Abstract

Under 980 nm excitation, multiple ultraviolet and visible upconversion luminescence from Ho3+ and Eu3+ ions were observed in Yb3+/Ho3+/Eu3+ tri-doped NaYF4 microcrystals (MCs). The high-energy states (5H3-7, 5L6, 5D3 and 5D2) of Eu3+ ions could be efficiently populated by two-step energy transfer (ET) processes of Yb Ho Eu. Four-, three-, two-photon UC processes of Eu3+ ions were confirmed by the dependence of 5H3-7, 5L6 and 5D0 levels emission intensities on the pumping power.

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  1. F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139–174 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Z. Zheng, D. Zhao, D. S. Zhang, N. Liu, and W. P. Qin, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence of Er3+ induced by 1560 nm laser excitation,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2442–2444 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. P. Qin, D. S. Zhang, D. Zhao, L. L. Wang, and K. Z. Zheng, “Near-infrared photocatalysis based on YF3 : Yb3+,Tm3+/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(13), 2304–2306 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Z. Zheng, L. L. Wang, D. S. Zhang, D. Zhao, and W. P. Qin, “Power switched multiphoton upconversion emissions of Er3+ in Yb3+/Er3+ codoped beta-NaYF4 microcrystals induced by 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2934–2939 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. L. Wang, X. J. Xue, F. Shi, D. Zhao, D. S. Zhang, K. Z. Zheng, G. F. Wang, C. F. He, R. Kim, and W. P. Qin, “Ultraviolet and violet upconversion fluorescence of europium (III) doped in YF(3) nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2781–2783 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Y. Chen, C. H. Yang, B. Aghahadi, H. J. Liang, Y. Liu, L. Li, and Z. G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet-blue upconversion emissions of Ho3+ ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(6), 1158–1164 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Mahalingam, R. Naccache, F. Vetrone, and J. A. Capobianco, “Sensitized Ce(3+) and Gd(3+) ultraviolet emissions by Tm(3+) in colloidal LiYF(4) nanocrystals,” Chemistry 15(38), 9660–9663 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Liu, H. Wang, X. Li, and D. Chen, “Monodisperse, size-tunable and highly efficient beta-NaYF4:Yb,Er(Tm) up-conversion luminescent nanospheres: controllable synthesis and their surface modifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(21), 3546–3553 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, G. Somesfalean, H. J. Liang, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission tuning from green to red in Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals by tridoping with Ce3+ ions,” Nanotechnology 20(38), 385704 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. G. DeShazer and G. H. Dieke, “Spectra and Energy Levels of Eu3+ in LaCl3,” J. Chem. Phys. 38(9), 2190–2199 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Auzel, “Multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes fluorescence of triply ionized rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. B 13(7), 2809–2817 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Yttrium Orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 54–64 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. Weber, “Radiative and Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171(2), 283–291 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. W. Moos, “Spectroscopic relaxation processes of rare earth ions in crystals,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 106–121 (1970).
    [CrossRef]

2010

2009

L. L. Wang, X. J. Xue, F. Shi, D. Zhao, D. S. Zhang, K. Z. Zheng, G. F. Wang, C. F. He, R. Kim, and W. P. Qin, “Ultraviolet and violet upconversion fluorescence of europium (III) doped in YF(3) nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2781–2783 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Mahalingam, R. Naccache, F. Vetrone, and J. A. Capobianco, “Sensitized Ce(3+) and Gd(3+) ultraviolet emissions by Tm(3+) in colloidal LiYF(4) nanocrystals,” Chemistry 15(38), 9660–9663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liu, H. Wang, X. Li, and D. Chen, “Monodisperse, size-tunable and highly efficient beta-NaYF4:Yb,Er(Tm) up-conversion luminescent nanospheres: controllable synthesis and their surface modifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(21), 3546–3553 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, G. Somesfalean, H. J. Liang, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission tuning from green to red in Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals by tridoping with Ce3+ ions,” Nanotechnology 20(38), 385704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1976

F. Auzel, “Multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes fluorescence of triply ionized rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. B 13(7), 2809–2817 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973

M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Yttrium Orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 54–64 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970

H. W. Moos, “Spectroscopic relaxation processes of rare earth ions in crystals,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 106–121 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968

M. J. Weber, “Radiative and Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171(2), 283–291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1963

L. G. DeShazer and G. H. Dieke, “Spectra and Energy Levels of Eu3+ in LaCl3,” J. Chem. Phys. 38(9), 2190–2199 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Aghahadi, B.

