Abstract

We report on bulk and guided-wave second-harmonic generation via random Quasi-Phase-Matching in Lithium Tantalate. By acquiring the far-field profiles at several wavelengths, we extract statistical information on the distribution of the quadratic nonlinearity as well as its average period, both at the surface and in the bulk of the sample. By investigating the distribution in the two regions we demonstrate a non-invasive approach to the study of poling dynamics.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, “First order quasi-phase matched blue light generation in surface poled Ti-indiffused lithium niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(22), 4430–4432 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Gallo, C. Codemard, C. B. E. Gawith, J. Nilsson, P. G. R. Smith, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Guided-wave second-harmonic generation in a LiNbO3 nonlinear photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1232–1234 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, and H. Vanherzeele, “Self-focusing and self-defocusing by cascaded second-order effects in KTP,” Opt. Lett. 17(1), 28–30 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, E. Van Stryland, and G. Assanto, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in second-order nonlinear-optical processes,” Opt. Lett. 18(1), 13–15 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Assanto, I. Torelli, and S. Trillo, “All-optical processing by means of vectorial interactions in second-order cascading: novel approaches,” Opt. Lett. 19(21), 1720–1722 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. J. Hagan, Z. Wang, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, and G. Assanto, “Phase-controlled transistor action by cascading of second-order nonlinearities in KTP,” Opt. Lett. 19(17), 1305–1307 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Assanto, “Transistor action through nonlinear cascading in Type II interactions,” Opt. Lett. 20(15), 1595–1597 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “All-optical Modulation via Nonlinear Cascading in Type II Second Harmonic Generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2120–2122 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Coherent interactions for all-optical signal processing via quadratic nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(4), 673–681 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Conti, S. Trillo, and G. Assanto, “Doubly resonant Bragg simultons via second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(12), 2341–2344 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Baek, R. Schiek, G. Stegeman, G. Assanto, and W. Sohler, “All-optical Mode Mixer Spatial Switch Based on Cascading in Lithium Niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(26), 3405–3407 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Gallo, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and G. Assanto, “Cascading phase shift and multivalued response in counterpropagating frequency-nondegenerate parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 25(13), 966–968 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. Assanto and G. I. Stegeman, “Simple physics of quadratic spatial solitons,” Opt. Express 10(9), 388–396 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  16. G. Leo, A. Amoroso, L. Colace, G. Assanto, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, “Low-threshold spatial solitons in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1778–1780 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. Gallo and G. Assanto, “Spatial solitons in χ(2) planar photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3149–3151 (2007).
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  18. K. Gallo, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Parametric solitons in two-dimensional lattices of purely nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. I. Stegeman, “Efficient Wavelength Shifting Over the Erbium Amplifier Bandwidth Via Cascaded Second Order Processes in Lithium Niobate Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(8), 1020–1022 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 653–655 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Gallo and G. Assanto, “Analysis of Lithium Niobate all-optical wavelength shifters for the third spectral window,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(5), 741–753 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Gallo and G. Assanto, “All-optical diode based on second-harmonic generation in an asymmetric waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(2), 267–269 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “All-optical diode in a periodically-poled Lithium Niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 314–316 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. X. Gu, M. Makarov, Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, and W. P. Risk, “Backward second-harmonic and third-harmonic generation in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 24(3), 127–129 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. X. Mu, I. B. Zotova, Y. J. Ding, and W. P. Risk, “Backward second-harmonic generation in submicron-period ion-exchanged KTP waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 153–159 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. Canalias and V. Pasiskevicius, “Mirrorless optical parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 459–462 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. C. Busacca, E. D’Asaro, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Ultraviolet generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121117 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Stivala, A. C. Busacca, A. Pasquazi, R. L. Oliveri, R. Morandotti, and G. Assanto, “Random quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 363–365 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. Pasquazi, A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, R. Morandotti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinear Disorder Mapping Through Three-Wave Mixing,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(1), 18–28 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. S. Pelc, C. R. Phillips, D. Chang, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Efficiency pedestal in quasi-phase-matching devices with random duty-cycle errors,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 864–866 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. F. Kalkum, H. A. Eggert, T. Jungk, and K. Buse, “A stochastic model for periodic domain structuring in ferroelectric crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 014104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  32. Y. F. Chen, K. W. Su, T. H. Lu, and K. F. Huang, “Manifestation of weak localization and long-range correlation in disordered wave functions from conical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(3), 033905 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. R. Fischer, S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, and Yu. S. Kivshar, “Broadband femtosecond frequency doubling in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. Horowitz, A. Bekker, and B. Fischer, “Broadband second-harmonic generation in SrxBa1-xNb2O6 by spread spectrum phase matching with controllable domain gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(21), 2619–2621 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  35. S. Kase and K. Ohi, “Optical absorption and interband Faraday rotation in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3,” Ferroelectrics 8(1), 419–420 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  36. I. Shoji, T. Kondo, A. Kitamoto, M. Shirane, and R. Ito, “Absolute scale of second-order nonlinear-optical coefficients,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(9), 2268–2294 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. de Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(7), 743–745 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, L. Curcio, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, I. Cristiani, and G. Assanto, “Soft proton exchanged channel waveguides in congruent lithium tantalate for frequency doubling,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25967–25972 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. G. Nava, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, A. C. Busacca, L. Curcio, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Integrated frequency shifter in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(25), 1686–1687 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  40. I. E. Barry, G. W. Ross, P. G. R. Smith, R. W. Eason, and G. Cook, “Microstructuring of lithium niobate using differential etch-rate between inverted and non-inverted ferroelectric domains,” Mater. Lett. 37(4-5), 246–254 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  41. J.-P. Meyn and M. M. Fejer, “Tunable ultraviolet radiation by second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate,” Opt. Lett. 22(16), 1214–1216 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

