Abstract

We demonstrate experimentally that by engineering the structural asymmetry of the primary unit cell of a symmetrically nanopatterned metallic film the optical transmission becomes strongly dependent on the polarization of the incident wave. By considering a specific plasmonic structure consisting of square arrays of nanoscale asymmetric cruciform apertures we show that the enhanced optical anisotropy is induced by the excitation inside the apertures of localized surface plasmon resonances. The measured transmission spectra of these plasmonic arrays show a transmission maximum whose spectral location can be tuned by almost 50% by simply varying the in-plane polarization of the incident photons. Comprehensive numerical simulations further prove that the maximum of the transmission spectra corresponds to polarization-dependent surface plasmon resonances tightly confined in the two arms of the cruciform aperture. Despite this, there are isosbestic points where the transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra are polarization-independent, regardless of the degree of asymmetry of the apertures.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

J. A. Hutchison, D. M. O’Carroll, T. Schwartz, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Absorption induced transparency,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 2085–2089 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

L. Lin and A. Roberts, “Angle-robust resonances in cross-shaped aperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, No. 061109 (2010).

F. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sonnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparancy for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10, 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, No. 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, No. 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 88, No. 045131 (2009).

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. N. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 3, 157–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional bi-chiral photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 21, 4680–4682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. S. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, No. 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lin, L. B. Hande, and A. Roberts, “Resonant nanometric cross-shaped apertures: Single apertures versus periodic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, No. 201116 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (2)

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, T. P. Meyrath, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “Resonances in complementary metamaterials and nanoapertures,” Opt. Express 16, 2080–2090 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Plasmonic blackbody: Almost complete absorption of light in nanostructured metallic coatings,” Phys. Rev. B 78, No. 205405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

R. M. Roth, N. C. Panoiu, M. M Adams, J. I. Dadap, and R. M. Osgood, “Polarization-tunable plasmon-enhanced extraordinary transmission through metallic films using asymmetric cruciform apertures,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3414–3416 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “λ/4 Resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7, 28–33 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zentgraf, T. P. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 76, No. 033407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

C. Imhof and R. Zengerle, “Pairs of metallic crosses as a left-handed metamaterial with improved polarization properties,” Opt. Express 14, 8257–8262 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Roth, N. C. Panoiu, M. M. Adams, R. M. Osgood, C. C. Neacsu, and M. B. Raschke, “Resonant-plasmon field enhancement from asymmetrically illuminated conical metallic-probe tips,” Opt. Express 14, 2921–2931 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, W. Williams, and J. V. Hajnal, “Sub-wavelength imaging at radio frequency,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, L315–L321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Wang, G. C. Schatz, and S. K. Gray, “Ultrafast pulse excitation of a metallic nanosystem containing a Kerr nonlinear material,” Phys. Rev. B 74, No. 195439 (2006).

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N. C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Second harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material,” Nano Lett. 6, 1027–1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (7)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of near-infrared negative-index materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, No. 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Qiang, J. Chen, T. Zhao, S. Wang, P. Ruchhoeft, and M. Morgan, “Modeling of infrared bandpass filters using a three-dimensional FDTD method,” Electr. Lett. 41, 914–915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, No. 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408, 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Soennichsen and A. P. Alivisatos, “Gold nanorods as novel nonbleaching plasmon-based orientation sensors for polarized single-particle microscopy,” Nano Lett. 5, 301–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

N. C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, “Subwavelength nonlinear plasmonic nanowire,” Nano Lett. 4, 2427–2430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Tip-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for vibrational nano-imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, No. 220801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical manifestations of planar chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, No. 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, “Plasmon-Sampled Surface-Enhanced Raman Excitation Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7426–7433 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. L. West and N. J. Halas, “Engineered nanomaterials for biophotonics applications: improving sensing, imaging, and therapeutics,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 5, 285–292 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, “Single-photon tunneling via localized surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, No. 187402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy,” Nature (London) 1999, 134–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emery, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single Molecule Detection using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Abdenour, A.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N. C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Second harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material,” Nano Lett. 6, 1027–1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M. M

Adams, M. M.

Alexander, R. W.

Alivisatos, A. P.

C. Soennichsen and A. P. Alivisatos, “Gold nanorods as novel nonbleaching plasmon-based orientation sensors for polarized single-particle microscopy,” Nano Lett. 5, 301–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (288).

Avitzour, Y.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 88, No. 045131 (2009).

Bagnall, D. M.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical manifestations of planar chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, No. 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, R. J.

Brongersma, M. L.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N. C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Second harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material,” Nano Lett. 6, 1027–1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of near-infrared negative-index materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, No. 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Chen, J.

R. Qiang, J. Chen, T. Zhao, S. Wang, P. Ruchhoeft, and M. Morgan, “Modeling of infrared bandpass filters using a three-dimensional FDTD method,” Electr. Lett. 41, 914–915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Coles, H. J.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical manifestations of planar chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, No. 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dadap, J. I.

