Abstract

We present a compact 1.3 × 4 μm2 Germanium waveguide photodiode, integrated in a CMOS compatible silicon photonics process flow. This photodiode has a best-in-class 3 dB cutoff frequency of 45 GHz, responsivity of 0.8 A/W and dark current of 3 nA. The low intrinsic capacitance of this device may enable the elimination of transimpedance amplifiers in future optical data communication receivers, creating ultra low power consumption optical communications.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. X. Kartner, and J. Michel, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors” Opt. Express15, 3916–3921 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Yin, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate” Opt. Express 15, 13965–13971 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Advances in Optical Technologies196572 (5 pp.) (2008).
  4. M. Oehme, J. WWerner, M. Kaschel, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Germanium waveguide photodetectors integrated on silicon with MBE,” Thin Solid Films 517, 137–139 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n. Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 1, 6252–6257 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18, 204–211 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 112–114 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19, 10967–10972 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. A. B. Miller, “Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1167–1185 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow Power Silicon Microdisk Modulators and Switches,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008) pp.4–6.
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Maximally confined silicon microphotonic modulators and switches,” in Proceedings of LEOS (IEEE, 2008) pp. 457–458.
  14. M.R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, A. L. Lentine, and W. A. Zortman, “Limits to Silicon Modulator Bandwidth and Power Consumption,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210M-1–72210M-8 (2009).
  15. M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, “Adiabatic resonant microrings (ARMs) with directly integrated thermal microphotonics,” in 2009 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2009) paper CPDB10.
  16. M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,”IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quatnum Electron. 16, 159–164 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. A. Zortman, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Power High-Speed Silicon Microdisk Modulators,” in 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2010) paper CThJ4.
  18. C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D.L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon Microring Modulator with Integrated Heater and Temperature Sensor for Thermal Control,” in 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2010) paper CThJ3.
  19. W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, A. L. Lentine, G. Robertson, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic Integration of Silicon Electronics and Photonics,” in 2011 IEEE Winter Topicals (WTM), (IEEE, 2011) pp. 139–140.
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, R. W. Young, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, W. A. Zortman, and R. D. Kekatpure, “Low power and broadband 2x2 silicon thermo-optic switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Confererence (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper OThM3.
  21. J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes With 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510–1512 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, “Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n Photodetectors for Standard Receiver Modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442–2444 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-Performance p-i-n Ge on Si Photodetectors for the Near Infrared: From Model to Demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1092–1096 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, F. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1813–1815 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  28. L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on Silicon for Near-Infrared Light Sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 69–79 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. A. Omar and L. Reggiani, “Drift Velocity and Diffusivity of Hot Carriers in Germanium: Model Calculations,” Solid State Electron. 30, 1351–1354 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,”IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quatnum Electron. 16, 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18, 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on Silicon for Near-Infrared Light Sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 69–79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n. Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 1, 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1167–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M.R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, A. L. Lentine, and W. A. Zortman, “Limits to Silicon Modulator Bandwidth and Power Consumption,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210M-1–72210M-8 (2009).

2008 (1)

M. Oehme, J. WWerner, M. Kaschel, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Germanium waveguide photodetectors integrated on silicon with MBE,” Thin Solid Films 517, 137–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. Yin, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate” Opt. Express 15, 13965–13971 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, F. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, “Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n Photodetectors for Standard Receiver Modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442–2444 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes With 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-Performance p-i-n Ge on Si Photodetectors for the Near Infrared: From Model to Demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. A. Omar and L. Reggiani, “Drift Velocity and Diffusivity of Hot Carriers in Germanium: Model Calculations,” Solid State Electron. 30, 1351–1354 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. X. Kartner, and J. Michel, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors” Opt. Express15, 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alon, E.

Asghari, M.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19, 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on Silicon for Near-Infrared Light Sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 69–79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, F. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-Performance p-i-n Ge on Si Photodetectors for the Near Infrared: From Model to Demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. X. Kartner, and J. Michel, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors” Opt. Express15, 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berroth, M.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes With 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bolle, C. A.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D. D.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Capellini, G.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Advances in Optical Technologies196572 (5 pp.) (2008).

Cassan, E.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n. Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 1, 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. X. Kartner, and J. Michel, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors” Opt. Express15, 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. M.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-K.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

T. Yin, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate” Opt. Express 15, 13965–13971 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, “Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n Photodetectors for Standard Receiver Modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442–2444 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Colace, L.