S. Stivala, A. C. Busacca, A. Pasquazi, R. L. Oliveri, R. Morandotti, and G. Assanto, “Random quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 363–365 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pasquazi, A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, R. Morandotti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinear Disorder Mapping Through Three-Wave Mixing,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(1), 18–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, L. Curcio, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, I. Cristiani, and G. Assanto, “Soft proton exchanged channel waveguides in congruent lithium tantalate for frequency doubling,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25967–25972 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, A. C. Busacca, L. Curcio, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Integrated frequency shifter in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(25), 1686–1687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. C. Busacca, E. D’Asaro, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Ultraviolet generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Parametric solitons in two-dimensional lattices of purely nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

C. Canalias and V. Pasiskevicius, “Mirrorless optical parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 459–462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Kalkum, H. A. Eggert, T. Jungk, and K. Buse, “A stochastic model for periodic domain structuring in ferroelectric crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 014104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo and G. Assanto, “Spatial solitons in χ(2) planar photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3149–3151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

K. Gallo, C. Codemard, C. B. E. Gawith, J. Nilsson, P. G. R. Smith, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Guided-wave second-harmonic generation in a LiNbO3 nonlinear photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1232–1234 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, K. W. Su, T. H. Lu, and K. F. Huang, “Manifestation of weak localization and long-range correlation in disordered wave functions from conical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(3), 033905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Fischer, S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, and Yu. S. Kivshar, “Broadband femtosecond frequency doubling in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, “First order quasi-phase matched blue light generation in surface poled Ti-indiffused lithium niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(22), 4430–4432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Leo, A. Amoroso, L. Colace, G. Assanto, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, “Low-threshold spatial solitons in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1778–1780 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “All-optical diode in a periodically-poled Lithium Niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 314–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

X. Mu, I. B. Zotova, Y. J. Ding, and W. P. Risk, “Backward second-harmonic generation in submicron-period ion-exchanged KTP waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 153–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and G. Assanto, “Cascading phase shift and multivalued response in counterpropagating frequency-nondegenerate parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 25(13), 966–968 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1998

