Abstract

We have built a flexible source of picosecond pulsed light in both the near-infrared and visible spectral regions. A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) was pumped with a pulsed 1064 nm fiber laser to generate four-wave mixing (FWM) sidebands at 947 nm and 1213 nm. This process was seeded at the idler wavelength with a tunable diode laser to limit the spectral width of the sidebands to less than 0.5 nm. Subsequently the idler was mixed efficiently with the residual pump in a nonlinear crystal to yield their sum frequency at 567 nm. All three outputs were tunable by adjusting the seed wavelength and all had very low pulse-to-pulse amplitude noise. This technique could be extended to different wavelength ranges by selecting different seed lasers and PCF.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, “Ten years of nonlinear optics in photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 85–90 (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2008.285 .
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135 (2006). URL http://link.aps.org/abstract/RMP/v78/p1135 .
    [CrossRef]
  3. Q. Li, F. Li, K. K. Y. Wong, A. P. T. Lau, K. K. Tsia, and P. K. A. Wai, “Investigating the influence of a weak continuous-wave-trigger on picosecond supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 19(15) 757–1769 (2011). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-15-13757 .
  4. L. E. Hooper, P. J. Mosley, A. C. Muir, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Coherent supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber with all-normal group velocity dispersion,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4902–4907 (2011). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-6-4902 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. H. Dunn and M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Parametric Generation of Tunable Light from Continuous-Wave to Femtosecond Pulses,” Science 286 (5444), 1513–1517 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Cerullo and S. D. Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 1–18 (2003). URL http://link.aip.org/link/?RSI/74/1/1 .
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar, and R. S. Windeler, “Four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26(14), 1048–1050 (2001). URL http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-14-1048 .
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Inoue, “Suppression of level fluctuation without extinction ratio degradation based on output saturation in higher order optical parametric interaction in fiber,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13(4), 338 –340 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Kylemark, P. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. Andrekson, “Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 409 – 416 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. Knight, T. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 12(2), 299–309 (2004). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-2-299 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Y. H. Chen, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Widely tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 30(7), 762–764 (2005). URL http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-7-762 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Xiong, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, and W. J. Wadsworth, “Enhanced visible continuum generation from a microchip 1064nm laser,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6188–6193 (2006). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-13-6188 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Sloanes, K. McEwan, B. Lowans, and L. Michaille, “Optimisation of high average power optical parametric generation using a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19,724–19,733 (2008). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-19724 .
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Nodop, C. Jauregui, D. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Efficient high-power generation of visible and mid-infrared light by degenerate four-wave-mixing in a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3499–3501 (2009). URL http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-22-3499 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Lavoute, J. C. Knight, P. Dupriez, and W. J. Wadsworth, “High power red and near-IR generation using four wave mixing in all integrated fibre laser systems,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16,193–16,205 (2010). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-15-16193 .
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Hansryd, P. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506 –520 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. J. McKinstrie and M. G. Raymer, “Four-wave-mixing cascades near the zero-dispersion frequency,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9600–9610 (2006). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-21-9600 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

L. Lavoute, J. C. Knight, P. Dupriez, and W. J. Wadsworth, “High power red and near-IR generation using four wave mixing in all integrated fibre laser systems,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16,193–16,205 (2010). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-15-16193 .
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

T. Sloanes, K. McEwan, B. Lowans, and L. Michaille, “Optimisation of high average power optical parametric generation using a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19,724–19,733 (2008). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-19724 .
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

G. Cerullo and S. D. Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 1–18 (2003). URL http://link.aip.org/link/?RSI/74/1/1 .
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Hansryd, P. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506 –520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar, and R. S. Windeler, “Four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26(14), 1048–1050 (2001). URL http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-14-1048 .
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, “Suppression of level fluctuation without extinction ratio degradation based on output saturation in higher order optical parametric interaction in fiber,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13(4), 338 –340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. H. Dunn and M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Parametric Generation of Tunable Light from Continuous-Wave to Femtosecond Pulses,” Science 286 (5444), 1513–1517 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrekson, P.

P. Kylemark, P. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. Andrekson, “Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 409 – 416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506 –520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, F.

Birks, T.

Birks, T. A.

Cerullo, G.

G. Cerullo and S. D. Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 1–18 (2003). URL http://link.aip.org/link/?RSI/74/1/1 .
[CrossRef]

Chen, A. Y. H.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135 (2006). URL http://link.aps.org/abstract/RMP/v78/p1135 .
[CrossRef]

Coker, A.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, “Ten years of nonlinear optics in photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 85–90 (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2008.285 .
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135 (2006). URL http://link.aps.org/abstract/RMP/v78/p1135 .
[CrossRef]

Dunn, M. H.

M. H. Dunn and M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Parametric Generation of Tunable Light from Continuous-Wave to Femtosecond Pulses,” Science 286 (5444), 1513–1517 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dupriez, P.

L. Lavoute, J. C. Knight, P. Dupriez, and W. J. Wadsworth, “High power red and near-IR generation using four wave mixing in all integrated fibre laser systems,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16,193–16,205 (2010). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-15-16193 .
[CrossRef]

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

M. H. Dunn and M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Parametric Generation of Tunable Light from Continuous-Wave to Femtosecond Pulses,” Science 286 (5444), 1513–1517 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiorentino, M.

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135 (2006). URL http://link.aps.org/abstract/RMP/v78/p1135 .
[CrossRef]

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd, P. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506 –520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. D.

Hedekvist, P.

Hedekvist, P.-O.

J. Hansryd, P. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506 –520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, L. E.

