Abstract

We report the observation of optical bistability in Si-based photonic crystal cavities operating around 4.5 µm. Time domain measurements indicate that the source of this optical bistability is thermal, with a time constant on the order of 5 µs. Quality (Q) factor improvement is shown by the use of surface treatments (wet processes and annealing), resulting in a significant increase in Q-factor, which in our best devices is on the order of ~45,000 at 4.48 µm. After annealing in a N2 environment, optical bistability is no longer seen in our cavities.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

2010

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. Monat, E. Mägi, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photosensitive and thermal nonlinear effects in chalcogenide photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26695–26703 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-25-26695 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-12-12127 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali, “Silicon photonics: nonlinear optics in the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 506–508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. P. Pernice, M. Li, and H. X. Tang, “Time-domain measurement of optical transport in silicon micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18438–18452 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=205135 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. de Rossi, M. Lauritano, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, and C. Husko, “Interplay of plasma-induced and fast thermal nonlinearities in a GaAs-based photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043818 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-23-21108 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Brunstein, R. Braive, R. Hostein, A. Beveratos, I. Rober-Philip, I. Sagnes, T. J. Karle, A. M. Yacomotti, J. A. Levenson, V. Moreau, G. Tessier, and Y. De Wilde, “Thermo-optical dynamics in an optically pumped photonic crystal nano-cavity,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17118–17129 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=185892 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

E. Weidner, S. Combrie, A. de Rossi, N. V. Q. Tran, and S. Cassette, “Nonlinear and bistable behavior of an ultrahigh-Q GaAs photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Kitamura, L. Pilon, and M. Jonasz, “Optical constants of silica glass from extreme ultraviolet to far infrared at near room temperature,” Appl. Opt. 46(33), 8118–8133 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Uesugi, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Investigation of optical nonlinearities in an ultra-high-Q Si nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Opt. Express 14(1), 377–386 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=86921 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and A. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, “Nonlinear response of silicon photonic crystal microresonators excited via an integrated waveguide and fiber taper,” Opt. Express 13(3), 801–820 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-3-801 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2678–2687 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?&id=83310 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frederick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

1996

Y. Yamashita, K. Namba, Y. Nakato, Y. Nishioka, and H. Kobayashi, “Spectroscopic observation of interface states of ultrathin silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(9), 7051–7057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1983

H. Froitzheim, H. Lammering, and H. L. Gunter, “Energy-loss-spectroscopy studies on the adsorption of hydrogen on cleaved Si(111)-(2x1) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 27(4), 2278–2284 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Aers, G. C.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frederick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alic, N.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Andreani, L. C.

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

Asher, W.

Atanackovic, P.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Barclay, P. E.

Belotti, M.

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beveratos, A.

Boggio, J. M. C.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Borselli, M.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Braive, R.

Brunstein, M.

Buchwald, A. R.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and A. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D.

Bulu, I.

Cassette, S.

E. Weidner, S. Combrie, A. de Rossi, N. V. Q. Tran, and S. Cassette, “Nonlinear and bistable behavior of an ultrahigh-Q GaAs photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, I. W.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frederick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. Y.

Combrie, S.

A. de Rossi, M. Lauritano, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, and C. Husko, “Interplay of plasma-induced and fast thermal nonlinearities in a GaAs-based photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043818 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Weidner, S. Combrie, A. de Rossi, N. V. Q. Tran, and S. Cassette, “Nonlinear and bistable behavior of an ultrahigh-Q GaAs photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dalacu, D.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frederick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Rossi, A.

A. de Rossi, M. Lauritano, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, and C. Husko, “Interplay of plasma-induced and fast thermal nonlinearities in a GaAs-based photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043818 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Weidner, S. Combrie, A. de Rossi, N. V. Q. Tran, and S. Cassette, “Nonlinear and bistable behavior of an ultrahigh-Q GaAs photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Wilde, Y.

Deotare, P. B.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Divliansky, I. B.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duvall, S. G.

Eggleton, B. J.

Emelett, S. J.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and A. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frank, I. W.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frederick, S.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frederick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Froitzheim, H.

H. Froitzheim, H. Lammering, and H. L. Gunter, “Energy-loss-spectroscopy studies on the adsorption of hydrogen on cleaved Si(111)-(2x1) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 27(4), 2278–2284 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gai, X.

Galli, M.

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

Gunter, H. L.

H. Froitzheim, H. Lammering, and H. L. Gunter, “Energy-loss-spectroscopy studies on the adsorption of hydrogen on cleaved Si(111)-(2x1) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 27(4), 2278–2284 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Haret, L. D.

Hochberg, M.

Hostein, R.

Hu, Y. F.

Hudson, D.

Husko, C.

A. de Rossi, M. Lauritano, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, and C. Husko, “Interplay of plasma-induced and fast thermal nonlinearities in a GaAs-based photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043818 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ilic, R.

Jackson, S. D.

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali, “Silicon photonics: nonlinear optics in the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 506–508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. J.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jonasz, M.

Karle, T. J.

Khan, M.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kira, G.

Kitamura, R.

Kobayashi, H.

Y. Yamashita, K. Namba, Y. Nakato, Y. Nishioka, and H. Kobayashi, “Spectroscopic observation of interface states of ultrathin silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(9), 7051–7057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

Lammering, H.

H. Froitzheim, H. Lammering, and H. L. Gunter, “Energy-loss-spectroscopy studies on the adsorption of hydrogen on cleaved Si(111)-(2x1) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 27(4), 2278–2284 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lauritano, M.

A. de Rossi, M. Lauritano, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, and C. Husko, “Interplay of plasma-induced and fast thermal nonlinearities in a GaAs-based photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043818 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. W.

Leijssen, R.

Levenson, J. A.

Li, F. X.

Li, M.

Lipson, M.

Liu, X. P.

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

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[CrossRef]

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M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frederick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
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M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frederick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
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J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

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Nat. Mater.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
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Nat. Photonics

B. Jalali, “Silicon photonics: nonlinear optics in the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 506–508 (2010).
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X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cavity spectrum (of as-processed device) taken at various input powers showing characteristic bistable lineshape. Power levels given represent the power after the objective. Inset (a) shows cold cavity resonance and Fano fit to lineshape; Q = 13,600. Inset (b) shows scanning electron micrograph of one of our L3 cavities.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power input-power output hysteresis curves. Onset of bistability is seen at a detuning of 300 pm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal response of bistable cavities excited with light modulated at 80kHz and 200kHz. (a) For 80 kHz modulation, clear bistability can be observed for detunings higher than 300 pm: the waveform deviates from the sinusoid, taking on more of a square waveform at detunings of 300 and 380 pm. At δ = 410 pm, we see a sharp discontinuity in the waveform because we are at the drop-off wavelength at this particular power level. (b) For 200 kHz modulation, distortion is reduced and detected waveform tends to sinusoidal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of different post-fabrication treatments on cavity Q. All spectra are taken at low pump powers, well below bistability threshold. (a) Cavity as-processed. (b) After HF dip. (c) After 3X Piranha/HF cycle. Note large blue-shift. (d) After annealing.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cavity spectrum taken before (blue) and after (red) annealing in a N2 environment. The blue spectrum and corresponding hysteresis loop (taken at δ = 330 pm ≈2δmin) show clear evidence of bistability, while the red spectrum and corresponding hysteresis loop (taken at the same detuning of δ = 330 pm) indicate that bistability is no longer present.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of Potential Sources of Absorption in our Si Photonic Crystal Cavities at 4.5 µm

Equations (1)

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Q absorption = 2πn λα ,

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