Y. Baek, R. Schiek, G. Stegeman, G. Assanto, and W. Sohler, “All-optical Mode Mixer Spatial Switch Based on Cascading in Lithium Niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(26), 3405–3407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. E. Barry, G. W. Ross, P. G. R. Smith, R. W. Eason, and G. Cook, “Microstructuring of lithium niobate using differential etch-rate between inverted and non-inverted ferroelectric domains,” Mater. Lett. 37(4-5), 246–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J.-P. Meyn and M. M. Fejer, “Tunable ultraviolet radiation by second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate,” Opt. Lett. 22(16), 1214–1216 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, and G. Assanto, “Doubly resonant Bragg simultons via second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(12), 2341–2344 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. I. Stegeman, “Efficient Wavelength Shifting Over the Erbium Amplifier Bandwidth Via Cascaded Second Order Processes in Lithium Niobate Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(8), 1020–1022 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Shoji, T. Kondo, A. Kitamoto, M. Shirane, and R. Ito, “Absolute scale of second-order nonlinear-optical coefficients,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(9), 2268–2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

G. Assanto, “Transistor action through nonlinear cascading in Type II interactions,” Opt. Lett. 20(15), 1595–1597 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “All-optical Modulation via Nonlinear Cascading in Type II Second Harmonic Generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2120–2122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Coherent interactions for all-optical signal processing via quadratic nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(4), 673–681 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, E. Van Stryland, and G. Assanto, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in second-order nonlinear-optical processes,” Opt. Lett. 18(1), 13–15 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Horowitz, A. Bekker, and B. Fischer, “Broadband second-harmonic generation in SrxBa1-xNb2O6 by spread spectrum phase matching with controllable domain gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(21), 2619–2621 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, and H. Vanherzeele, “Self-focusing and self-defocusing by cascaded second-order effects in KTP,” Opt. Lett. 17(1), 28–30 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

M. de Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(7), 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1974

S. Kase and K. Ohi, “Optical absorption and interband Faraday rotation in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3,” Ferroelectrics 8(1), 419–420 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Amoroso, A.

Assanto, G.

A. Pasquazi, A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, R. Morandotti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinear Disorder Mapping Through Three-Wave Mixing,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(1), 18–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, L. Curcio, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, I. Cristiani, and G. Assanto, “Soft proton exchanged channel waveguides in congruent lithium tantalate for frequency doubling,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25967–25972 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, A. C. Busacca, L. Curcio, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Integrated frequency shifter in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(25), 1686–1687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Stivala, A. C. Busacca, A. Pasquazi, R. L. Oliveri, R. Morandotti, and G. Assanto, “Random quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 363–365 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Gallo, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Parametric solitons in two-dimensional lattices of purely nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Busacca, E. D’Asaro, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Ultraviolet generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo and G. Assanto, “Spatial solitons in χ(2) planar photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3149–3151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Leo, A. Amoroso, L. Colace, G. Assanto, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, “Low-threshold spatial solitons in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1778–1780 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Assanto and G. I. Stegeman, “Simple physics of quadratic spatial solitons,” Opt. Express 10(9), 388–396 (2002).
[PubMed]

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “All-optical diode in a periodically-poled Lithium Niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 314–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and G. Assanto, “Cascading phase shift and multivalued response in counterpropagating frequency-nondegenerate parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 25(13), 966–968 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Gallo and G. Assanto, “All-optical diode based on second-harmonic generation in an asymmetric waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(2), 267–269 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo and G. Assanto, “Analysis of Lithium Niobate all-optical wavelength shifters for the third spectral window,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(5), 741–753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Baek, R. Schiek, G. Stegeman, G. Assanto, and W. Sohler, “All-optical Mode Mixer Spatial Switch Based on Cascading in Lithium Niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(26), 3405–3407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. I. Stegeman, “Efficient Wavelength Shifting Over the Erbium Amplifier Bandwidth Via Cascaded Second Order Processes in Lithium Niobate Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(8), 1020–1022 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, and G. Assanto, “Doubly resonant Bragg simultons via second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(12), 2341–2344 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Coherent interactions for all-optical signal processing via quadratic nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(4), 673–681 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, “Transistor action through nonlinear cascading in Type II interactions,” Opt. Lett. 20(15), 1595–1597 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “All-optical Modulation via Nonlinear Cascading in Type II Second Harmonic Generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2120–2122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, I. Torelli, and S. Trillo, “All-optical processing by means of vectorial interactions in second-order cascading: novel approaches,” Opt. Lett. 19(21), 1720–1722 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Hagan, Z. Wang, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, and G. Assanto, “Phase-controlled transistor action by cascading of second-order nonlinearities in KTP,” Opt. Lett. 19(17), 1305–1307 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, E. Van Stryland, and G. Assanto, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in second-order nonlinear-optical processes,” Opt. Lett. 18(1), 13–15 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baek, Y.