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on Silicon for Near-Infrared Light Sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 69–79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, F. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-Performance p-i-n Ge on Si Photodetectors for the Near Infrared: From Model to Demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n. Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 1, 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Damlencourt, J.-F.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n. Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 1, 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, D. T.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DeRose, C. T.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D.L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon Microring Modulator with Integrated Heater and Temperature Sensor for Thermal Control,” in 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2010) paper CThJ3.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, R. W. Young, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, W. A. Zortman, and R. D. Kekatpure, “Low power and broadband 2x2 silicon thermo-optic switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Confererence (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper OThM3.

Doerr, C. R.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19, 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dosunmu, O.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, “Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n Photodetectors for Standard Receiver Modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442–2444 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Earnshaw, M. P.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n. Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 1, 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19, 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.-N.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19, 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferrara, P.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, F. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fong, J.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19, 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fulgoni, F.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, F. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giziewicz, W.

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. X. Kartner, and J. Michel, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors” Opt. Express15, 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunn, C.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Advances in Optical Technologies196572 (5 pp.) (2008).

Ho, R.

Hong, C.-Y.

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. X. Kartner, and J. Michel, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors” Opt. Express15, 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, Y.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jongthammanurak, S.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jutzi, M.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes With 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. X. Kartner, and J. Michel, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors” Opt. Express15, 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaschel, M.

M. Oehme, J. WWerner, M. Kaschel, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Germanium waveguide photodetectors integrated on silicon with MBE,” Thin Solid Films 517, 137–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, E.

M. Oehme, J. WWerner, M. Kaschel, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Germanium waveguide photodetectors integrated on silicon with MBE,” Thin Solid Films 517, 137–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes With 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kekatpure, R. D.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, R. W. Young, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, W. A. Zortman, and R. D. Kekatpure, “Low power and broadband 2x2 silicon thermo-optic switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Confererence (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper OThM3.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-Performance p-i-n Ge on Si Photodetectors for the Near Infrared: From Model to Demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. X. Kartner, and J. Michel, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors” Opt. Express15, 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirfel, O.

M. Oehme, J. WWerner, M. Kaschel, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Germanium waveguide photodetectors integrated on silicon with MBE,” Thin Solid Films 517, 137–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kung, C.-C.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19, 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n. Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 1, 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lecunff, Y.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n. Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 1, 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,”IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quatnum Electron. 16, 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, A. L. Lentine, and W. A. Zortman, “Limits to Silicon Modulator Bandwidth and Power Consumption,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210M-1–72210M-8 (2009).

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow Power Silicon Microdisk Modulators and Switches,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008) pp.4–6.
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Maximally confined silicon microphotonic modulators and switches,” in Proceedings of LEOS (IEEE, 2008) pp. 457–458.

W. A. Zortman, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Power High-Speed Silicon Microdisk Modulators,” in 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2010) paper CThJ4.

W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, A. L. Lentine, G. Robertson, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic Integration of Silicon Electronics and Photonics,” in 2011 IEEE Winter Topicals (WTM), (IEEE, 2011) pp. 139–140.
[CrossRef]

Lexau, J.

Li, G.

Liang, H.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19, 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, S.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19, 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. X. Kartner, and J. Michel, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors” Opt. Express15, 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Luan, H.-C.

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-Performance p-i-n Ge on Si Photodetectors for the Near Infrared: From Model to Demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luck, D. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, “Adiabatic resonant microrings (ARMs) with directly integrated thermal microphotonics,” in 2009 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2009) paper CPDB10.

Luck, D.L.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D.L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon Microring Modulator with Integrated Heater and Temperature Sensor for Thermal Control,” in 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2010) paper CThJ3.

Luo, Y.

Marris-Morini, D.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n. Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 1, 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Masini, G.

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-Performance p-i-n Ge on Si Photodetectors for the Near Infrared: From Model to Demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Advances in Optical Technologies196572 (5 pp.) (2008).

Mekis, A.

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. X. Kartner, and J. Michel, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors” Opt. Express15, 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1167–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, “Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n Photodetectors for Standard Receiver Modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442–2444 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M. M.

Nash, L.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, F. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nielson, G. N.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, “Adiabatic resonant microrings (ARMs) with directly integrated thermal microphotonics,” in 2009 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2009) paper CPDB10.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D.L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon Microring Modulator with Integrated Heater and Temperature Sensor for Thermal Control,” in 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2010) paper CThJ3.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, R. W. Young, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, W. A. Zortman, and R. D. Kekatpure, “Low power and broadband 2x2 silicon thermo-optic switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Confererence (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper OThM3.

Oehme, M.

