurements without mask tests, extinction ratio higher than 13 dB is obtained at 10.0-12.5 Gbps. The silicon modulators reveal high-speed performance comparable with that of lithium-niobate modulators in high-speed optical fiber telecommunications.

©2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Koyama and K. Iga, “Frequency chirping in external modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 87–93 (1988).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. D. D’Andrea, presented in Market Watch Panel III, OFC/NFOEC2009 March 22–26, 2009.
  4. K. Shastri, presented in Workshop OMB, OFC/NFOEC2011 March 6–11, 2011.
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. R. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  8. T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, , “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, H. Miyazawa, and S. Seki, “A broadband Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulator with a ridge structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(6), 1164–1168 (1995).
    [Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, , “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, H. Miyazawa, and S. Seki, “A broadband Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulator with a ridge structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(6), 1164–1168 (1995).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

F. Koyama and K. Iga, “Frequency chirping in external modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 87–93 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ang, K.-W.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, , “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bennett, B. R.

R. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bossi, D. E.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fang, Q.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, , “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fournier, M.

Fritz, D. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

G.-Q. Lo,

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, , “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

Grosse, P.

Hallemeier, P. F.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

Iga, K.

F. Koyama and K. Iga, “Frequency chirping in external modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 87–93 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kissa, K. M.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Koyama, F.

F. Koyama and K. Iga, “Frequency chirping in external modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 87–93 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.-L.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, , “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lafaw, D. A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liow, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, , “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maack, D.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G.

McBrien, G. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mitomi, O.

K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, H. Miyazawa, and S. Seki, “A broadband Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulator with a ridge structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(6), 1164–1168 (1995).
[Crossref]

Miyazawa, H.

K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, H. Miyazawa, and S. Seki, “A broadband Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulator with a ridge structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(6), 1164–1168 (1995).
[Crossref]

Murphy, E. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Noguchi, K.

K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, H. Miyazawa, and S. Seki, “A broadband Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulator with a ridge structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(6), 1164–1168 (1995).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

Seki, S.

K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, H. Miyazawa, and S. Seki, “A broadband Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulator with a ridge structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(6), 1164–1168 (1995).
[Crossref]

Song, J.-F.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, , “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

R. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

Wooten, E. L.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Y.-Z.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, , “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yi-Yan, A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yu, M.-B.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, , “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, , “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, H. Miyazawa, and S. Seki, “A broadband Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulator with a ridge structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(6), 1164–1168 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. Koyama and K. Iga, “Frequency chirping in external modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 87–93 (1988).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (2)

D. D’Andrea, presented in Market Watch Panel III, OFC/NFOEC2009 March 22–26, 2009.

K. Shastri, presented in Workshop OMB, OFC/NFOEC2011 March 6–11, 2011.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Silicon MZ modulator having lateral PN junction rib-waveguides and input RF and output modulator eye diagrams at 10.0 Gbps.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Input RF waveform, (b) output waveform from Si MZ modulator with 60-nm slab thickness and (c) with 95-nm slab thickness.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectrum of asymmetric Si MZ modulator at zero DC bias voltage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Filtered eye diagrams with 10GBE and STM-64/OC-192 masks at 10.3-11.3 Gbps.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Unfiltered eye-diagrams with ER ~14 dB at 10.0-11.3 Gbps.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Eye diagrams of output optical data with input RF data eye-diagram at 12.5 Gbps.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Extinction ratio (ER) and mask margin in filtered eye-diagram measurements at 10.3-11.3 Gbps

Metrics