Abstract

We demonstrate the first carrier-envelope phase (CEP)-stabilized chirped pulse amplification system with pulse peak-powers in the terawatt regime. The system, which eventually is intended to be used in the generation of isolated attosecond pulses, consists of two consecutive multipass amplification stages. The first amplification stage is a commercial CEP-stable kHz system including a single 13-pass amplifier reaching a pulse energy of 2.3 mJ. Pulses are picked after the first stage at a repetition rate of 50 Hz and are further amplified in a 5-pass power-amplifier to pulse energies that reach up to 80 mJ before compression. After compression the pulse energy is 35mJ at a pulse duration of 32 fs, signifying a peak power of 1.1 terawatt. Peak-powers exceeding 1.5 TW should easily be achievable by improving the efficiency of the grating compressor. The CEP-stability of the terawatt system is demonstrated by single shot measurements of the residual CEP jitter at the full repetition rate and show an excellent root-mean-square value of 315 mrad.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

2010 (7)

P. Heissler, R. Hrlein, M. Stafe, J. Mikhailova, Y. Nomura, D. Herrmann, R. Tautz, S. Rykovanov, I. Fldes, K. Varj, F. Tavella, A. Marcinkevicius, F. Krausz, L. Veisz, and G. Tsakiris, “Toward single attosecond pulses using harmonic emission from solid-density plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 511–521 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465763–766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kuhnel, M. Toppin, E. Plesiat, F. Morales, F. Martin, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dorner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Dusterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schroter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of d-2 by xuv-pump-xuv-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Phot. 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (4)

S. Koke, C. Grebing, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Fast f-to-2f interferometer for a direct measurement of the carrier-envelope phase drift of ultrashort amplified laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2545–2547 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Q. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. H. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Optimizing the photon flux of double optical gated high-order harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 063423 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (7)

T. Baeva, S. Gordienko, and A. Pukhov, “Relativistic plasma control for single attosecond x-ray burst generation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 065401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, “Carrier-envelope phase shift caused by grating-based stretchers and compressors,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8350–8353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Q. Li, E. Moon, and Z. H. Chang, “Carrier-envelope phase shift caused by variation of grating separation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3113–3115 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Q. Li, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, P. Ranitovic, C. M. Maharjan, C. L. Cocke, Z. H. Chang, and G. G. Paulus, “Precision control of carrier-envelope phase in grating based chirped pulse amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14, 11468–11476 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gagnon, I. Thomann, A. Paul, A. L. Lytle, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase stability from a grating-based, chirped pulse amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1866–1868 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. Siedschlag, H. G. Mller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses by two-color laser fields,” Las. Phys. 15, 916–925 (2005).

2004 (3)

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Naumova, J. A. Nees, I. V. Sokolov, B. Hou, and G. A. Mourou, “Relativistic generation of isolated attosecond pulses in a λ3 focal volume,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 063902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Thomann, E. Gagnon, R. J. Jones, A. S. Sandhu, A. Lytle, R. Anderson, J. Ye, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Investigation of a grating-based stretcher/compressor for carrier-envelope phase stabilized fs pulses,” Opt. Express 12, 3493–3499 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, T. Otsuka, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of highly coherent submicro-joule soft x rays by high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

L. A. A. Nikolopoulos and P. Lambropoulos, “Multichannel theory of two-photon single and double ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 34, 545–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Single-shot measurement of carrier-envelope phase changes by spectral interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1436–1438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Com. 172, 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. V. Bulanov, N. M. Naumova, and F. Pegoraro, “Interaction of an ultrashort, relativistically strong laser pulse with an overdense plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 745–757 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abel, M. J.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R.

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

Baeva, T.

T. Baeva, S. Gordienko, and A. Pukhov, “Relativistic plasma control for single attosecond x-ray burst generation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 065401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baltuska, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Muller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
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Midorikawa, K.

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
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Tavella, F.

P. Heissler, R. Hrlein, M. Stafe, J. Mikhailova, Y. Nomura, D. Herrmann, R. Tautz, S. Rykovanov, I. Fldes, K. Varj, F. Tavella, A. Marcinkevicius, F. Krausz, L. Veisz, and G. Tsakiris, “Toward single attosecond pulses using harmonic emission from solid-density plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 511–521 (2010).
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Tcherbakoff, O.

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
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Thomann, I.

