Abstract

Loss compensation in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides is theoretically analyzed when rare-earth-doped double tungstate crystalline material is used as the gain medium in three different waveguide configurations. We study the effect of waveguide geometry on loss compensation at the telecom wavelength of 1.55 μm, and demonstrate that a material gain as small as 12.5 dB/cm is sufficient for lossless propagation of plasmonic modes with sub-micron lateral confinement when using waveguide ridges with gain.

© 2011 OSA

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  35. http://www.phoenixbv.com/index.php

2011 (6)

O. Tsilipakos, E. E. Kriezis, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Thermo-optic microring resonator switching elements made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gosciniak, T. Holmgaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(10), 1473–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Flynn, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, M. Kim, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Mäkinen, K. Bussmann, L. Cheng, F. S. Choa, and J. P. Long, “A room-temperature semiconductor spaser operating near 1.5 μm,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8954–8961 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. French, J. M. Rodríguez-Parada, M. K. Yang, R. A. Derryberry, and N. T. Pfeiffenberger, “Optical properties of polymeric materials for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2077–2086 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (11)

P. M. Bolger, W. Dickson, A. V. Krasavin, L. Liebscher, S. G. Hickey, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Zayats, “Amplified spontaneous emission of surface plasmon polaritons and limitations on the increase of their propagation length,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1197–1199 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Radko, M. G. Nielsen, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons by lead-sulphide quantum dots at near infra-red wavelengths,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18633–18641 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, J. Gosciniak, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23009–23015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Bernhardi, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, L. Agazzi, M. R. H. Khan, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, K. Wörhoff, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, “Ultra-narrow-linewidth, single-frequency distributed feedback waveguide laser in Al2O3:Er3+ on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2394–2396 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Li, S. Y. Lee, C. Feng, L. Wang, and T. Mei, “Gain-assisted propagation of surface plasmon polaritons via electrically pumped quantum wells,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3075–3077 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Silicon-based plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11791–11799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Min, C. Chen, P. Berini, and R. Gordon, “Long range surface plasmons on asymmetric suspended thin film structures for biosensing applications,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19009–19019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

M. A. Noginov, V. A. Podolskiy, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, M. Bahoura, J. A. Adegoke, B. A. Ritzo, and K. Reynolds, “Compensation of loss in propagating surface plasmon polariton by gain in adjacent dielectric medium,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1385–1392 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Degiron, S.-Y. Cho, C. Harrison, N. M. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. J. F. Martin, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, “Gain assisted surface plasmon polariton in quantum wells structures,” Opt. Express 15(1), 176–182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: The promise of highly integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1671–1677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1970 (1)

M. L. Thèye, “Investigation of the optical properties of Au by means of thin semitransparent films,” Phys. Rev. B 2(8), 3060–3078 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Adegoke, J. A.

Agazzi, L.

Aitchison, J. S.

Alam, M. Z.

Albrektsen, O.

Andersen, T. B.

Aravazhi, S.

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Giant optical gain in a rare-earth-ion-doped microstructure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (accepted).

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bahoura, M.

Bartal, G.

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Min, C. Chen, P. Berini, and R. Gordon, “Long range surface plasmons on asymmetric suspended thin film structures for biosensing applications,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19009–19019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bernhardi, E. H.

Bolger, P. M.

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Bolger, W. Dickson, A. V. Krasavin, L. Liebscher, S. G. Hickey, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Zayats, “Amplified spontaneous emission of surface plasmon polaritons and limitations on the increase of their propagation length,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1197–1199 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

J. Gosciniak, T. Holmgaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(10), 1473–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Tsilipakos, E. E. Kriezis, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Thermo-optic microring resonator switching elements made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, J. Gosciniak, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23009–23015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Radko, M. G. Nielsen, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons by lead-sulphide quantum dots at near infra-red wavelengths,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18633–18641 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, J. D.

Bramerie, L.

Bussmann, K.

Chen, C.

Cheng, L.

Cho, S.-Y.

A. Degiron, S.-Y. Cho, C. Harrison, N. M. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. J. F. Martin, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choa, F. S.

Costa e Silva, M.

Danz, N.

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Leon, I.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Ridder, R. M.

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

A. Degiron, S.-Y. Cho, C. Harrison, N. M. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. J. F. Martin, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dellagiacoma, C.

A. Degiron, S.-Y. Cho, C. Harrison, N. M. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. J. F. Martin, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derryberry, R. A.

R. H. French, J. M. Rodríguez-Parada, M. K. Yang, R. A. Derryberry, and N. T. Pfeiffenberger, “Optical properties of polymeric materials for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2077–2086 (2011).
[CrossRef]

des Francs, G. C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickson, W.