Y. Baek, R. Schiek, G. Stegeman, G. Assanto, and W. Sohler, “All-optical Mode Mixer Spatial Switch Based on Cascading in Lithium Niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(26), 3405–3407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baldi, P.

Barety, J. P.

M. de Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(7), 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Barry, I. E.

I. E. Barry, G. W. Ross, P. G. R. Smith, R. W. Eason, and G. Cook, “Microstructuring of lithium niobate using differential etch-rate between inverted and non-inverted ferroelectric domains,” Mater. Lett. 37(4-5), 246–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bekker, A.

M. Horowitz, A. Bekker, and B. Fischer, “Broadband second-harmonic generation in SrxBa1-xNb2O6 by spread spectrum phase matching with controllable domain gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(21), 2619–2621 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 653–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, N. G. R.

Busacca, A. C.

A. Pasquazi, A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, R. Morandotti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinear Disorder Mapping Through Three-Wave Mixing,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(1), 18–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, L. Curcio, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, I. Cristiani, and G. Assanto, “Soft proton exchanged channel waveguides in congruent lithium tantalate for frequency doubling,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25967–25972 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, A. C. Busacca, L. Curcio, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Integrated frequency shifter in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(25), 1686–1687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Stivala, A. C. Busacca, A. Pasquazi, R. L. Oliveri, R. Morandotti, and G. Assanto, “Random quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 363–365 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Busacca, E. D’Asaro, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Ultraviolet generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, “First order quasi-phase matched blue light generation in surface poled Ti-indiffused lithium niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(22), 4430–4432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

F. Kalkum, H. A. Eggert, T. Jungk, and K. Buse, “A stochastic model for periodic domain structuring in ferroelectric crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 014104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Canali, C.

M. de Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(7), 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Canalias, C.

C. Canalias and V. Pasiskevicius, “Mirrorless optical parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 459–462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carnera, A.

M. de Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(7), 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chaban, E. E.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 653–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D.

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, K. W. Su, T. H. Lu, and K. F. Huang, “Manifestation of weak localization and long-range correlation in disordered wave functions from conical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(3), 033905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, M. H.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 653–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Christman, S. B.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 653–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Codemard, C.

Colace, L.

Conti, C.

C. Conti, S. Trillo, and G. Assanto, “Doubly resonant Bragg simultons via second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(12), 2341–2344 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cook, G.

I. E. Barry, G. W. Ross, P. G. R. Smith, R. W. Eason, and G. Cook, “Microstructuring of lithium niobate using differential etch-rate between inverted and non-inverted ferroelectric domains,” Mater. Lett. 37(4-5), 246–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, A. C. Busacca, L. Curcio, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Integrated frequency shifter in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(25), 1686–1687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, L. Curcio, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, I. Cristiani, and G. Assanto, “Soft proton exchanged channel waveguides in congruent lithium tantalate for frequency doubling,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25967–25972 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curcio, L.

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, A. C. Busacca, L. Curcio, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Integrated frequency shifter in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(25), 1686–1687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, L. Curcio, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, I. Cristiani, and G. Assanto, “Soft proton exchanged channel waveguides in congruent lithium tantalate for frequency doubling,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25967–25972 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Asaro, E.

A. C. Busacca, E. D’Asaro, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Ultraviolet generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Micheli, M.

K. Gallo, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and G. Assanto, “Cascading phase shift and multivalued response in counterpropagating frequency-nondegenerate parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 25(13), 966–968 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. de Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(7), 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

DeSalvo, R.

Ding, Y. J.

X. Mu, I. B. Zotova, Y. J. Ding, and W. P. Risk, “Backward second-harmonic generation in submicron-period ion-exchanged KTP waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 153–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, M. Makarov, Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, and W. P. Risk, “Backward second-harmonic and third-harmonic generation in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 24(3), 127–129 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eason, R. W.