M. Oehme, J. WWerner, M. Kaschel, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Germanium waveguide photodetectors integrated on silicon with MBE,” Thin Solid Films 517, 137–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes With 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Omar, M. A.

M. A. Omar and L. Reggiani, “Drift Velocity and Diffusivity of Hot Carriers in Germanium: Model Calculations,” Solid State Electron. 30, 1351–1354 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Osmond, J.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n. Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 1, 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

Patil, D.

Pinguet, T.

Qian, W.

Raj, K.

Rasras, M. S.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reggiani, L.

M. A. Omar and L. Reggiani, “Drift Velocity and Diffusivity of Hot Carriers in Germanium: Model Calculations,” Solid State Electron. 30, 1351–1354 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, G.

W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, A. L. Lentine, G. Robertson, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic Integration of Silicon Electronics and Photonics,” in 2011 IEEE Winter Topicals (WTM), (IEEE, 2011) pp. 139–140.
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

Sahni, S.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Advances in Optical Technologies196572 (5 pp.) (2008).

Sandland, J. G.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, G.

T. Yin, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate” Opt. Express 15, 13965–13971 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, “Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n Photodetectors for Standard Receiver Modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442–2444 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19, 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

Thacker, H.

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,”IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quatnum Electron. 16, 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, A. L. Lentine, and W. A. Zortman, “Limits to Silicon Modulator Bandwidth and Power Consumption,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210M-1–72210M-8 (2009).

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, “Adiabatic resonant microrings (ARMs) with directly integrated thermal microphotonics,” in 2009 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2009) paper CPDB10.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Maximally confined silicon microphotonic modulators and switches,” in Proceedings of LEOS (IEEE, 2008) pp. 457–458.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow Power Silicon Microdisk Modulators and Switches,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008) pp.4–6.
[CrossRef]

W. A. Zortman, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Power High-Speed Silicon Microdisk Modulators,” in 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2010) paper CThJ4.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D.L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon Microring Modulator with Integrated Heater and Temperature Sensor for Thermal Control,” in 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2010) paper CThJ3.

W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, A. L. Lentine, G. Robertson, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic Integration of Silicon Electronics and Photonics,” in 2011 IEEE Winter Topicals (WTM), (IEEE, 2011) pp. 139–140.
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, R. W. Young, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, W. A. Zortman, and R. D. Kekatpure, “Low power and broadband 2x2 silicon thermo-optic switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Confererence (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper OThM3.

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n. Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 1, 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,”IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quatnum Electron. 16, 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Zortman, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Power High-Speed Silicon Microdisk Modulators,” in 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2010) paper CThJ4.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D.L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon Microring Modulator with Integrated Heater and Temperature Sensor for Thermal Control,” in 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2010) paper CThJ3.

W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, A. L. Lentine, G. Robertson, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic Integration of Silicon Electronics and Photonics,” in 2011 IEEE Winter Topicals (WTM), (IEEE, 2011) pp. 139–140.
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, R. W. Young, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, W. A. Zortman, and R. D. Kekatpure, “Low power and broadband 2x2 silicon thermo-optic switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Confererence (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper OThM3.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Maximally confined silicon microphotonic modulators and switches,” in Proceedings of LEOS (IEEE, 2008) pp. 457–458.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, “Adiabatic resonant microrings (ARMs) with directly integrated thermal microphotonics,” in 2009 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2009) paper CPDB10.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow Power Silicon Microdisk Modulators and Switches,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008) pp.4–6.
[CrossRef]

Watts, M.R.

M.R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, A. L. Lentine, and W. A. Zortman, “Limits to Silicon Modulator Bandwidth and Power Consumption,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210M-1–72210M-8 (2009).

Weiner, J. S.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Witzens, J.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Advances in Optical Technologies196572 (5 pp.) (2008).

Wohl, G.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes With 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

WWerner, J.

M. Oehme, J. WWerner, M. Kaschel, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Germanium waveguide photodetectors integrated on silicon with MBE,” Thin Solid Films 517, 137–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

Yin, T.

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,”IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quatnum Electron. 16, 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, A. L. Lentine, and W. A. Zortman, “Limits to Silicon Modulator Bandwidth and Power Consumption,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210M-1–72210M-8 (2009).

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Maximally confined silicon microphotonic modulators and switches,” in Proceedings of LEOS (IEEE, 2008) pp. 457–458.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow Power Silicon Microdisk Modulators and Switches,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008) pp.4–6.
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, “Adiabatic resonant microrings (ARMs) with directly integrated thermal microphotonics,” in 2009 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2009) paper CPDB10.