Toppin, M.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kuhnel, M. Toppin, E. Plesiat, F. Morales, F. Martin, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dorner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Dusterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schroter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of d-2 by xuv-pump-xuv-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402 (2010).
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Treusch, R.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kuhnel, M. Toppin, E. Plesiat, F. Morales, F. Martin, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dorner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Dusterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schroter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of d-2 by xuv-pump-xuv-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402 (2010).
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Tsakiris, G.

P. Heissler, R. Hrlein, M. Stafe, J. Mikhailova, Y. Nomura, D. Herrmann, R. Tautz, S. Rykovanov, I. Fldes, K. Varj, F. Tavella, A. Marcinkevicius, F. Krausz, L. Veisz, and G. Tsakiris, “Toward single attosecond pulses using harmonic emission from solid-density plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 511–521 (2010).
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Tsakiris, G. D.

Y. Nomura, R. Horlein, P. Tzallas, B. Dromey, S. Rykovanov, Z. Major, J. Osterhoff, S. Karsch, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, D. Charalambidis, F. Krausz, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Attosecond phase locking of harmonics emitted from laser-produced plasmas,” Nat. Phys. 5, 124–128 (2009).
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Y. Nomura, R. Horlein, P. Tzallas, B. Dromey, S. Rykovanov, Z. Major, J. Osterhoff, S. Karsch, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, D. Charalambidis, F. Krausz, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Attosecond phase locking of harmonics emitted from laser-produced plasmas,” Nat. Phys. 5, 124–128 (2009).
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A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
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J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Com. 172, 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kuhnel, M. Toppin, E. Plesiat, F. Morales, F. Martin, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dorner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Dusterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schroter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of d-2 by xuv-pump-xuv-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402 (2010).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
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N. Ishii, R. Butkus, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, T. Fuji, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Smilgevicius, R. Danielius, A. Piskarskas, and F. Krausz, “Toward a terawatt few-optical-cycle driver laser for attosecond spectroscopy,” in “Ultrafast Phenomena XIV,”, vol. 79 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, T. Kobayashi, T. Okada, T. Kobayashi, K. A. Nelson, S. Silvestri, F. Schfer, J. Toennies, and W. Zinth, eds. (Springer BerlinHeidelberg, 2005), 8–12.
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Ullrich, J.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kuhnel, M. Toppin, E. Plesiat, F. Morales, F. Martin, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dorner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Dusterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schroter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of d-2 by xuv-pump-xuv-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402 (2010).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Muller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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van Tilborg, J.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kuhnel, M. Toppin, E. Plesiat, F. Morales, F. Martin, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dorner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Dusterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schroter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of d-2 by xuv-pump-xuv-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Varj, K.

P. Heissler, R. Hrlein, M. Stafe, J. Mikhailova, Y. Nomura, D. Herrmann, R. Tautz, S. Rykovanov, I. Fldes, K. Varj, F. Tavella, A. Marcinkevicius, F. Krausz, L. Veisz, and G. Tsakiris, “Toward single attosecond pulses using harmonic emission from solid-density plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 511–521 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Veisz, L.

P. Heissler, R. Hrlein, M. Stafe, J. Mikhailova, Y. Nomura, D. Herrmann, R. Tautz, S. Rykovanov, I. Fldes, K. Varj, F. Tavella, A. Marcinkevicius, F. Krausz, L. Veisz, and G. Tsakiris, “Toward single attosecond pulses using harmonic emission from solid-density plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 511–521 (2010).
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Y. Nomura, R. Horlein, P. Tzallas, B. Dromey, S. Rykovanov, Z. Major, J. Osterhoff, S. Karsch, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, D. Charalambidis, F. Krausz, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Attosecond phase locking of harmonics emitted from laser-produced plasmas,” Nat. Phys. 5, 124–128 (2009).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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Villeneuve, D. M.

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Phot. 4, 875–879 (2010).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465763–766 (2010).
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C. Siedschlag, H. G. Mller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses by two-color laser fields,” Las. Phys. 15, 916–925 (2005).

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C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501–509 (1999).
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Wang, H.

Wirth, A.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
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Wolf, A. L.

Wu, Y.

S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043810 (2010).
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X. M. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. H. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).

Yakoviev, V. S.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
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E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Muller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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N. Ishii, R. Butkus, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, T. Fuji, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Smilgevicius, R. Danielius, A. Piskarskas, and F. Krausz, “Toward a terawatt few-optical-cycle driver laser for attosecond spectroscopy,” in “Ultrafast Phenomena XIV,”, vol. 79 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, T. Kobayashi, T. Okada, T. Kobayashi, K. A. Nelson, S. Silvestri, F. Schfer, J. Toennies, and W. Zinth, eds. (Springer BerlinHeidelberg, 2005), 8–12.
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Zepf, M.