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, “First order quasi-phase matched blue light generation in surface poled Ti-indiffused lithium niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(22), 4430–4432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. E. Barry, G. W. Ross, P. G. R. Smith, R. W. Eason, and G. Cook, “Microstructuring of lithium niobate using differential etch-rate between inverted and non-inverted ferroelectric domains,” Mater. Lett. 37(4-5), 246–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eggert, H. A.

F. Kalkum, H. A. Eggert, T. Jungk, and K. Buse, “A stochastic model for periodic domain structuring in ferroelectric crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 014104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

J. S. Pelc, C. R. Phillips, D. Chang, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Efficiency pedestal in quasi-phase-matching devices with random duty-cycle errors,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 864–866 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Leo, A. Amoroso, L. Colace, G. Assanto, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, “Low-threshold spatial solitons in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1778–1780 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “All-optical diode in a periodically-poled Lithium Niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 314–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 653–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Meyn and M. M. Fejer, “Tunable ultraviolet radiation by second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate,” Opt. Lett. 22(16), 1214–1216 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

M. Horowitz, A. Bekker, and B. Fischer, “Broadband second-harmonic generation in SrxBa1-xNb2O6 by spread spectrum phase matching with controllable domain gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(21), 2619–2621 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, R.

R. Fischer, S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, and Yu. S. Kivshar, “Broadband femtosecond frequency doubling in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gallo, K.

K. Gallo, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Parametric solitons in two-dimensional lattices of purely nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Gallo and G. Assanto, “Spatial solitons in χ(2) planar photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3149–3151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Gallo, C. Codemard, C. B. E. Gawith, J. Nilsson, P. G. R. Smith, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Guided-wave second-harmonic generation in a LiNbO3 nonlinear photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1232–1234 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “All-optical diode in a periodically-poled Lithium Niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 314–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and G. Assanto, “Cascading phase shift and multivalued response in counterpropagating frequency-nondegenerate parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 25(13), 966–968 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Gallo and G. Assanto, “All-optical diode based on second-harmonic generation in an asymmetric waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(2), 267–269 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo and G. Assanto, “Analysis of Lithium Niobate all-optical wavelength shifters for the third spectral window,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(5), 741–753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. I. Stegeman, “Efficient Wavelength Shifting Over the Erbium Amplifier Bandwidth Via Cascaded Second Order Processes in Lithium Niobate Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(8), 1020–1022 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gawith, C. B. E.

Gu, X.

Hagan, D. J.

Horowitz, M.

M. Horowitz, A. Bekker, and B. Fischer, “Broadband second-harmonic generation in SrxBa1-xNb2O6 by spread spectrum phase matching with controllable domain gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(21), 2619–2621 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K. F.

Y. F. Chen, K. W. Su, T. H. Lu, and K. F. Huang, “Manifestation of weak localization and long-range correlation in disordered wave functions from conical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(3), 033905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, R.

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jungk, T.

F. Kalkum, H. A. Eggert, T. Jungk, and K. Buse, “A stochastic model for periodic domain structuring in ferroelectric crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 014104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kalkum, F.

F. Kalkum, H. A. Eggert, T. Jungk, and K. Buse, “A stochastic model for periodic domain structuring in ferroelectric crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 014104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kase, S.

S. Kase and K. Ohi, “Optical absorption and interband Faraday rotation in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3,” Ferroelectrics 8(1), 419–420 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

Kitamoto, A.

Kivshar, Yu. S.

R. Fischer, S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, and Yu. S. Kivshar, “Broadband femtosecond frequency doubling in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

Krolikowski, W.

R. Fischer, S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, and Yu. S. Kivshar, “Broadband femtosecond frequency doubling in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

Leo, G.

Lu, T. H.

Y. F. Chen, K. W. Su, T. H. Lu, and K. F. Huang, “Manifestation of weak localization and long-range correlation in disordered wave functions from conical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(3), 033905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mailis, S.

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, “First order quasi-phase matched blue light generation in surface poled Ti-indiffused lithium niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(22), 4430–4432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Makarov, M.

Mazzi, G.

M. de Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(7), 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Meyn, J.-P.

Minzioni, P.