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Auzel, “Multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes fluorescence of triply ionized rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. B 13(7), 2809–2817 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, J.-C.

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capobianco, J. A.

V. Mahalingam, R. Naccache, F. Vetrone, and J. A. Capobianco, “Sensitized Ce(3+) and Gd(3+) ultraviolet emissions by Tm(3+) in colloidal LiYF(4) nanocrystals,” Chemistry 15(38), 9660–9663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

C. Liu, H. Wang, X. Li, and D. Chen, “Monodisperse, size-tunable and highly efficient beta-NaYF4:Yb,Er(Tm) up-conversion luminescent nanospheres: controllable synthesis and their surface modifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(21), 3546–3553 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. Y.

G. Y. Chen, C. H. Yang, B. Aghahadi, H. J. Liang, Y. Liu, L. Li, and Z. G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet-blue upconversion emissions of Ho3+ ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(6), 1158–1164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, G. Somesfalean, H. J. Liang, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission tuning from green to red in Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals by tridoping with Ce3+ ions,” Nanotechnology 20(38), 385704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuccia, L. A.

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeShazer, L. G.

L. G. DeShazer and G. H. Dieke, “Spectra and Energy Levels of Eu3+ in LaCl3,” J. Chem. Phys. 38(9), 2190–2199 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Dieke, G. H.

L. G. DeShazer and G. H. Dieke, “Spectra and Energy Levels of Eu3+ in LaCl3,” J. Chem. Phys. 38(9), 2190–2199 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Gamelin, D. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gudel, H. U.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

He, C. F.

Hehlen, M. P.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, R.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Wang, X. J. Xue, F. Shi, D. Zhao, D. S. Zhang, K. Z. Zheng, G. F. Wang, C. F. He, R. Kim, and W. P. Qin, “Ultraviolet and violet upconversion fluorescence of europium (III) doped in YF(3) nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2781–2783 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Li, X.

C. Liu, H. Wang, X. Li, and D. Chen, “Monodisperse, size-tunable and highly efficient beta-NaYF4:Yb,Er(Tm) up-conversion luminescent nanospheres: controllable synthesis and their surface modifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(21), 3546–3553 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H. J.

G. Y. Chen, C. H. Yang, B. Aghahadi, H. J. Liang, Y. Liu, L. Li, and Z. G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet-blue upconversion emissions of Ho3+ ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(6), 1158–1164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, G. Somesfalean, H. J. Liang, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission tuning from green to red in Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals by tridoping with Ce3+ ions,” Nanotechnology 20(38), 385704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, H. Wang, X. Li, and D. Chen, “Monodisperse, size-tunable and highly efficient beta-NaYF4:Yb,Er(Tm) up-conversion luminescent nanospheres: controllable synthesis and their surface modifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(21), 3546–3553 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, G. Somesfalean, H. J. Liang, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission tuning from green to red in Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals by tridoping with Ce3+ ions,” Nanotechnology 20(38), 385704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

Liu, Y.

Luthi, S. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mahalingam, V.

V. Mahalingam, R. Naccache, F. Vetrone, and J. A. Capobianco, “Sensitized Ce(3+) and Gd(3+) ultraviolet emissions by Tm(3+) in colloidal LiYF(4) nanocrystals,” Chemistry 15(38), 9660–9663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moos, H. W.

H. W. Moos, “Spectroscopic relaxation processes of rare earth ions in crystals,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 106–121 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Naccache, R.

V. Mahalingam, R. Naccache, F. Vetrone, and J. A. Capobianco, “Sensitized Ce(3+) and Gd(3+) ultraviolet emissions by Tm(3+) in colloidal LiYF(4) nanocrystals,” Chemistry 15(38), 9660–9663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Qin, W.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qin, W. P.

Shi, F.

Somesfalean, G.

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, G. Somesfalean, H. J. Liang, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission tuning from green to red in Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals by tridoping with Ce3+ ions,” Nanotechnology 20(38), 385704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vetrone, F.

V. Mahalingam, R. Naccache, F. Vetrone, and J. A. Capobianco, “Sensitized Ce(3+) and Gd(3+) ultraviolet emissions by Tm(3+) in colloidal LiYF(4) nanocrystals,” Chemistry 15(38), 9660–9663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. F.

Wang, H.

