Abstract

We have investigated the photonic modes at the surface of three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated using a top-down approach involving two-step etching at angles of ±45°. Numerical simulations revealed the properties of these surface modes, including their polarization characteristics and dependence on the surface structure. The formation of surface modes was experimentally demonstrated using an evanescent-coupling method and agreed well with the simulations.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289(5479), 604–606 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305(5681), 227–229 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Lodahl, A. Floris Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430(7000), 654–657 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. A. Rinne, F. García-Santamaría, and P. V. Braun, “Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 52–56 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 721–725 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Kawashima, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Light propagation in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 18(1), 386–392 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Ishizaki and S. Noda, “Manipulation of photons at the surface of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nature 460(7253), 367–370 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(19), 10961–10964 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Chutinan and S. Noda, “Waveguides and waveguide bends in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 62(7), 4488–4492 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Takahashi, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals based on double-angled etching and wafer-fusion techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Tachi, K. Tsujimoto, and S. Okudaira, “Low-temperature reactive ion etching and microwave plasma etching of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(8), 616–618 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2010

2009

K. Ishizaki and S. Noda, “Manipulation of photons at the surface of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nature 460(7253), 367–370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 721–725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. A. Rinne, F. García-Santamaría, and P. V. Braun, “Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 52–56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Takahashi, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals based on double-angled etching and wafer-fusion techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305(5681), 227–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lodahl, A. Floris Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430(7000), 654–657 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289(5479), 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, “Waveguides and waveguide bends in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 62(7), 4488–4492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(19), 10961–10964 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

S. Tachi, K. Tsujimoto, and S. Okudaira, “Low-temperature reactive ion etching and microwave plasma etching of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(8), 616–618 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, K.

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Braun, P. V.

S. A. Rinne, F. García-Santamaría, and P. V. Braun, “Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 52–56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brommer, K. D.

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(19), 10961–10964 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, “Waveguides and waveguide bends in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 62(7), 4488–4492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289(5479), 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Floris Van Driel, A.

P. Lodahl, A. Floris Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430(7000), 654–657 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Santamaría, F.

S. A. Rinne, F. García-Santamaría, and P. V. Braun, “Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 52–56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guimard, D.

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Imada, M.

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 721–725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Takahashi, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals based on double-angled etching and wafer-fusion techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305(5681), 227–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irman, A.

P. Lodahl, A. Floris Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430(7000), 654–657 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishizaki, K.

S. Kawashima, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Light propagation in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 18(1), 386–392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ishizaki and S. Noda, “Manipulation of photons at the surface of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nature 460(7253), 367–370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 721–725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwamoto, S.

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(19), 10961–10964 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawashima, S.

S. Kawashima, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Light propagation in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 18(1), 386–392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. H.

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lidorikis, E.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lodahl, P.

P. Lodahl, A. Floris Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430(7000), 654–657 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meade, R. D.

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(19), 10961–10964 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamori, T.

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 721–725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikolaev, I. S.

P. Lodahl, A. Floris Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430(7000), 654–657 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, M.

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

S. Kawashima, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Light propagation in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 18(1), 386–392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ishizaki and S. Noda, “Manipulation of photons at the surface of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nature 460(7253), 367–370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 721–725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Takahashi, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals based on double-angled etching and wafer-fusion techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305(5681), 227–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289(5479), 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, “Waveguides and waveguide bends in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 62(7), 4488–4492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, M.

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, S.

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305(5681), 227–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okano, M.

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 721–725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Takahashi, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals based on double-angled etching and wafer-fusion techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305(5681), 227–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okudaira, S.

S. Tachi, K. Tsujimoto, and S. Okudaira, “Low-temperature reactive ion etching and microwave plasma etching of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(8), 616–618 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ota, Y.

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 721–725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Overgaag, K.

P. Lodahl, A. Floris Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430(7000), 654–657 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, M.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakich, P. T.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rappe, A. M.

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(19), 10961–10964 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinne, S. A.

S. A. Rinne, F. García-Santamaría, and P. V. Braun, “Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 52–56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, K.

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 721–725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tachi, S.

S. Tachi, K. Tsujimoto, and S. Okudaira, “Low-temperature reactive ion etching and microwave plasma etching of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(8), 616–618 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 721–725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Takahashi, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals based on double-angled etching and wafer-fusion techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tomoda, K.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289(5479), 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsujimoto, K.

S. Tachi, K. Tsujimoto, and S. Okudaira, “Low-temperature reactive ion etching and microwave plasma etching of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(8), 616–618 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

P. Lodahl, A. Floris Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430(7000), 654–657 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vos, W. L.

P. Lodahl, A. Floris Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430(7000), 654–657 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, N.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289(5479), 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshimoto, S.

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305(5681), 227–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Takahashi, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals based on double-angled etching and wafer-fusion techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Tachi, K. Tsujimoto, and S. Okudaira, “Low-temperature reactive ion etching and microwave plasma etching of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(8), 616–618 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 721–725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

S. A. Rinne, F. García-Santamaría, and P. V. Braun, “Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 52–56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

P. Lodahl, A. Floris Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430(7000), 654–657 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ishizaki and S. Noda, “Manipulation of photons at the surface of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nature 460(7253), 367–370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, “Waveguides and waveguide bends in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 62(7), 4488–4492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(19), 10961–10964 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289(5479), 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic picture of a 3D PC constructed using the double-angled etching technique. The surface structure is shown in (b) real and (c) reciprocal space.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FDTD simulation results. (a) Band diagram of the 3D PC with infinite periodicity in all directions. Optical modes exist only within the gray regions. (b) Band diagram of the 3D PC with finite periodicity in the z-direction. The surface modes are denoted by red lines. (c) Distribution of the electric field amplitude at the blue point in (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of surface modes on the surface structure. Schematic pictures of PCs are shown with surface phases of (a) 0, (b) 1/4, (c) 2/4, and (d) 3/4. Corresponding surface band diagrams are shown for surface phases of (e) 0, (f) 1/4, (g) 2/4, and (h) 3/4. Red lines denote the surface modes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evanescent-coupling measurement. (a) Measurement setup. (b) Top-view SEM image of the 3D PC structure with surface phase zero. (c), (d) Reflection spectra for incident light with P- and S-polarizations, respectively, at different angles of incidence. The blue lines indicate the wavelengths of the spectral minima.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured surface band diagrams for 3D PCs with surface phases of (a) 0, (b) 1/4, (c) 2/4, and (d) 3/4. Reflectance is represented by color coding.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Coupling to incident light of different polarizations for the structure with surface phase 1/4. Measured (a) and simulated (b) surface band diagrams are shown, where modes corresponding to P- and S-polarized light are red and green, respectively. (c) Schematic picture of the 3D PC showing cross-sections parallel and perpendicular to the Γ−K direction. Electric field distributions are presented for the high-frequency (d, e) and low-frequency (f, g) modes in the parallel and perpendicular planes. The electric field amplitude is represented by color coding. The arrows show electric field vectors parallel to the images.

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