Abstract

Vertically aligned InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode (LED) arrays were created from planar LED structures using a new top-down fabrication technique consisting of a plasma etch followed by an anisotropic wet etch. The wet etch results in straight, smooth, well-faceted nanorods with controllable diameters and removes the plasma etch damage. 94% of the nanorod LEDs are dislocation-free and a reduced quantum confined Stark effect is observed due to reduced piezoelectric fields. Despite these advantages, the IQE of the nanorod LEDs measured by photoluminescence is comparable to the planar LED, perhaps due to inefficient thermal transport and enhanced nonradiative surface recombination.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Q. M. Li and G. T. Wang, “Strain influenced indium composition distribution in GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181107 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. W. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. Y. Chen, H. M. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10549–10556 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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  11. G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. H. W. Choi, S. J. Chua, A. Raman, J. S. Pan, and A. T. S. Wee, “Plasma-induced damage to n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1795–1797 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. K. Byeun, K. S. Han, and S. C. Choi, “Influence on the growth temperature for one-dimesional GaN nanostructures by halide vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Ceram. Process. Res. 6(3), 197–200 (2005).
  23. S. J. Chua, H. W. Choi, J. Zhang, and P. Li, “Vacancy effects on plasma-induced damage to n-type GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 64(20), 205302 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. W. Li, A. H. Chin, and M. K. Sunkara, “Direction-dependent homoepitaxial growth of GaN nanowires,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(2), 216–220 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. A. Talin, F. Léonard, B. S. Swartzentruber, X. Wang, and S. D. Hersee, “Unusually strong space-charge-limited current in thin wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(7), 076802 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. Armstrong, Q. Li, Y. Lin, A. A. Talin, and G. T. Wang, “GaN nanowire surface state observed using deep level optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  29. L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. M. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. M. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

A. Armstrong, Q. Li, Y. Lin, A. A. Talin, and G. T. Wang, “GaN nanowire surface state observed using deep level optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. Y. Chen, H. M. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, L. C. Chang, C. W. Kuo, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diode prepared on GaN nanorod template,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 257–259 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. M. Li and G. T. Wang, “Strain influenced indium composition distribution in GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Upadhya, Q. M. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J. Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Q. Li, J. J. Figiel, and G. T. Wang, “Dislocation density reduction in GaN by dislocation filtering through a self-assembled monolayer of silica microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Miller, M. H. Crawford, A. A. Allerman, K. C. Cross, M. A. Banas, R. J. Shul, J. Stevens, and K. H. A. Bogart, “Smooth and vertical facet formation for AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38(4), 533–537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10549–10556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Talin, F. Léonard, B. S. Swartzentruber, X. Wang, and S. D. Hersee, “Unusually strong space-charge-limited current in thin wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(7), 076802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Talin, G. T. Wang, E. Lai, and R. J. Anderson, “Correlation of growth temperature, photoluminescence, and resistivity in GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbet, R. Aubry, M. A. di Forte-Poisson, J. C. Jacquet, D. Deresmes, T. Melin, and D. Theron, “Surface potential of n- and p-type GaN measured by Kelvin force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 212107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kishino, A. Kikuchi, H. Sekiguchi, and S. Ishizawa, “InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LEDs emitting from blue to red,” Proc. SPIE 6473, 64730T (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Hersee, X. Y. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Li, A. H. Chin, and M. K. Sunkara, “Direction-dependent homoepitaxial growth of GaN nanowires,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(2), 216–220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

Y. K. Byeun, K. S. Han, and S. C. Choi, “Influence on the growth temperature for one-dimesional GaN nanostructures by halide vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Ceram. Process. Res. 6(3), 197–200 (2005).

D. Zhuang and J. H. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AIN, and SiC: a review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 48(1), 1–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Wang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, M. S. Sander, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “High optical quality GaN nanopillar arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071917 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. J. Chua, H. W. Choi, J. Zhang, and P. Li, “Vacancy effects on plasma-induced damage to n-type GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 64(20), 205302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. W. Choi, S. J. Chua, A. Raman, J. S. Pan, and A. T. S. Wee, “Plasma-induced damage to n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1795–1797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, and J. M. Redwing, “Crystallographic wet chemical etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ager, J. W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Allerman, A. A.

