Abstract

Engineers are currently facing some technical issues in support of the exponential performance growths in information industries. One of the most serious issues is a bottleneck of inter-chip interconnects. We propose a new “Photonics-Electronics Convergence System” concept. High density optical interconnects integrated with a 13-channel arrayed laser diode, silicon optical modulators, germanium photodetectors, and silicon optical waveguides on single silicon substrate were demonstrated for the first time using this system. A 5-Gbps error free data transmission and a 3.5-Tbps/cm2 transmission density were achieved. We believe that this technology will solve the bandwidth bottleneck problem among LSI chips in the future.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 184–191 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-8-8412 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. Fujioka, T. Chu, and M. Ishizaka, “Compact and low power consumption hybrid integrated wavelength tunable laser module using silicon waveguide resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3115–3120 (2010).
  10. J. Fujikata, Y. Urino, S. Akiyama, T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, K. Wada, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “Differential signal transmission in silicon-photonics integrated circuit for high density optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 365–367 (2011).
  11. S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation of efficient silicon modulator using side-wall grating waveguide,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 14–16 (2011).
  12. J. Fujikata, M. Noguchi, M. Miura, D. Okamoto, T. Horikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Si waveguide-integrated MSM Ge photodiode,” International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials, CI-6–3 (2011).
  13. T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, Y. Urino, T. Yamamoto, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High density hybrid integrated light source with a laser diode array on a silicon optical waveguide platform for inter-chip optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 181–183 (2011).

2011

2010

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “’Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 1–16 (2010).

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-8-8412 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fujioka, T. Chu, and M. Ishizaka, “Compact and low power consumption hybrid integrated wavelength tunable laser module using silicon waveguide resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3115–3120 (2010).

2009

1987

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Alon, E.

Amberg, P.

Asghari, M.

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Block, B. A.

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, P. L. D.

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chu, T.

Cunningham, J. E.

Dayringer, M.

Dong, P.

Feng, D.

Fujioka, N.

Gainsley, J.

Ho, R.

Ishikawa, Y.

Ishizaka, M.

Itabashi, S.

Koka, P.

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “’Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 1–16 (2010).

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Lexau, J.

Li, G.

Li, J.

Liao, J. T. S.

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, F.

Luo, Y.

Manipatruni, S.

McCracken, M.

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “’Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 1–16 (2010).

Mekis, A.

Mitchell, J.

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “’Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 1–16 (2010).

Moghadam, H. F.

Mohammed, E. M.

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, H.

Palermo, A. M.

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

Patil, D.

Pinguet, T.

Preston, K.

Raj, K.

Reshotko, M. R.

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schwetman, H.

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “’Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 1–16 (2010).

Shinojima, H.

Shubin, I.

Soref, R.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

Tsuchizawa, T.

Wada, K.

Watanabe, T.

Yamada, K.

Yao, J.

Young, I. A.

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

IEEE Commun. Mag.

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “’Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 1–16 (2010).

Other

H. C. Ji, K. H. Ha, K. W. Na, S. G. Kim, I. S. Joe, D. J. Shin, K. H. Lee, S. D. Suh, J. K. Bok, Y. S. You, Y. W. Hyung, S. S. Kim, Y. D. Park, and C. H. Chung, “Bulk silicon photonic wire for one-chip integrated optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 96–98 (2010).

J. Fujikata, Y. Urino, S. Akiyama, T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, K. Wada, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “Differential signal transmission in silicon-photonics integrated circuit for high density optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 365–367 (2011).

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation of efficient silicon modulator using side-wall grating waveguide,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 14–16 (2011).

J. Fujikata, M. Noguchi, M. Miura, D. Okamoto, T. Horikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Si waveguide-integrated MSM Ge photodiode,” International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials, CI-6–3 (2011).

T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, Y. Urino, T. Yamamoto, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High density hybrid integrated light source with a laser diode array on a silicon optical waveguide platform for inter-chip optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 181–183 (2011).

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors 2009 Edition, Assembly and Packaging, Table AP2 and AP3. http://www.itrs.net/Links/2009ITRS/2009Chapters_2009Tables/2009_Assembly.pdf

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Concept of Photonics-Electronics Convergence System for inter-chip interconnects.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross section diagrams of optical components.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of fabricated silicon substrate for optical interconnects.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Near field pattern and output intensity of LD.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

DC response of optical modulator.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Frequency response of PD.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Setup for data transmission experiments.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Eye diagrams for 5-Gbps PRBS.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Bit error rate for 5-Gbps PRBS.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Footprints of optical components per channel

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical power budget

Metrics