A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, L. Curcio, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, I. Cristiani, and G. Assanto, “Soft proton exchanged channel waveguides in congruent lithium tantalate for frequency doubling,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25967–25972 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, A. C. Busacca, L. Curcio, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Integrated frequency shifter in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(25), 1686–1687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

S. Stivala, A. C. Busacca, A. Pasquazi, R. L. Oliveri, R. Morandotti, and G. Assanto, “Random quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 363–365 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pasquazi, A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, R. Morandotti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinear Disorder Mapping Through Three-Wave Mixing,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(1), 18–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mu, X.

X. Mu, I. B. Zotova, Y. J. Ding, and W. P. Risk, “Backward second-harmonic generation in submicron-period ion-exchanged KTP waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 153–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nada, N.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nava, G.

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, A. C. Busacca, L. Curcio, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Integrated frequency shifter in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(25), 1686–1687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, L. Curcio, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, I. Cristiani, and G. Assanto, “Soft proton exchanged channel waveguides in congruent lithium tantalate for frequency doubling,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25967–25972 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neshev, D. N.

R. Fischer, S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, and Yu. S. Kivshar, “Broadband femtosecond frequency doubling in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Ohi, K.

S. Kase and K. Ohi, “Optical absorption and interband Faraday rotation in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3,” Ferroelectrics 8(1), 419–420 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Oliveri, R. L.

Ostrowsky, D. B.

K. Gallo, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and G. Assanto, “Cascading phase shift and multivalued response in counterpropagating frequency-nondegenerate parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 25(13), 966–968 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. de Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(7), 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Papuchon, M.

M. de Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(7), 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, K. R.

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “All-optical diode in a periodically-poled Lithium Niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 314–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pasiskevicius, V.

C. Canalias and V. Pasiskevicius, “Mirrorless optical parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 459–462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pasquazi, A.

A. Pasquazi, A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, R. Morandotti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinear Disorder Mapping Through Three-Wave Mixing,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(1), 18–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Stivala, A. C. Busacca, A. Pasquazi, R. L. Oliveri, R. Morandotti, and G. Assanto, “Random quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 363–365 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Busacca, E. D’Asaro, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Ultraviolet generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Parametric solitons in two-dimensional lattices of purely nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelc, J. S.

Phillips, C. R.

Richardson, D. J.

Risk, W. P.

X. Mu, I. B. Zotova, Y. J. Ding, and W. P. Risk, “Backward second-harmonic generation in submicron-period ion-exchanged KTP waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 153–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, M. Makarov, Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, and W. P. Risk, “Backward second-harmonic and third-harmonic generation in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 24(3), 127–129 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, G. W.

I. E. Barry, G. W. Ross, P. G. R. Smith, R. W. Eason, and G. Cook, “Microstructuring of lithium niobate using differential etch-rate between inverted and non-inverted ferroelectric domains,” Mater. Lett. 37(4-5), 246–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R. V.

Saitoh, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Saltiel, S. M.

R. Fischer, S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, and Yu. S. Kivshar, “Broadband femtosecond frequency doubling in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schiek, R.

Y. Baek, R. Schiek, G. Stegeman, G. Assanto, and W. Sohler, “All-optical Mode Mixer Spatial Switch Based on Cascading in Lithium Niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(26), 3405–3407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Shirane, M.

Shoji, I.

Smith, P. G. R.

K. Gallo, C. Codemard, C. B. E. Gawith, J. Nilsson, P. G. R. Smith, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Guided-wave second-harmonic generation in a LiNbO3 nonlinear photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1232–1234 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. E. Barry, G. W. Ross, P. G. R. Smith, R. W. Eason, and G. Cook, “Microstructuring of lithium niobate using differential etch-rate between inverted and non-inverted ferroelectric domains,” Mater. Lett. 37(4-5), 246–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

Y. Baek, R. Schiek, G. Stegeman, G. Assanto, and W. Sohler, “All-optical Mode Mixer Spatial Switch Based on Cascading in Lithium Niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(26), 3405–3407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sones, C. L.

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, “First order quasi-phase matched blue light generation in surface poled Ti-indiffused lithium niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(22), 4430–4432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.

Stegeman, G. I.

