Abstract

We investigate possibilities to utilize field enhancement by specifically designed metal nanostructures for the generation of single attosecond pulses using the polarization gating technique. We predict the generation of isolated 59-attosecond-long pulses using 15-fs pump pulses with only a 0.6 TW/cm2 intensity. Our simulations also indicate the possibility to generate previously inaccessible high-harmonics with circular polarization by using an ensemble of vertically and horizontally orientated bow-tie structures. In the numerical simulation we used an extended Lewenstein model, which includes the spatial inhomogeneity in the hot spots and collisions of electrons with the metal surface.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent X-rays,” Science 317, 775–778 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. F. Kling and M. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond electron dynamics,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59, 463–492 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecod pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870–1872 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mevel, D. Descamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time gated high order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043804 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Kovacev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mevel, E. Constant, P. Salieres, B. Carre, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79–82 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, N. Dudovich, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Efficient polarization gating of high-order harmonic generation by polarization-shaped ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063816 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating”, Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453, 757–760 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photon. 5, 677–681 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Husakou, S.-J. Im, and J. Herrmann, “Theory of plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation in the vicinity of metal nanostructures in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A. 83, 043839 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y.-Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13, 073010 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L. Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Gy. Farkas, Cs. Toth, S. D. Moustaizis, N. A. Papadogiannis, and C. Fotakis, “Observation of multiple-harmonic radiation induced from a gold surface by picosecond neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 46, R3605 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duo, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, “Cross resonant optical antenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photon. 5, 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Husakou, S.-J. Im, and J. Herrmann, “Theory of plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation in the vicinity of metal nanostructures in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A. 83, 043839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y.-Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13, 073010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duo, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, “Cross resonant optical antenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453, 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling and M. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond electron dynamics,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59, 463–492 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent X-rays,” Science 317, 775–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, N. Dudovich, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Efficient polarization gating of high-order harmonic generation by polarization-shaped ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating”, Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mevel, D. Descamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time gated high order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kovacev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mevel, E. Constant, P. Salieres, B. Carre, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79–82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecod pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870–1872 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L. Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

Gy. Farkas, Cs. Toth, S. D. Moustaizis, N. A. Papadogiannis, and C. Fotakis, “Observation of multiple-harmonic radiation induced from a gold surface by picosecond neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 46, R3605 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

M. Kovacev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mevel, E. Constant, P. Salieres, B. Carre, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79–82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L. Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, R. A.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating”, Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biagioni, P.

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duo, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, “Cross resonant optical antenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

M. Kovacev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mevel, E. Constant, P. Salieres, B. Carre, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79–82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, N. H.

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carre, B.

M. Kovacev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mevel, E. Constant, P. Salieres, B. Carre, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79–82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Caumes, J.-P.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating”, Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photon. 5, 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I.

H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent X-rays,” Science 317, 775–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christov, I. P.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent X-rays,” Science 317, 775–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Constant, E.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating”, Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mevel, D. Descamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time gated high order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kovacev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mevel, E. Constant, P. Salieres, B. Carre, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79–82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecod pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870–1872 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L. Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Descamps, D.

O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mevel, D. Descamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time gated high order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudovich, N.

D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, N. Dudovich, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Efficient polarization gating of high-order harmonic generation by polarization-shaped ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duo, L.

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duo, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, “Cross resonant optical antenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durach, M.

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y.-Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13, 073010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Elouga, L.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating”, Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Farkas, Gy.

Gy. Farkas, Cs. Toth, S. D. Moustaizis, N. A. Papadogiannis, and C. Fotakis, “Observation of multiple-harmonic radiation induced from a gold surface by picosecond neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 46, R3605 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, F.

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finazzi, M.

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duo, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, “Cross resonant optical antenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fotakis, C.

Gy. Farkas, Cs. Toth, S. D. Moustaizis, N. A. Papadogiannis, and C. Fotakis, “Observation of multiple-harmonic radiation induced from a gold surface by picosecond neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 46, R3605 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghafur, O.

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, H.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duo, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, “Cross resonant optical antenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J.

A. Husakou, S.-J. Im, and J. Herrmann, “Theory of plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation in the vicinity of metal nanostructures in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A. 83, 043839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. S.

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F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
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Ivanov, M. Yu.

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
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S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453, 757–760 (2008).
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G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
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H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent X-rays,” Science 317, 775–778 (2007).
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Kapteyn, H. C.

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
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A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
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Kelkensberg, F.

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
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Kienberger, R.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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Kim, S.

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photon. 5, 677–681 (2011).
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S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453, 757–760 (2008).
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Kim, S.-W.

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photon. 5, 677–681 (2011).
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S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453, 757–760 (2008).
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Kim, Y.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453, 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-J.

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photon. 5, 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453, 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kling, M. F.

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photon. 5, 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y.-Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13, 073010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
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M. F. Kling and M. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond electron dynamics,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59, 463–492 (2008).
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M. Kovacev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mevel, E. Constant, P. Salieres, B. Carre, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79–82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, D.-H.

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photon. 5, 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lepine, F.

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L. Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lytle, A. L.

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mairesse, Y.

M. Kovacev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mevel, E. Constant, P. Salieres, B. Carre, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79–82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martin, F.

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merdji, H.

M. Kovacev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mevel, E. Constant, P. Salieres, B. Carre, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79–82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mevel, E.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating”, Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mevel, D. Descamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time gated high order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kovacev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mevel, E. Constant, P. Salieres, B. Carre, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79–82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monchicourt, P.

M. Kovacev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mevel, E. Constant, P. Salieres, B. Carre, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79–82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morales, F.

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
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Moustaizis, S. D.