C. Liu, H. Wang, X. Li, and D. Chen, “Monodisperse, size-tunable and highly efficient beta-NaYF4:Yb,Er(Tm) up-conversion luminescent nanospheres: controllable synthesis and their surface modifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(21), 3546–3553 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. L.

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Yttrium Orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 54–64 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Radiative and Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171(2), 283–291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wei, G.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xue, X. J.

Yang, C. H.

Zhang, D. S.

Zhang, J.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. G.

G. Y. Chen, C. H. Yang, B. Aghahadi, H. J. Liang, Y. Liu, L. Li, and Z. G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet-blue upconversion emissions of Ho3+ ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(6), 1158–1164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, G. Somesfalean, H. J. Liang, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission tuning from green to red in Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals by tridoping with Ce3+ ions,” Nanotechnology 20(38), 385704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, D.

Zheng, K. Z.

Zhu, P.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.)

W. P. Qin, D. S. Zhang, D. Zhao, L. L. Wang, and K. Z. Zheng, “Near-infrared photocatalysis based on YF3 : Yb3+,Tm3+/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(13), 2304–2306 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev.

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemistry

V. Mahalingam, R. Naccache, F. Vetrone, and J. A. Capobianco, “Sensitized Ce(3+) and Gd(3+) ultraviolet emissions by Tm(3+) in colloidal LiYF(4) nanocrystals,” Chemistry 15(38), 9660–9663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Alloy. Comp.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys.

L. G. DeShazer and G. H. Dieke, “Spectra and Energy Levels of Eu3+ in LaCl3,” J. Chem. Phys. 38(9), 2190–2199 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

H. W. Moos, “Spectroscopic relaxation processes of rare earth ions in crystals,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 106–121 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

C. Liu, H. Wang, X. Li, and D. Chen, “Monodisperse, size-tunable and highly efficient beta-NaYF4:Yb,Er(Tm) up-conversion luminescent nanospheres: controllable synthesis and their surface modifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(21), 3546–3553 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nanotechnology

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, G. Somesfalean, H. J. Liang, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission tuning from green to red in Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals by tridoping with Ce3+ ions,” Nanotechnology 20(38), 385704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

M. J. Weber, “Radiative and Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171(2), 283–291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, “Multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes fluorescence of triply ionized rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. B 13(7), 2809–2817 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Yttrium Orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 54–64 (1973).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM and XRD patterns of sample NaYF4: 20%Yb3+, 1.5%Ho3+, 3%Eu3+ MCs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

UV UC spectra of NaYF4: 20%Yb3+, 1.5%Ho3+, 3%Eu3+ (a, b) and NaYF4: 20%Yb3+, 1.5%Ho3+ (c, d) MCs under 980 nm excitation. Excitation power density is 320 W/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

UC spectra of NaYF4: 20%Yb3+, 1.5%Ho3+, 3%Eu3+ (a, b) and NaYF4: 20%Yb3+, 1.5%Ho3+ (c, d) MCs under 980 nm excitation. Excitation power density is 320 W/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy level diagrams of Eu3+, Yb3+ and Ho3+ ions and possible UC emission processes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Excitation power dependence of UC luminescence in NaYF4: 20%Yb3+, 1.5%Ho3+, 3%Eu3+ MCs under 980 nm excitation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time-dependent emission profile of 5F2/3F2/5G2, 5G4, 5S2/5F4 levels of Ho3+ in NaYF4: Yb/Ho/Eu (|) and NaYF4: Yb/Ho (■) samples under 953.6 nm pulsed Raman excitation. The decay parts can be fitted into a single-exponential function as I = I0exp(-t/τ) (I0 is the initial emission intensity, τ is the lifetime of the emission center).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption spectra of NaYF4: Yb/Ho/Eu samples around 980 nm and 394 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Luminescence intensity ratio of (5D17F3)/(5D07F2) and (5D27F3)/(5D07F2) of Eu3+ as a function of the doping concentration of Eu3+ ions under 394 nm excitation (T = 300K) (a) and 980 nm excitation (T = 300K and 10K) (b), respectively. Excitation power densities are 20 W/cm2 under 394 nm excitation and 320 W/cm2 under 980 nm excitation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Average Lifetimes τ of Emission Levels of Ho3+ in NaYF4: Yb/Ho/Eu and NaYF4: Yb/Ho Samples Calculated from Time-dependent Emission Profiles.

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