G. Assanto and G. I. Stegeman, “Simple physics of quadratic spatial solitons,” Opt. Express 10(9), 388–396 (2002).
[PubMed]

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. I. Stegeman, “Efficient Wavelength Shifting Over the Erbium Amplifier Bandwidth Via Cascaded Second Order Processes in Lithium Niobate Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(8), 1020–1022 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Coherent interactions for all-optical signal processing via quadratic nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(4), 673–681 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, E. Van Stryland, and G. Assanto, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in second-order nonlinear-optical processes,” Opt. Lett. 18(1), 13–15 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stivala, S.

A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, L. Curcio, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, I. Cristiani, and G. Assanto, “Soft proton exchanged channel waveguides in congruent lithium tantalate for frequency doubling,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25967–25972 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, A. C. Busacca, L. Curcio, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Integrated frequency shifter in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(25), 1686–1687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Stivala, A. C. Busacca, A. Pasquazi, R. L. Oliveri, R. Morandotti, and G. Assanto, “Random quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 363–365 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pasquazi, A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, R. Morandotti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinear Disorder Mapping Through Three-Wave Mixing,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(1), 18–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Parametric solitons in two-dimensional lattices of purely nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Busacca, E. D’Asaro, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Ultraviolet generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Su, K. W.

Y. F. Chen, K. W. Su, T. H. Lu, and K. F. Huang, “Manifestation of weak localization and long-range correlation in disordered wave functions from conical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(3), 033905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torelli, I.

Trillo, S.

C. Conti, S. Trillo, and G. Assanto, “Doubly resonant Bragg simultons via second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(12), 2341–2344 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, I. Torelli, and S. Trillo, “All-optical processing by means of vectorial interactions in second-order cascading: novel approaches,” Opt. Lett. 19(21), 1720–1722 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Stryland, E.

Van Stryland, E. W.

G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “All-optical Modulation via Nonlinear Cascading in Type II Second Harmonic Generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2120–2122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Coherent interactions for all-optical signal processing via quadratic nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(4), 673–681 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hagan, Z. Wang, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, and G. Assanto, “Phase-controlled transistor action by cascading of second-order nonlinearities in KTP,” Opt. Lett. 19(17), 1305–1307 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, and H. Vanherzeele, “Self-focusing and self-defocusing by cascaded second-order effects in KTP,” Opt. Lett. 17(1), 28–30 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanherzeele, H.

Wang, Z.

G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “All-optical Modulation via Nonlinear Cascading in Type II Second Harmonic Generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2120–2122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hagan, Z. Wang, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, and G. Assanto, “Phase-controlled transistor action by cascading of second-order nonlinearities in KTP,” Opt. Lett. 19(17), 1305–1307 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, K.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zotova, I. B.

X. Mu, I. B. Zotova, Y. J. Ding, and W. P. Risk, “Backward second-harmonic generation in submicron-period ion-exchanged KTP waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 153–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, “First order quasi-phase matched blue light generation in surface poled Ti-indiffused lithium niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(22), 4430–4432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “All-optical Modulation via Nonlinear Cascading in Type II Second Harmonic Generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2120–2122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Baek, R. Schiek, G. Stegeman, G. Assanto, and W. Sohler, “All-optical Mode Mixer Spatial Switch Based on Cascading in Lithium Niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(26), 3405–3407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. I. Stegeman, “Efficient Wavelength Shifting Over the Erbium Amplifier Bandwidth Via Cascaded Second Order Processes in Lithium Niobate Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(8), 1020–1022 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, E. D’Asaro, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Ultraviolet generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “All-optical diode in a periodically-poled Lithium Niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 314–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Fischer, S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, and Yu. S. Kivshar, “Broadband femtosecond frequency doubling in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Horowitz, A. Bekker, and B. Fischer, “Broadband second-harmonic generation in SrxBa1-xNb2O6 by spread spectrum phase matching with controllable domain gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(21), 2619–2621 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, A. C. Busacca, L. Curcio, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Integrated frequency shifter in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(25), 1686–1687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics

S. Kase and K. Ohi, “Optical absorption and interband Faraday rotation in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3,” Ferroelectrics 8(1), 419–420 (1974).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Coherent interactions for all-optical signal processing via quadratic nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(4), 673–681 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

A. Pasquazi, A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, R. Morandotti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinear Disorder Mapping Through Three-Wave Mixing,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(1), 18–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

F. Kalkum, H. A. Eggert, T. Jungk, and K. Buse, “A stochastic model for periodic domain structuring in ferroelectric crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 014104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. de Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(7), 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Mater. Lett.