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single Molecule Detection using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, “Single-photon tunneling via localized surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, No. 187402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drachev, V. P.

Ebbesen, T.

F. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

J. A. Hutchison, D. M. O’Carroll, T. Schwartz, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Absorption induced transparency,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 2085–2089 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eigenthaler, U.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sonnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparancy for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10, 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H. J.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emery, S. R.

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emery, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N. C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Second harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material,” Nano Lett. 6, 1027–1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, A.

L. Lin and A. Roberts, “Angle-robust resonances in cross-shaped aperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, No. 061109 (2010).

L. Lin, L. B. Hande, and A. Roberts, “Resonant nanometric cross-shaped apertures: Single apertures versus periodic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, No. 201116 (2009).
[PubMed]

Rockstuhl, C.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, T. P. Meyrath, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “Resonances in complementary metamaterials and nanoapertures,” Opt. Express 16, 2080–2090 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zentgraf, T. P. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 76, No. 033407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roth, R. M.

Ruchhoeft, P.

R. Qiang, J. Chen, T. Zhao, S. Wang, P. Ruchhoeft, and M. Morgan, “Modeling of infrared bandpass filters using a three-dimensional FDTD method,” Electr. Lett. 41, 914–915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schatz, G. C.

X. W. Wang, G. C. Schatz, and S. K. Gray, “Ultrafast pulse excitation of a metallic nanosystem containing a Kerr nonlinear material,” Phys. Rev. B 74, No. 195439 (2006).

Schedin, F.

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Plasmonic blackbody: Almost complete absorption of light in nanostructured metallic coatings,” Phys. Rev. B 78, No. 205405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, No. 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, T.

J. A. Hutchison, D. M. O’Carroll, T. Schwartz, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Absorption induced transparency,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 2085–2089 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Segerink, F. B.

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “λ/4 Resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7, 28–33 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidel, A.

T. Zentgraf, T. P. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 76, No. 033407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shvets, G.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 88, No. 045131 (2009).

Smith, D. R.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408, 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, “Single-photon tunneling via localized surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, No. 187402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soennichsen, C.

C. Soennichsen and A. P. Alivisatos, “Gold nanorods as novel nonbleaching plasmon-based orientation sensors for polarized single-particle microscopy,” Nano Lett. 5, 301–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sonnichsen, C.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sonnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparancy for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10, 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, No. 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, T.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, No. 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sundaramurthy, A.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, No. 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taminiau, T. H.

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “λ/4 Resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7, 28–33 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional bi-chiral photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 21, 4680–4682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Urzhumov, Y. A.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 88, No. 045131 (2009).

Van Duyne, R. P.

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, “Plasmon-Sampled Surface-Enhanced Raman Excitation Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7426–7433 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “λ/4 Resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7, 28–33 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, M.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag: Berlin, 1995).

von Freymann, G.

M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional bi-chiral photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 21, 4680–4682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, No. 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

R. Qiang, J. Chen, T. Zhao, S. Wang, P. Ruchhoeft, and M. Morgan, “Modeling of infrared bandpass filters using a three-dimensional FDTD method,” Electr. Lett. 41, 914–915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. W.

X. W. Wang, G. C. Schatz, and S. K. Gray, “Ultrafast pulse excitation of a metallic nanosystem containing a Kerr nonlinear material,” Phys. Rev. B 74, No. 195439 (2006).

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single Molecule Detection using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional bi-chiral photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 21, 4680–4682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sonnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparancy for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10, 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

J. L. West and N. J. Halas, “Engineered nanomaterials for biophotonics applications: improving sensing, imaging, and therapeutics,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 5, 285–292 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westcott, S. L.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (288).

Williams, W.

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, W. Williams, and J. V. Hajnal, “Sub-wavelength imaging at radio frequency,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, L315–L321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, W. Williams, and J. V. Hajnal, “Sub-wavelength imaging at radio frequency,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, L315–L321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H. K.

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408, 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, “Single-photon tunneling via localized surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, No. 187402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zengerle, R.

Zentgraf, T.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, T. P. Meyrath, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “Resonances in complementary metamaterials and nanoapertures,” Opt. Express 16, 2080–2090 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zentgraf, T. P. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 76, No. 033407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. S. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, No. 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N. C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Second harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material,” Nano Lett. 6, 1027–1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of near-infrared negative-index materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, No. 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W. L.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. S. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, No. 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. S. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, No. 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, T.