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Bolger, W. Dickson, A. V. Krasavin, L. Liebscher, S. G. Hickey, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Zayats, “Amplified spontaneous emission of surface plasmon polaritons and limitations on the increase of their propagation length,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1197–1199 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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Feng, C.

Finot, C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
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Flynn, R. A.

French, R. H.

R. H. French, J. M. Rodríguez-Parada, M. K. Yang, R. A. Derryberry, and N. T. Pfeiffenberger, “Optical properties of polymeric materials for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2077–2086 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Giant optical gain in a rare-earth-ion-doped microstructure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (accepted).

Gather, M. C.

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gay, M.

Geluk, E. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Giant optical gain in a rare-earth-ion-doped microstructure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (accepted).

Gordon, R.

Gosciniak, J.

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrison, C.

A. Degiron, S.-Y. Cho, C. Harrison, N. M. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. J. F. Martin, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hickey, S. G.

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holmgaard, T.

Huber, G.

Im, H.

Jokerst, N. M.

A. Degiron, S.-Y. Cho, C. Harrison, N. M. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. J. F. Martin, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. J.

Khan, M. R. H.

Kim, C. S.

Kim, M.

Kjelstrup-Hansen, J.

Kobyakov, A.

Krasavin, A. V.

Kriezis, E. E.

O. Tsilipakos, E. E. Kriezis, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Thermo-optic microring resonator switching elements made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Kwon, S.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lagatsky, A. A.

Laluet, J.-Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

Lee, Y.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Li, T.

Li, Y.

Liebscher, L.

Lindquist, N. C.

Long, J. P.

Ma, R. M.

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: The promise of highly integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1671–1677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mäkinen, A. J.

Mansuripur, M.

Markey, L.

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

A. Degiron, S.-Y. Cho, C. Harrison, N. M. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. J. F. Martin, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Massenot, S.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayy, M.

Meerholz, K.

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Meier, J.

Meyer, J. R.

Mikhailov, V. P.

Min, Q.

Mojahedi, M.

Moloney, J. V.

Nielsen, M. G.

Noginov, M. A.

Nötzel, R.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S.-H.

Oulton, R. F.

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffenberger, N. T.

R. H. French, J. M. Rodríguez-Parada, M. K. Yang, R. A. Derryberry, and N. T. Pfeiffenberger, “Optical properties of polymeric materials for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2077–2086 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Podlipensky, A. V.

Podolskiy, V. A.

Pollnau, M.

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
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J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Reynolds, K.

Ritzo, B. A.

Rodríguez-Parada, J. M.

R. H. French, J. M. Rodríguez-Parada, M. K. Yang, R. A. Derryberry, and N. T. Pfeiffenberger, “Optical properties of polymeric materials for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2077–2086 (2011).
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Simon, J. C.

Skryabin, D. V.

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

A. Degiron, S.-Y. Cho, C. Harrison, N. M. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. J. F. Martin, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
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Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
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M. L. Thèye, “Investigation of the optical properties of Au by means of thin semitransparent films,” Phys. Rev. B 2(8), 3060–3078 (1970).
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O. Tsilipakos, E. E. Kriezis, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Thermo-optic microring resonator switching elements made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073111 (2011).
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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
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Volkov, V. S.

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
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S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
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Vurgaftman, I.

Wang, L.

Weeber, J.-C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
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Wörhoff, K.

Yang, M. K.

R. H. French, J. M. Rodríguez-Parada, M. K. Yang, R. A. Derryberry, and N. T. Pfeiffenberger, “Optical properties of polymeric materials for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2077–2086 (2011).
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Zayats, A. V.

Zhang, X.

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
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X. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Li, S. Y. Lee, C. Feng, L. Wang, and T. Mei, “Gain-assisted propagation of surface plasmon polaritons via electrically pumped quantum wells,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3075–3077 (2010).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
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Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Giant optical gain in a rare-earth-ion-doped microstructure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (accepted).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: The promise of highly integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1671–1677 (2006).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

O. Tsilipakos, E. E. Kriezis, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Thermo-optic microring resonator switching elements made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073111 (2011).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nano Lett. (2)

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
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A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (4)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
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I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
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M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
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Opt. Express (10)