M. A. Miller, M. H. Crawford, A. A. Allerman, K. C. Cross, M. A. Banas, R. J. Shul, J. Stevens, and K. H. A. Bogart, “Smooth and vertical facet formation for AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38(4), 533–537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aloni, S.

T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. J.

A. A. Talin, G. T. Wang, E. Lai, and R. J. Anderson, “Correlation of growth temperature, photoluminescence, and resistivity in GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, A.

A. Armstrong, Q. Li, Y. Lin, A. A. Talin, and G. T. Wang, “GaN nanowire surface state observed using deep level optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arslan, I.

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aubry, R.

S. Barbet, R. Aubry, M. A. di Forte-Poisson, J. C. Jacquet, D. Deresmes, T. Melin, and D. Theron, “Surface potential of n- and p-type GaN measured by Kelvin force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 212107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baird, L.

L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. M. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Banas, M. A.

M. A. Miller, M. H. Crawford, A. A. Allerman, K. C. Cross, M. A. Banas, R. J. Shul, J. Stevens, and K. H. A. Bogart, “Smooth and vertical facet formation for AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38(4), 533–537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barbet, S.

S. Barbet, R. Aubry, M. A. di Forte-Poisson, J. C. Jacquet, D. Deresmes, T. Melin, and D. Theron, “Surface potential of n- and p-type GaN measured by Kelvin force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 212107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bogart, K. H. A.

M. A. Miller, M. H. Crawford, A. A. Allerman, K. C. Cross, M. A. Banas, R. J. Shul, J. Stevens, and K. H. A. Bogart, “Smooth and vertical facet formation for AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38(4), 533–537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Botton, G. A.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byeun, Y. K.

Y. K. Byeun, K. S. Han, and S. C. Choi, “Influence on the growth temperature for one-dimesional GaN nanostructures by halide vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Ceram. Process. Res. 6(3), 197–200 (2005).

Chang, L. C.

C. H. Kuo, L. C. Chang, C. W. Kuo, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diode prepared on GaN nanorod template,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 257–259 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. P.

Chen, H. Y.

H. W. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. Y. Chen, H. M. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. Y.

Chen, P.

Y. D. Wang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, M. S. Sander, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “High optical quality GaN nanopillar arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071917 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. W.

Chi, G. C.

C. H. Kuo, L. C. Chang, C. W. Kuo, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diode prepared on GaN nanorod template,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 257–259 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chin, A. H.

H. W. Li, A. H. Chin, and M. K. Sunkara, “Direction-dependent homoepitaxial growth of GaN nanowires,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(2), 216–220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.-H.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. W.

S. J. Chua, H. W. Choi, J. Zhang, and P. Li, “Vacancy effects on plasma-induced damage to n-type GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 64(20), 205302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, S. J. Chua, A. Raman, J. S. Pan, and A. T. S. Wee, “Plasma-induced damage to n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1795–1797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. C.

Y. K. Byeun, K. S. Han, and S. C. Choi, “Influence on the growth temperature for one-dimesional GaN nanostructures by halide vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Ceram. Process. Res. 6(3), 197–200 (2005).

Chu, J. T.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S. J.

Y. D. Wang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, M. S. Sander, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “High optical quality GaN nanopillar arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071917 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chua, H. W. Choi, J. Zhang, and P. Li, “Vacancy effects on plasma-induced damage to n-type GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 64(20), 205302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, S. J. Chua, A. Raman, J. S. Pan, and A. T. S. Wee, “Plasma-induced damage to n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1795–1797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chung, K. S.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cole, R. A.

L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. M. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Couillard, M.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, M. H.

M. A. Miller, M. H. Crawford, A. A. Allerman, K. C. Cross, M. A. Banas, R. J. Shul, J. Stevens, and K. H. A. Bogart, “Smooth and vertical facet formation for AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38(4), 533–537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Creighton, J. R.

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cross, K. C.

M. A. Miller, M. H. Crawford, A. A. Allerman, K. C. Cross, M. A. Banas, R. J. Shul, J. Stevens, and K. H. A. Bogart, “Smooth and vertical facet formation for AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38(4), 533–537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cui, K.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deresmes, D.