I. E. Barry, G. W. Ross, P. G. R. Smith, R. W. Eason, and G. Cook, “Microstructuring of lithium niobate using differential etch-rate between inverted and non-inverted ferroelectric domains,” Mater. Lett. 37(4-5), 246–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

C. Canalias and V. Pasiskevicius, “Mirrorless optical parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 459–462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

X. Mu, I. B. Zotova, Y. J. Ding, and W. P. Risk, “Backward second-harmonic generation in submicron-period ion-exchanged KTP waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 153–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

G. Leo, A. Amoroso, L. Colace, G. Assanto, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, “Low-threshold spatial solitons in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1778–1780 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Gallo, C. Codemard, C. B. E. Gawith, J. Nilsson, P. G. R. Smith, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Guided-wave second-harmonic generation in a LiNbO3 nonlinear photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1232–1234 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Gallo and G. Assanto, “Spatial solitons in χ(2) planar photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3149–3151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Stivala, A. C. Busacca, A. Pasquazi, R. L. Oliveri, R. Morandotti, and G. Assanto, “Random quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 363–365 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Pelc, C. R. Phillips, D. Chang, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Efficiency pedestal in quasi-phase-matching devices with random duty-cycle errors,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 864–866 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, and H. Vanherzeele, “Self-focusing and self-defocusing by cascaded second-order effects in KTP,” Opt. Lett. 17(1), 28–30 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, E. Van Stryland, and G. Assanto, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in second-order nonlinear-optical processes,” Opt. Lett. 18(1), 13–15 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Hagan, Z. Wang, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, and G. Assanto, “Phase-controlled transistor action by cascading of second-order nonlinearities in KTP,” Opt. Lett. 19(17), 1305–1307 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Assanto, I. Torelli, and S. Trillo, “All-optical processing by means of vectorial interactions in second-order cascading: novel approaches,” Opt. Lett. 19(21), 1720–1722 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Assanto, “Transistor action through nonlinear cascading in Type II interactions,” Opt. Lett. 20(15), 1595–1597 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Meyn and M. M. Fejer, “Tunable ultraviolet radiation by second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate,” Opt. Lett. 22(16), 1214–1216 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gu, M. Makarov, Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, and W. P. Risk, “Backward second-harmonic and third-harmonic generation in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 24(3), 127–129 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Gallo, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and G. Assanto, “Cascading phase shift and multivalued response in counterpropagating frequency-nondegenerate parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 25(13), 966–968 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 653–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. Gallo, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Parametric solitons in two-dimensional lattices of purely nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, and G. Assanto, “Doubly resonant Bragg simultons via second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(12), 2341–2344 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, K. W. Su, T. H. Lu, and K. F. Huang, “Manifestation of weak localization and long-range correlation in disordered wave functions from conical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(3), 033905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microphotographs of an etched LT sample after periodic poling: (a) general view and (b) detail of the area by the edge of the poled region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Acquired far-field SH intensity patterns via rQPM in (a, b, c) bulk and (d, e, f) waveguide samples (the FF wavelength, measured by an optical spectrum analyzer, is indicated in the legends).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sketch of the momentum conservation for SHG via rQPM

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Histogram with the number of occurrences of values of ΛG between 3.0 and 5.5μm when the input FF propagates in the bulk. (b) Same as in (a) but with number of occurrences weighted by SH conversion efficiency along the direction corresponding to a given period.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Histograms with the number of occurrences of ΛG between 3.0 and 5.5μm in the slab waveguide. (b) Same as in (a) but with the number of occurrences is weighted with SH conversion efficiency along the direction corresponding to a given period.

Equations (1)

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k 2ω cosφ2 k ω k G 1 ( k 2ω k G sinφ ) 2 = 4π λ FF n 2 cosφ 4π λ FF n 1 2π Λ G 1 ( 2 Λ G λ FF n 2 sinφ ) 2 =0

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