W. A. Zortman, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Power High-Speed Silicon Microdisk Modulators,” in 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2010) paper CThJ4.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D.L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon Microring Modulator with Integrated Heater and Temperature Sensor for Thermal Control,” in 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2010) paper CThJ3.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, R. W. Young, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, W. A. Zortman, and R. D. Kekatpure, “Low power and broadband 2x2 silicon thermo-optic switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Confererence (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper OThM3.

Zheng, D.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

Zortman, W. A.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,”IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quatnum Electron. 16, 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, A. L. Lentine, and W. A. Zortman, “Limits to Silicon Modulator Bandwidth and Power Consumption,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210M-1–72210M-8 (2009).

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, “Adiabatic resonant microrings (ARMs) with directly integrated thermal microphotonics,” in 2009 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2009) paper CPDB10.

W. A. Zortman, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Power High-Speed Silicon Microdisk Modulators,” in 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2010) paper CThJ4.

W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, A. L. Lentine, G. Robertson, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic Integration of Silicon Electronics and Photonics,” in 2011 IEEE Winter Topicals (WTM), (IEEE, 2011) pp. 139–140.
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, R. W. Young, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, W. A. Zortman, and R. D. Kekatpure, “Low power and broadband 2x2 silicon thermo-optic switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Confererence (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper OThM3.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quatnum Electron. (1)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,”IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quatnum Electron. 16, 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on Silicon for Near-Infrared Light Sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 69–79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, F. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes With 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, “Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n Photodetectors for Standard Receiver Modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442–2444 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-Performance p-i-n Ge on Si Photodetectors for the Near Infrared: From Model to Demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics (1)

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1167–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M.R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, A. L. Lentine, and W. A. Zortman, “Limits to Silicon Modulator Bandwidth and Power Consumption,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210M-1–72210M-8 (2009).

Solid State Electron. (1)

M. A. Omar and L. Reggiani, “Drift Velocity and Diffusivity of Hot Carriers in Germanium: Model Calculations,” Solid State Electron. 30, 1351–1354 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. Oehme, J. WWerner, M. Kaschel, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Germanium waveguide photodetectors integrated on silicon with MBE,” Thin Solid Films 517, 137–139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Advances in Optical Technologies196572 (5 pp.) (2008).

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, “Adiabatic resonant microrings (ARMs) with directly integrated thermal microphotonics,” in 2009 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2009) paper CPDB10.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow Power Silicon Microdisk Modulators and Switches,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008) pp.4–6.
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Maximally confined silicon microphotonic modulators and switches,” in Proceedings of LEOS (IEEE, 2008) pp. 457–458.

W. A. Zortman, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Power High-Speed Silicon Microdisk Modulators,” in 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2010) paper CThJ4.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D.L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon Microring Modulator with Integrated Heater and Temperature Sensor for Thermal Control,” in 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2010) paper CThJ3.

W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, A. L. Lentine, G. Robertson, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic Integration of Silicon Electronics and Photonics,” in 2011 IEEE Winter Topicals (WTM), (IEEE, 2011) pp. 139–140.
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, R. W. Young, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, W. A. Zortman, and R. D. Kekatpure, “Low power and broadband 2x2 silicon thermo-optic switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Confererence (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper OThM3.

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. X. Kartner, and J. Michel, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors” Opt. Express15, 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TEM cross-section of selective area epitaxially grown Ge structure showing overgrowth before CMP and low threading dislocation defect density.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of Germanium waveguide n-i-p photodiode. (b) SEM cross-section of final selective area epitaxially grown Ge photodiode with final electrical contacts.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured linear trend between dark current density at 1 V reverse bias and photodiode width. Each point is the average of 11 separate measurements. (b) Typical set of IV curves for photodiode 1.3 μm wide for various lengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured responsivity for 1.3 μm wide Ge waveguide photodiodes with various lengths, measured with −10 dBm of TM polarized light (b) NEP as a function of wavelength for the same 1.3 μm wide Ge photodiodes, measured for −10 dBm of TM polariled light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Dark current-voltage (IV) and Illuminated (λ = 1.53 μm) current-voltage (LIV) characteristics of a 1.3 x 4 μm2 Ge photodiode (b) Bandwidth of 1.3 × 4 μm2 Ge photodiode at 2 V reverse bias, measured using an optical heterodyne technique showing a 3-dB roll off frequency of 45 GHz. Inset shows saturation of bandwidth at 0.8 V reverse bias for a photocurrent of 300 μA.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the measured characteristics of integrated Ge photodiodes for different width (W) x length (L) geometries.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V b i = k B T q log ( N A N D n i 2 )

Metrics