S. Barbet, R. Aubry, M. A. di Forte-Poisson, J. C. Jacquet, D. Deresmes, T. Melin, and D. Theron, “Surface potential of n- and p-type GaN measured by Kelvin force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 212107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

di Forte-Poisson, M. A.

S. Barbet, R. Aubry, M. A. di Forte-Poisson, J. C. Jacquet, D. Deresmes, T. Melin, and D. Theron, “Surface potential of n- and p-type GaN measured by Kelvin force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 212107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Edgar, J. H.

D. Zhuang and J. H. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AIN, and SiC: a review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 48(1), 1–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fathololoumi, S.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figiel, J. J.

Q. Li, J. J. Figiel, and G. T. Wang, “Dislocation density reduction in GaN by dislocation filtering through a self-assembled monolayer of silica microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

P. C. Upadhya, Q. M. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J. Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fonstad, C. G.

Y. D. Wang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, M. S. Sander, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “High optical quality GaN nanopillar arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071917 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garnett, E.

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gwo, S.

H. W. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. Y. Chen, H. M. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haegel, N. M.

L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. M. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haller, E. E.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Han, K. S.

Y. K. Byeun, K. S. Han, and S. C. Choi, “Influence on the growth temperature for one-dimesional GaN nanostructures by halide vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Ceram. Process. Res. 6(3), 197–200 (2005).

Han, X.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hersee, S. D.

A. A. Talin, F. Léonard, B. S. Swartzentruber, X. Wang, and S. D. Hersee, “Unusually strong space-charge-limited current in thin wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(7), 076802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Hersee, X. Y. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, M. Y.

Hsueh, T. H.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

Ishizawa, S.

K. Kishino, A. Kikuchi, H. Sekiguchi, and S. Ishizawa, “InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LEDs emitting from blue to red,” Proc. SPIE 6473, 64730T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacquet, J. C.

S. Barbet, R. Aubry, M. A. di Forte-Poisson, J. C. Jacquet, D. Deresmes, T. Melin, and D. Theron, “Surface potential of n- and p-type GaN measured by Kelvin force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 212107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, T. W.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ke, M. Y.

Kikuchi, A.

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Kishino, A. Kikuchi, H. Sekiguchi, and S. Ishizawa, “InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LEDs emitting from blue to red,” Proc. SPIE 6473, 64730T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-M.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. I.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, K.

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Kishino, A. Kikuchi, H. Sekiguchi, and S. Ishizawa, “InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LEDs emitting from blue to red,” Proc. SPIE 6473, 64730T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. H.

C. H. Kuo, L. C. Chang, C. W. Kuo, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diode prepared on GaN nanorod template,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 257–259 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. W.

C. H. Kuo, L. C. Chang, C. W. Kuo, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diode prepared on GaN nanorod template,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 257–259 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuykendall, T.

T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, C. F.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lai, E.

A. A. Talin, G. T. Wang, E. Lai, and R. J. Anderson, “Correlation of growth temperature, photoluminescence, and resistivity in GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. M.

H. W. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. Y. Chen, H. M. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Léonard, F.

A. A. Talin, F. Léonard, B. S. Swartzentruber, X. Wang, and S. D. Hersee, “Unusually strong space-charge-limited current in thin wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(7), 076802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H. W.

H. W. Li, A. H. Chin, and M. K. Sunkara, “Direction-dependent homoepitaxial growth of GaN nanowires,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(2), 216–220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

S. J. Chua, H. W. Choi, J. Zhang, and P. Li, “Vacancy effects on plasma-induced damage to n-type GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 64(20), 205302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

A. Armstrong, Q. Li, Y. Lin, A. A. Talin, and G. T. Wang, “GaN nanowire surface state observed using deep level optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, J. J. Figiel, and G. T. Wang, “Dislocation density reduction in GaN by dislocation filtering through a self-assembled monolayer of silica microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q. M.

L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. M. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. M. Li and G. T. Wang, “Strain influenced indium composition distribution in GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Upadhya, Q. M. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J. Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. W.

H. W. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. Y. Chen, H. M. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

A. Armstrong, Q. Li, Y. Lin, A. A. Talin, and G. T. Wang, “GaN nanowire surface state observed using deep level optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. J.