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, “Suppression of level fluctuation without extinction ratio degradation based on output saturation in higher order optical parametric interaction in fiber,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13(4), 338 –340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jauregui, C.

Joly, N.

Karlsson, M.

Knight, J.

Knight, J. C.

Kumar, P.

Kylemark, P.

Lau, A. P. T.

Lavoute, L.

L. Lavoute, J. C. Knight, P. Dupriez, and W. J. Wadsworth, “High power red and near-IR generation using four wave mixing in all integrated fibre laser systems,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16,193–16,205 (2010). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-15-16193 .
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, R.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Li, F.

Li, J.

J. Hansryd, P. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506 –520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Limpert, J.

Lowans, B.

T. Sloanes, K. McEwan, B. Lowans, and L. Michaille, “Optimisation of high average power optical parametric generation using a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19,724–19,733 (2008). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-19724 .
[CrossRef]

McEwan, K.

T. Sloanes, K. McEwan, B. Lowans, and L. Michaille, “Optimisation of high average power optical parametric generation using a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19,724–19,733 (2008). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-19724 .
[CrossRef]

McKinstrie, C. J.

Michaille, L.

T. Sloanes, K. McEwan, B. Lowans, and L. Michaille, “Optimisation of high average power optical parametric generation using a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19,724–19,733 (2008). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-19724 .
[CrossRef]

Mosley, P. J.

Muir, A. C.

Murdoch, S. G.

Nodop, D.

Raymer, M. G.

Russell, P.

Russell, P. S. J.

Schimpf, D.

Sharping, J. E.

Silvestri, S. D.

G. Cerullo and S. D. Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 1–18 (2003). URL http://link.aip.org/link/?RSI/74/1/1 .
[CrossRef]

Sloanes, T.

T. Sloanes, K. McEwan, B. Lowans, and L. Michaille, “Optimisation of high average power optical parametric generation using a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19,724–19,733 (2008). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-19724 .
[CrossRef]

Sunnerud, H.

Taylor, J. R.

J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, “Ten years of nonlinear optics in photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 85–90 (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2008.285 .
[CrossRef]

Tsia, K. K.

Tünnermann, A.

Wadsworth, W.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wai, P. K. A.

Westlund, M.

J. Hansryd, P. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506 –520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Witkowska, A.

Wong, G. K. L.

Wong, K. K. Y.

Xiong, C.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Hansryd, P. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506 –520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

K. Inoue, “Suppression of level fluctuation without extinction ratio degradation based on output saturation in higher order optical parametric interaction in fiber,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13(4), 338 –340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, “Ten years of nonlinear optics in photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 85–90 (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2008.285 .
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Q. Li, F. Li, K. K. Y. Wong, A. P. T. Lau, K. K. Tsia, and P. K. A. Wai, “Investigating the influence of a weak continuous-wave-trigger on picosecond supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 19(15) 757–1769 (2011). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-15-13757 .

L. E. Hooper, P. J. Mosley, A. C. Muir, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Coherent supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber with all-normal group velocity dispersion,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4902–4907 (2011). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-6-4902 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. Knight, T. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 12(2), 299–309 (2004). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-2-299 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. McKinstrie and M. G. Raymer, “Four-wave-mixing cascades near the zero-dispersion frequency,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9600–9610 (2006). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-21-9600 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lavoute, J. C. Knight, P. Dupriez, and W. J. Wadsworth, “High power red and near-IR generation using four wave mixing in all integrated fibre laser systems,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16,193–16,205 (2010). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-15-16193 .
[CrossRef]

C. Xiong, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, and W. J. Wadsworth, “Enhanced visible continuum generation from a microchip 1064nm laser,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6188–6193 (2006). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-13-6188 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sloanes, K. McEwan, B. Lowans, and L. Michaille, “Optimisation of high average power optical parametric generation using a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19,724–19,733 (2008). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-19724 .
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135 (2006). URL http://link.aps.org/abstract/RMP/v78/p1135 .
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Cerullo and S. D. Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 1–18 (2003). URL http://link.aip.org/link/?RSI/74/1/1 .
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. H. Dunn and M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Parametric Generation of Tunable Light from Continuous-Wave to Femtosecond Pulses,” Science 286 (5444), 1513–1517 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Apparatus and scanning electron micrograph of PCF end face. See text for details.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra from a 390 mm length of FWM PCF with a pump power of 105 mW. (a) Spontaneous FWM (seed laser off) for each fiber axis, measured directly after the PCF. (b) Seeded FWM and SFG measured after the LBO crystal. Seed power of 1.1 mW (blue), unseeded (green), and seed only with pump blocked (red). Lower row shows individually normalized high-resolution (0.05 nm) spectra of each line also at a seed power of 1.1 mW, plotted on a linear scale: (c) SF; (d) FWM signal; (e) pump; (f) FWM idler as recorded (blue), seed only (red), idler minus seed (green).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Seed tuning. Seed wavelengths of 1213 nm (purple), 1240 nm (blue), 1255 nm (green), and 1278 nm (red). Pump power 100 mW, seed power in the range 1–10 mW.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Output power as a function of seed power and (b) of pump power. (c) Distributions of pulse energy in 1000 pulses of seeded FWM SF (blue), unseeded FWM SF (green), and filtered supercontinuum (red). Lines are least-square Gaussian fits.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured noise figures, expressed as standard deviations of Gaussian fits to normalized pulse energy distribution data (similar to that shown in Fig. 4(c)). Errors are 95% confidence bounds on the standard deviations of the fits. Note that in the seeded case, the signal and idler data were taken at a seed power of 12 mW and the SF at a seed power of 1 mW. Pump power was approximately 100 mW throughout.

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