Abstract

We present an experimental technique to characterize backscattering in silicon microring resonators, together with a simple analytical model that reproduces the experimental results. The model can extract all the key parameters of an add-drop-type resonator, which are the loss, both coupling coefficients and backscattering. We show that the backscattering effect strongly affects the resonance shape, and that consecutive resonances of the same ring can have very different backscattering parameters.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-Compact Si SiO Microring Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 549–551 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 7610–5 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. R. P. Vilson, R. Almeida, Carlos A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated With Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Coherent backscattering in optical microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081112 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, “Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators,” Opt. Lett. 22, 4–6 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Modal coupling in traveling-wave resonators,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1669–71 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, and M. Qiu, “Resonance-splitting and enhanced notch depth in SOI ring resonators with mutual mode coupling,” Opt. Express 16, 4621 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Morichetti, “Roughness Induced Backscattering in Optical Silicon Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 1–4 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. A. Haus, Waves and field in optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).
  11. T. A. I. J. Heebner and R. Grover, Optical Microresonators: Theory, Fabrication and Applications (Springer-Verlag, 2008).
  12. B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, and A. Melloni, “Statistics of backscattering in optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1777–9 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. R. McKinnon, D. X. Xu, C. Storey, E. Post, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Extracting coupling and loss coefficients from a ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17, 18971–82 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Coherent backscattering in optical microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, “Roughness Induced Backscattering in Optical Silicon Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 1–4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, and A. Melloni, “Statistics of backscattering in optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1777–9 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

2007

2004

R. R. P. Vilson, R. Almeida, Carlos A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated With Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

1997

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, “Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators,” Opt. Lett. 22, 4–6 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almeida, R.

R. R. P. Vilson, R. Almeida, Carlos A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 7610–5 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated With Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, Carlos A.

R. R. P. Vilson, R. Almeida, Carlos A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bartolozzi, I.

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated With Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 7610–5 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated With Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated With Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Canciamilla, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Coherent backscattering in optical microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, and A. Melloni, “Statistics of backscattering in optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1777–9 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, “Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators,” Opt. Lett. 22, 4–6 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-Compact Si SiO Microring Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dainese, M.

De La Rue, R. M.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Coherent backscattering in optical microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Dumon, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated With Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-Compact Si SiO Microring Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Greene, W.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-Compact Si SiO Microring Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grover, R.

T. A. I. J. Heebner and R. Grover, Optical Microresonators: Theory, Fabrication and Applications (Springer-Verlag, 2008).

Haus, H.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-Compact Si SiO Microring Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, Waves and field in optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).

Heebner, T. A. I. J.

T. A. I. J. Heebner and R. Grover, Optical Microresonators: Theory, Fabrication and Applications (Springer-Verlag, 2008).

Ippen, E. P.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-Compact Si SiO Microring Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Kimerling, L. C.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-Compact Si SiO Microring Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

Laine, J. P.

Laine, J.-P.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

R. R. P. Vilson, R. Almeida, Carlos A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Little, B.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, “Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators,” Opt. Lett. 22, 4–6 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-Compact Si SiO Microring Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luyssaert, B.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated With Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Coherent backscattering in optical microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McKinnon, W. R.

Melloni, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Coherent backscattering in optical microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, and A. Melloni, “Statistics of backscattering in optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1777–9 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morichetti, F.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, and A. Melloni, “Statistics of backscattering in optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1777–9 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Morichetti, “Roughness Induced Backscattering in Optical Silicon Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 1–4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Coherent backscattering in optical microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

Qiu, M.

Samarelli, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Coherent backscattering in optical microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schacht, E.

Schmid, J. H.

Sorel, M.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Coherent backscattering in optical microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

Steinmeyer, G.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-Compact Si SiO Microring Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Storey, C.

Taillaert, D.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated With Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-Compact Si SiO Microring Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

Van Campenhout, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated With Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated With Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vilson, R. R. P.

R. R. P. Vilson, R. Almeida, Carlos A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Waldron, P.

Wiaux, V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated With Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wosinski, L.

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated With Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. X.

Zhang, Z.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Coherent backscattering in optical microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated With Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature

R. R. P. Vilson, R. Almeida, Carlos A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

F. Morichetti, “Roughness Induced Backscattering in Optical Silicon Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 1–4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. A. Haus, Waves and field in optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).

T. A. I. J. Heebner and R. Grover, Optical Microresonators: Theory, Fabrication and Applications (Springer-Verlag, 2008).

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-Compact Si SiO Microring Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic view of the layout of add-drop rings with drop (D), counter-drop (C) and through (T) ports. The back reflected port represents the backreflected signal that returns to the input port

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online)Top panel: Transmission spectrum of each port of the microring: the through (red, solid), the drop (blue, dashed), and the counter-drop (green, dash-dot). Bottom panels: Detail of 3 resonances corresponding to the peaks at 1549, 1553 and 1558 nm, where transmission has been normalized. Solid curves are the experimental data and dashed lines are the analytical curves using the parameters extracted from the fitting procedure and shown on top of each subplot.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of expressions for calculating Q-factors of ring-resonators working under different backscattering regimes

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

K j = ω o L Q e , j v g α = ω o Q i v g R = ω o L 2 Q r v g
1 Q = 1 Q e , 1 + 1 Q e , 2 + 1 Q i
T = 1 2 Q e , 1 ( 2 j ( ω 1 ) + 1 Q ) ( 2 j ( ω 1 ) + 1 Q ) 2 + 1 Q r 2 2
D = 2 Q e , 1 Q e , 2 ( 2 j ( ω 1 ) + 1 Q ) ( 2 j ( ω 1 ) + 1 Q ) 2 + 1 Q r 2 2
C = 2 Q r Q e , 1 Q e , 2 ( 2 j ( ω 1 ) + 1 Q ) 2 + 1 Q r 2 2
Q = 1 Δ ω ( C o D o 1 + 2 ( C o D o ) 2 + 1 ) 1 / 2
Q r = 1 Q D o C o
Q e , 1 = 2 Q ( Q 2 + Q r 2 ) ( 1 ± T o )
Q e , 2 = 2 ( 1 ± T o ) Q D o ( Q 2 + Q r 2 )

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