H. W. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. Y. Chen, H. M. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Melin, T.

S. Barbet, R. Aubry, M. A. di Forte-Poisson, J. C. Jacquet, D. Deresmes, T. Melin, and D. Theron, “Surface potential of n- and p-type GaN measured by Kelvin force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 212107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mi, Z.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, M. A.

M. A. Miller, M. H. Crawford, A. A. Allerman, K. C. Cross, M. A. Banas, R. J. Shul, J. Stevens, and K. H. A. Bogart, “Smooth and vertical facet formation for AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38(4), 533–537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. P. T.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ong, C. P.

L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. M. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J. S.

H. W. Choi, S. J. Chua, A. Raman, J. S. Pan, and A. T. S. Wee, “Plasma-induced damage to n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1795–1797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. H.

Prasankumar, R. P.

P. C. Upadhya, Q. M. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J. Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raman, A.

H. W. Choi, S. J. Chua, A. Raman, J. S. Pan, and A. T. S. Wee, “Plasma-induced damage to n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1795–1797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Redwing, J. M.

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, and J. M. Redwing, “Crystallographic wet chemical etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, S. R.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sander, M. S.

Y. D. Wang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, M. S. Sander, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “High optical quality GaN nanopillar arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071917 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, and J. M. Redwing, “Crystallographic wet chemical etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sekiguchi, H.

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Kishino, A. Kikuchi, H. Sekiguchi, and S. Ishizawa, “InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LEDs emitting from blue to red,” Proc. SPIE 6473, 64730T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shul, R. J.

M. A. Miller, M. H. Crawford, A. A. Allerman, K. C. Cross, M. A. Banas, R. J. Shul, J. Stevens, and K. H. A. Bogart, “Smooth and vertical facet formation for AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38(4), 533–537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, J.

M. A. Miller, M. H. Crawford, A. A. Allerman, K. C. Cross, M. A. Banas, R. J. Shul, J. Stevens, and K. H. A. Bogart, “Smooth and vertical facet formation for AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38(4), 533–537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stocker, D. A.

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, and J. M. Redwing, “Crystallographic wet chemical etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. Y.

S. D. Hersee, X. Y. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sunkara, M. K.

H. W. Li, A. H. Chin, and M. K. Sunkara, “Direction-dependent homoepitaxial growth of GaN nanowires,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(2), 216–220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Swartzentruber, B. S.

A. A. Talin, F. Léonard, B. S. Swartzentruber, X. Wang, and S. D. Hersee, “Unusually strong space-charge-limited current in thin wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(7), 076802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talin, A. A.

L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. M. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Armstrong, Q. Li, Y. Lin, A. A. Talin, and G. T. Wang, “GaN nanowire surface state observed using deep level optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Talin, F. Léonard, B. S. Swartzentruber, X. Wang, and S. D. Hersee, “Unusually strong space-charge-limited current in thin wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(7), 076802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Talin, G. T. Wang, E. Lai, and R. J. Anderson, “Correlation of growth temperature, photoluminescence, and resistivity in GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

P. C. Upadhya, Q. M. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J. Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Theron, D.

S. Barbet, R. Aubry, M. A. di Forte-Poisson, J. C. Jacquet, D. Deresmes, T. Melin, and D. Theron, “Surface potential of n- and p-type GaN measured by Kelvin force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 212107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S.

Y. D. Wang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, M. S. Sander, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “High optical quality GaN nanopillar arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071917 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, P.

T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Upadhya, P. C.

P. C. Upadhya, Q. M. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J. Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walukiewicz, W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Y.

Wang, G. T.

L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. M. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Armstrong, Q. Li, Y. Lin, A. A. Talin, and G. T. Wang, “GaN nanowire surface state observed using deep level optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. M. Li and G. T. Wang, “Strain influenced indium composition distribution in GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Upadhya, Q. M. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J. Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, J. J. Figiel, and G. T. Wang, “Dislocation density reduction in GaN by dislocation filtering through a self-assembled monolayer of silica microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Talin, G. T. Wang, E. Lai, and R. J. Anderson, “Correlation of growth temperature, photoluminescence, and resistivity in GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

A. A. Talin, F. Léonard, B. S. Swartzentruber, X. Wang, and S. D. Hersee, “Unusually strong space-charge-limited current in thin wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(7), 076802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Hersee, X. Y. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. D.