Gy. Farkas, Cs. Toth, S. D. Moustaizis, N. A. Papadogiannis, and C. Fotakis, “Observation of multiple-harmonic radiation induced from a gold surface by picosecond neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 46, R3605 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M.

H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent X-rays,” Science 317, 775–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating”, Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oron, D.

D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, N. Dudovich, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Efficient polarization gating of high-order harmonic generation by polarization-shaped ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Papadogiannis, N. A.

Gy. Farkas, Cs. Toth, S. D. Moustaizis, N. A. Papadogiannis, and C. Fotakis, “Observation of multiple-harmonic radiation induced from a gold surface by picosecond neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 46, R3605 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, I.-Y.

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photon. 5, 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453, 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, A.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perez-Torres, J. F.

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plumridge, J.

O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mevel, D. Descamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time gated high order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating”, Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Priori, E.

M. Kovacev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mevel, E. Constant, P. Salieres, B. Carre, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79–82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rusina, A.

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y.-Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13, 073010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Salieres, P.

M. Kovacev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mevel, E. Constant, P. Salieres, B. Carre, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79–82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating”, Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sanz-Vicario, J. L.

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y.-Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13, 073010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, N. Dudovich, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Efficient polarization gating of high-order harmonic generation by polarization-shaped ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Siu, W.

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sola, I. J.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating”, Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating”, Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stebbings, S. L.

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y.-Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13, 073010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y.-Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13, 073010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photon. 5, 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Strelkov, V.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating”, Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Süßmann, F.

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y.-Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13, 073010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Swoboda, M.

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tcherbakoff, O.

M. Kovacev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mevel, E. Constant, P. Salieres, B. Carre, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79–82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mevel, D. Descamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time gated high order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tobey, R.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toth, Cs.

Gy. Farkas, Cs. Toth, S. D. Moustaizis, N. A. Papadogiannis, and C. Fotakis, “Observation of multiple-harmonic radiation induced from a gold surface by picosecond neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 46, R3605 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, N. Dudovich, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Efficient polarization gating of high-order harmonic generation by polarization-shaped ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating”, Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating”, Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vrakking, M. J.

M. F. Kling and M. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond electron dynamics,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59, 463–492 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiman, S.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.-Y.

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y.-Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13, 073010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zherebtsov, S.

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Znakovskaya, I.

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

M. F. Kling and M. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond electron dynamics,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59, 463–492 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

M. Kovacev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mevel, E. Constant, P. Salieres, B. Carre, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79–82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photon. 5, 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (3)

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating”, Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L. Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453, 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y.-Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13, 073010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mevel, D. Descamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time gated high order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L. Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gy. Farkas, Cs. Toth, S. D. Moustaizis, N. A. Papadogiannis, and C. Fotakis, “Observation of multiple-harmonic radiation induced from a gold surface by picosecond neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 46, R3605 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, N. Dudovich, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Efficient polarization gating of high-order harmonic generation by polarization-shaped ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A. (1)

A. Husakou, S.-J. Im, and J. Herrmann, “Theory of plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation in the vicinity of metal nanostructures in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A. 83, 043839 (2011).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duo, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, “Cross resonant optical antenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
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Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent X-rays,” Science 317, 775–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme (a) of polarization gating in HHG assisted by a crossed bowtie structure. The nanostructure is positioned on a silicon substrate and surrounded by Argon at 1 atm. The pump field is incident from below and normal to the surface. In (b), the intensity enhancement in the central part of the nanostructure at a vertical position of 25 nm is presented for a pump pulse centered at 800 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal dependence of the local electric fields in the “hot spot” of the nanostructure shown in Fig. 1. The x (red curve) and the y (green curve) components of the field are normalized to the peak value of the incident field, the blue line denotes zero.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum (a) and temporal profile (b) of the output attosecond pulse. The spectral components in the range below harmonic order 75 and above harmonic order 125 were filtered out to form an isolated attosecond pulse. The input peak intensity is 0.12 TW/cm2. The inset indicates the durations and the efficiencies for other choices of harmonics forming the attosecond pulse, as indicated near the symbols. The green curve in (a) indicates the spectral phase.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Attosecond pulses generated with carrier-envelope offset of 18° (a), 36° (b), 54 ° (c), 72° (d), and 90° (e). The parameters are the same as in the case shown in Fig. 3(a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Geometry of the nanostructures and their arrangement for circular-polarization HHG. We assume a silicon substrate and 1-atm Argon surrounding the nanostructure. The circularly polarized pump light irradiates the structure under normal incidence from below.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Field enhancement in the center of the nanostructure at the vertical position of 25 nm for a continuous-wave pump at 800 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectra of the emitted circularly-polarized harmonics (red crosses) with circularly-polarized pump and of the linearly-polarized harmonics (green squares) using linearly polarized pump pulses with the same peak electric field value. The incident pump intensity is 0.3 TW/cm2.

Equations (3)

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d ( t f ) = i e 2 ω 0 5 / 2 m e t f ( π ɛ + i Δ t / 2 ) 3 / 2 H ( t f , t s ) × d x ( p s t e A ( t s ) ) exp ( i S ( t f , t s ) h ¯ ) × d x * ( p s t e A ( t f ) ) E ( t s ) d t s + c . c .
p s t = e [ A ( t s ) + Δ B A ( t s ) Δ t + β ( 0.5 ( Δ B ) 2 Δ D + C ( t s ) Δ t ) Δ t β ( 2 Δ G + Δ t [ B ( t ) + B ( t s ) ] ) ] ,
S ( t f , t s ) = S 0 ( t f , t s ) + e 2 β m e 1 { p ( t s ) 2 [ 2 Δ G + ( B ( t f ) + B ( t s ) ) Δ t ] + p ( t s ) [ Δ C Δ t + 2 Δ D ] + ( C ( t f ) + C ( t s ) ) Δ B 2 Δ F } ,

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