R. Qiang, J. Chen, T. Zhao, S. Wang, P. Ruchhoeft, and M. Morgan, “Modeling of infrared bandpass filters using a three-dimensional FDTD method,” Electr. Lett. 41, 914–915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical manifestations of planar chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, No. 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, No. 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. N.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. N. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 3, 157–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional bi-chiral photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 21, 4680–4682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

J. A. Hutchison, D. M. O’Carroll, T. Schwartz, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Absorption induced transparency,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 2085–2089 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

J. L. West and N. J. Halas, “Engineered nanomaterials for biophotonics applications: improving sensing, imaging, and therapeutics,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 5, 285–292 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. Lin, L. B. Hande, and A. Roberts, “Resonant nanometric cross-shaped apertures: Single apertures versus periodic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, No. 201116 (2009).
[PubMed]

L. Lin and A. Roberts, “Angle-robust resonances in cross-shaped aperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, No. 061109 (2010).

J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, No. 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (288).

Electr. Lett. (1)

R. Qiang, J. Chen, T. Zhao, S. Wang, P. Ruchhoeft, and M. Morgan, “Modeling of infrared bandpass filters using a three-dimensional FDTD method,” Electr. Lett. 41, 914–915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, “Plasmon-Sampled Surface-Enhanced Raman Excitation Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7426–7433 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, W. Williams, and J. V. Hajnal, “Sub-wavelength imaging at radio frequency,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, L315–L321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (6)

N. C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, “Subwavelength nonlinear plasmonic nanowire,” Nano Lett. 4, 2427–2430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N. C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Second harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material,” Nano Lett. 6, 1027–1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “λ/4 Resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7, 28–33 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Soennichsen and A. P. Alivisatos, “Gold nanorods as novel nonbleaching plasmon-based orientation sensors for polarized single-particle microscopy,” Nano Lett. 5, 301–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sonnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparancy for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10, 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. N. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 3, 157–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy,” Nature (London) 1999, 134–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408, 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 88, No. 045131 (2009).

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Plasmonic blackbody: Almost complete absorption of light in nanostructured metallic coatings,” Phys. Rev. B 78, No. 205405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Wang, G. C. Schatz, and S. K. Gray, “Ultrafast pulse excitation of a metallic nanosystem containing a Kerr nonlinear material,” Phys. Rev. B 74, No. 195439 (2006).

T. Zentgraf, T. P. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 76, No. 033407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, “Single-photon tunneling via localized surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, No. 187402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, No. 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of near-infrared negative-index materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, No. 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. S. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, No. 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical manifestations of planar chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, No. 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Tip-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for vibrational nano-imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, No. 220801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single Molecule Detection using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, No. 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emery, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer: New York, 2007).

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag: Berlin, 1995).

DiffractMOD, RSoft Design Group. http://www.rsoftdesign.com

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surface and on Gratings (Springer: Berlin, 1988).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the unit cell also showing the definition of the in-plane electric-field polarization angle, θ. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of an array with the inset showing magnified detail. (c) Schematic cross-section through the XY-segment, as shown in (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical arrangement of FTIR microscope showing optical paths for obtaining both reflection and transmission spectra.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (c), and (e) Measured FTIR transmission, reflection and absorption spectra (respectively) for an array of asymmetric cruciform apertures with Lx = 1675 nm, Ly = 1003 nm, gx = 418 nm and gy = 165 nm. These spectra show polarization angles varying from θ = 0 (blue) to θ = 90° (brown) in increments of 15°. (b), (d), and (f) Simulation of FTIR transmission, reflection and absorption spectra for asymmetric cruciform apertures with the above dimensions. (g) and (h) Measured transmission and simulation spectra for the control array of symmetric cruciform apertures with dimensions Lx = Ly = 1264 nm and gx = gy = 368 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated spatial profiles of the electric field for θ = 0 and θ = 90°. Panels a, b, c, and d show the field profiles at a wavelength of 3.9 μm (corresponding to peak A in Fig. 3b), while panels e, f, g, and h show the field profiles at a wavelength of 5.75 μm (corresponding to peak B in Fig. 3b). The electric field is normalized to the amplitude of the incident plane wave.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated spatial profiles of the electric field at the isosbestic point (λ = 4.75 μm, corresponding to point I in Fig. 3b) for θ = 0, θ = 45°, and θ = 90°. The electric field is normalized to the amplitude of the incident plane wave.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimentally measured transmission spectra for all fabricated arrays of asymmetric cruciform apertures at polarization angles of θ = 0 (black), θ = 45° (blue), and θ = 90° (red). The mean values of the other dimensions are Lx = 1645 nm, gx = 418 nm and gy = 165 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ly-dependence of the wavelength of the LSP transmission resonances A (blue) and B (red), and the isosbestic point I (green). Filled points are experimental data; unfilled points are data from simulations. Error bars in Ly correspond to the standard deviation of the fabricated device dimensions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmission through a cross array, designed for the 1.55 μm region, at several polarizations and for different wavelengths was measured using a 100 fs tunable optical parametric source. Each wavelength point was measured separately and averaged over many pulses. The dimensions of the array were Lx = 600 nm, Ly = 500 nm, gx = 200 nm and gy = 100 nm with a lattice constant of Λ = 700 nm.

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