Y. D. Wang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, M. S. Sander, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “High optical quality GaN nanopillar arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071917 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wee, A. T. S.

H. W. Choi, S. J. Chua, A. Raman, J. S. Pan, and A. T. S. Wee, “Plasma-induced damage to n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1795–1797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Werder, D. J.

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H. M.

Wu, J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C. C.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K. M.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

S. J. Chua, H. W. Choi, J. Zhang, and P. Li, “Vacancy effects on plasma-induced damage to n-type GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 64(20), 205302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, D.

D. Zhuang and J. H. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AIN, and SiC: a review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 48(1), 1–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

H. W. Li, A. H. Chin, and M. K. Sunkara, “Direction-dependent homoepitaxial growth of GaN nanowires,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(2), 216–220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1-xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbet, R. Aubry, M. A. di Forte-Poisson, J. C. Jacquet, D. Deresmes, T. Melin, and D. Theron, “Surface potential of n- and p-type GaN measured by Kelvin force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 212107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, S. J. Chua, A. Raman, J. S. Pan, and A. T. S. Wee, “Plasma-induced damage to n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1795–1797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Armstrong, Q. Li, Y. Lin, A. A. Talin, and G. T. Wang, “GaN nanowire surface state observed using deep level optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. M. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. M. Li and G. T. Wang, “Strain influenced indium composition distribution in GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. Y. Chen, H. M. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Talin, G. T. Wang, E. Lai, and R. J. Anderson, “Correlation of growth temperature, photoluminescence, and resistivity in GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, J. J. Figiel, and G. T. Wang, “Dislocation density reduction in GaN by dislocation filtering through a self-assembled monolayer of silica microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Wang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, M. S. Sander, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “High optical quality GaN nanopillar arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071917 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, and J. M. Redwing, “Crystallographic wet chemical etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. H. Kuo, L. C. Chang, C. W. Kuo, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diode prepared on GaN nanorod template,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 257–259 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ceram. Process. Res. (1)

Y. K. Byeun, K. S. Han, and S. C. Choi, “Influence on the growth temperature for one-dimesional GaN nanostructures by halide vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Ceram. Process. Res. 6(3), 197–200 (2005).

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

M. A. Miller, M. H. Crawford, A. A. Allerman, K. C. Cross, M. A. Banas, R. J. Shul, J. Stevens, and K. H. A. Bogart, “Smooth and vertical facet formation for AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38(4), 533–537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. (1)

D. Zhuang and J. H. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AIN, and SiC: a review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 48(1), 1–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (4)

S. D. Hersee, X. Y. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (2)

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. J. Chua, H. W. Choi, J. Zhang, and P. Li, “Vacancy effects on plasma-induced damage to n-type GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 64(20), 205302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. A. Talin, F. Léonard, B. S. Swartzentruber, X. Wang, and S. D. Hersee, “Unusually strong space-charge-limited current in thin wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(7), 076802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Kishino, A. Kikuchi, H. Sekiguchi, and S. Ishizawa, “InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LEDs emitting from blue to red,” Proc. SPIE 6473, 64730T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

P. C. Upadhya, Q. M. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J. Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of (a) a planar LED wafer covered with a monolayer of self-assembled silica spheres, (b) tapered nanorod LEDs created by plasma etch, and (c) “flashlight” shaped nanorod LEDs array following wet etch. (d) A STEM image of nanorod “flashlight” LEDs showing the position of the InGaN MQWs (bright stripes).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PL spectra of GaN thin film (solid black) and GaN nanorods after plasma etch (dashed-dotted red) and subsequent wet etch (dotted blue).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TEM images of etched nanorod LED structures. A dislocation is indicated by the arrow in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MQW PL of (a) nanorod LEDs and (b) planar LED. (c) MQW PL peak position plotted as a function of pump power for planar LEDs and nanorod LEDs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The IQE of the planar and nanorod LEDs plotted as a function of the optical pumping power.

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