Y. Nomura, R. Horlein, P. Tzallas, B. Dromey, S. Rykovanov, Z. Major, J. Osterhoff, S. Karsch, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, D. Charalambidis, F. Krausz, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Attosecond phase locking of harmonics emitted from laser-produced plasmas,” Nat. Phys. 5, 124–128 (2009).
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Zhao, K.

S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043810 (2010).
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X. M. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. H. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).

Zherebtsov, S.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465763–766 (2010).
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E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
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Zinkstok, R. T.

Znakovskaya, I.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465763–766 (2010).
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Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kuhnel, M. Toppin, E. Plesiat, F. Morales, F. Martin, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dorner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Dusterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schroter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of d-2 by xuv-pump-xuv-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. B (3)

P. Heissler, R. Hrlein, M. Stafe, J. Mikhailova, Y. Nomura, D. Herrmann, R. Tautz, S. Rykovanov, I. Fldes, K. Varj, F. Tavella, A. Marcinkevicius, F. Krausz, L. Veisz, and G. Tsakiris, “Toward single attosecond pulses using harmonic emission from solid-density plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 511–521 (2010).
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H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
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C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501–509 (1999).
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L. A. A. Nikolopoulos and P. Lambropoulos, “Multichannel theory of two-photon single and double ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 34, 545–564 (2001).
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C. Siedschlag, H. G. Mller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses by two-color laser fields,” Las. Phys. 15, 916–925 (2005).

Nat. Phot. (1)

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Phot. 4, 875–879 (2010).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

Y. Nomura, R. Horlein, P. Tzallas, B. Dromey, S. Rykovanov, Z. Major, J. Osterhoff, S. Karsch, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, D. Charalambidis, F. Krausz, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Attosecond phase locking of harmonics emitted from laser-produced plasmas,” Nat. Phys. 5, 124–128 (2009).
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Nature (5)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
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G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. Perez-Torres, F. Morales, M. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lepine, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martin, and M. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465763–766 (2010).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Muller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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Opt. Com. (1)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Com. 172, 59–68 (1999).
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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (7)

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E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, T. Otsuka, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of highly coherent submicro-joule soft x rays by high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021802 (2002).
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S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043810 (2010).
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H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Optimizing the photon flux of double optical gated high-order harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 063423 (2008).
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Phys. Rev. E (1)

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

N. M. Naumova, J. A. Nees, I. V. Sokolov, B. Hou, and G. A. Mourou, “Relativistic generation of isolated attosecond pulses in a λ3 focal volume,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 063902 (2004).
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X. M. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. H. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Q. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. H. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
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Science (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the complete laser system including the elements for CEP-stabilization. The oscillator is stabilized using a piezo actuated tilt mirror [30] in combination with Menlo XPS f-2f interferometer and PLL-electronics. The output of both amplifier stages is stabilized by controlling the grating separation in the grating compressors [3133]. The second amplification stage amplifies pulses at 50 Hz to the TW level while maintaining the same residual phase error as in the kHz-arm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characteristics of the compressed 2 TW peak-power pulses. (a) The spectral profiles of the laser pulses before (black solid line) and after (dashed red line) amplification and their respective FWHM bandwidth. (b) The black curve shows the temporal pulse profile measured with SPIDER. The profile was fitted with a gaussian curve (dashed red line) which gives a FWHM duration of 32 fs. (c) The inset shows the spatial beam profile in the farfield as measured after a 1m focal length lens. It exhibits a slightly non-gaussian structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Short term CEP measurements showing the stabilized (black dots) phase and the necessary compensating phase (black line) that is introduced in the grating compressor. For comparison typical cases of the free-running CEP evolution in the kHz arm (green triangles) and in the 50 Hz arm (red circles) are depicted as well. These measurements were not taken simultaneously and therefore one cannot draw any conclusions on correlation between the free running evolution in the two arms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement of the CEP stability over an extended time interval. The red curve shows the CEP single shot CEP measurements of the 50 Hz TW-amplifier in the optimal configuration. The dots in green and black show the same measurement when averaging over three shots and five shots respectively. Histograms for all three cases are shown on the right with the respective rms error values of 315 mrad, 190 mrad and 149 mrad. For comparison a short measurement of the phase jitter is included in the case of low extraction efficiency (21%) (blue dots).The respective rms value is 767 mrad.

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