M. A. Noginov, V. A. Podolskiy, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, M. Bahoura, J. A. Adegoke, B. A. Ritzo, and K. Reynolds, “Compensation of loss in propagating surface plasmon polariton by gain in adjacent dielectric medium,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1385–1392 (2008).
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J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
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T. Holmgaard, J. Gosciniak, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23009–23015 (2010).
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A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Silicon-based plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11791–11799 (2010).
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Q. Min, C. Chen, P. Berini, and R. Gordon, “Long range surface plasmons on asymmetric suspended thin film structures for biosensing applications,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19009–19019 (2010).
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M. Mansuripur, A. R. Zakharian, A. Lesuffleur, S.-H. Oh, R. J. Jones, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, A. Kobyakov, and J. V. Moloney, “Plasmonic nano-structures for optical data storage,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14001–14014 (2009).
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I. P. Radko, M. G. Nielsen, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons by lead-sulphide quantum dots at near infra-red wavelengths,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18633–18641 (2010).
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J. D. Bradley, M. Costa e Silva, M. Gay, L. Bramerie, A. Driessen, K. Wörhoff, J. C. Simon, and M. Pollnau, “170 Gbit/s transmission in an erbium-doped waveguide amplifier on silicon,” Opt. Express 17, 22201–22208 (2009).
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M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, “Gain assisted surface plasmon polariton in quantum wells structures,” Opt. Express 15(1), 176–182 (2007).
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R. A. Flynn, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, M. Kim, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Mäkinen, K. Bussmann, L. Cheng, F. S. Choa, and J. P. Long, “A room-temperature semiconductor spaser operating near 1.5 μm,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8954–8961 (2011).
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Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Degiron, S.-Y. Cho, C. Harrison, N. M. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. J. F. Martin, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
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Phys. Rev. B (4)

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007).
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Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

R. H. French, J. M. Rodríguez-Parada, M. K. Yang, R. A. Derryberry, and N. T. Pfeiffenberger, “Optical properties of polymeric materials for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2077–2086 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

http://www.phoenixbv.com/index.php

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the LR-DLSPP structures with gain analyzed in this work: (a) Gain material, RE-doped double tungstate, as buffer layer and ridge in BCB; (b) gain material in the buffer and polyimide ridge; (c) gain material in the ridge, buffer layer in silicon nitride and 100-nm-thin BCB adhesive layer between buffer and ridge. The wavelength utilized in all the simulations is 1.55 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mesh utilized in the simulations: (a) General view of Structure 1, i.e., BCB ridge and double tungstate buffer layer; (b) zoom into the gold stripe region, marked as the red dashed rectangle in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Mode profile for Structure 1 with hbuffer = 60 nm and hridge = wridge = 1.4 μm; (b) vertical line scan of the mode profile across the center of the metal stripe (x ~0). It can be seen that the electric field hardly penetrates inside the gain buffer material.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of ridge width in Structure 2. Net optical loss versus thickness of buffer layer for a fixed ridge height (0.6 μm) and several ridge widths (0.8-1.6 μm). Several buffer layer material gain values have been studied: (a) 0 dB/cm; (b) 35 dB/cm; (c) 106 dB/cm and (d) 246 dB/cm; (e) power confinement to the gain region (buffer layer); (f) lateral mode width in the x-direction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Net optical loss versus thickness of buffer layer in Structure 2 for a fixed ridge width of the ridge (1.6 μm) and several ridge heights (0.6-1.6 μm). Several buffer layer material gain values have been studied: (a) 0 dB/cm; (b) 35 dB/cm; (c) 106 dB/cm; (d) 246 dB/cm; (e) Confinement to active buffer layer and (f) lateral mode width in the horizontal x-direction.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Two-dimensional mode profile and vertical mode profile across the center of the metal stripe for Structure 2 at zero gain: (a) Ridge height 0.6 μm, ridge width 1.6 μm, buffer thickness 0.25 μm; (b) ridge height 1.6 μm, ridge width 1.6 μm, buffer thickness 0.375 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Structure 3: Net optical loss as a function of hbuffer for (a) hridge = 0.8 μm and various wridge and (b) wridge = 0.8 μm and various hridge; confinement of the optical power to the active material region (ridge) as a function of hbuffer for (c) hridge = 0.8 μm and several wridge and (d) wridge = 0.8 μm and several hridge; mode width in the x-direction as a function of hbuffer for (e) hridge = 0.8 μm and various wridge and (f) wridge = 0.8 μm and various hridge. The material gain was considered to be zero in all cases (passive structure).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Net optical loss in Structure 3 for hridge = 0.8 μm and various wridge when assuming a material gain of (a) 35 dB/cm and (b) 106 dB/cm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the Structures Used for the Simulations. λ = 1.55 μm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Waveguide Dimensions and Mode Profiles for Large Ridge Structure (Waveguide 1) and Smaller Ridge Structure (Waveguide 2), Showing Influence of Ridge on Mode Size and Minimum Gain Required for Lossless Propagation—Mode Profiles, Re[Ey], Also Shown

Equations (2)

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α[ dB / cm ]=2× k 0 ×Im( n eff )×4.34
α net = α loss Γ g mat

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