Abstract

A novel photonic-assisted technique for instantaneous microwave frequency measurement is proposed using two cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) biased at the transmission null point. Then, the microwave frequency can be estimated by monitoring direct current (DC) optical power. Moreover, the measurement range and the measurement resolution can be optimized by setting the time delay between optical and electrical link and optical dispersion, respectively. The approach is theoretically investigated and experimentally verified with a measurement range of 8 GHz and a measurement error of less than ± 0.15 GHz.

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References

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  1. H. Gruciiala and A. Slowik, “The complex signals instantaneous frequency measurement using multichannel IFM systems,” in Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Microwaves, Radar and Wireless Communications, 1, 210–213 (2004).
  2. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Niu, S. Fu, K. Xu, J. Zhou, S. Aditya, J. Wu, P. Shum, and J. T. Lin, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement based on amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay loop and broadband incoherent light source,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 78–84 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. V. T. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. H. Zou and J. Yao, “An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1989–1991 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Li, S. Fu, K. Xu, J. Q. Zhou, P. Shum, J. Wu, and J. Lin, “Photonic-assisted microwave frequency measurement with higher resolution and tunable range,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 743–745 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22983–22991 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. V. Drummond, P. Monteiro, and R. N. Nogueira, “Photonic RF instantaneous frequency measurement system by means of a polarizatio-ndomain interferometer,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5433–5438 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. Shum, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous Microwave Frequency Measurement Using a Photonic Microwave Filter with an Infinite Impulse Response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 682–684 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. H. Zou, W. Pan, B. Luo, and L. Yan, “Full-scale phase demodulation approach for photonic instantaneous frequency measurement,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2747–2749 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. Bui, and A. Mitchell, “Reduced cost photonic instantaneous frequency measurement system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1521–1523 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1249–1251 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Zou, H. Chi, and J. Yao, “Microwave frequency measurement based on optical power monitoring using a complementary optical filter pair,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(2), 505–511 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. A. F. Roelens, S. Frisken, J. A. Bolger, D. Abakoumov, G. Baxter, S. Poole, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion trimming in a reconfigurable wavelength selective switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 73–78 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

X. H. Zou, W. Pan, B. Luo, and L. Yan, “Full-scale phase demodulation approach for photonic instantaneous frequency measurement,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2747–2749 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. Shum, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous Microwave Frequency Measurement Using a Photonic Microwave Filter with an Infinite Impulse Response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 682–684 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

2008 (4)

M. A. F. Roelens, S. Frisken, J. A. Bolger, D. Abakoumov, G. Baxter, S. Poole, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion trimming in a reconfigurable wavelength selective switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 73–78 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. Bui, and A. Mitchell, “Reduced cost photonic instantaneous frequency measurement system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1521–1523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1249–1251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Zou and J. Yao, “An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1989–1991 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

L. V. T. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Abakoumov, D.

Aditya, S.

J. Niu, S. Fu, K. Xu, J. Zhou, S. Aditya, J. Wu, P. Shum, and J. T. Lin, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement based on amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay loop and broadband incoherent light source,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 78–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. Shum, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous Microwave Frequency Measurement Using a Photonic Microwave Filter with an Infinite Impulse Response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 682–684 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, G.

Bolger, J. A.

Bui, L.

N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. Bui, and A. Mitchell, “Reduced cost photonic instantaneous frequency measurement system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1521–1523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bui, L. A.

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chi, H.

X. Zou, H. Chi, and J. Yao, “Microwave frequency measurement based on optical power monitoring using a complementary optical filter pair,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(2), 505–511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1249–1251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, M. V.

Eggleton, B. J.

Emami, H.

L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22983–22991 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. Bui, and A. Mitchell, “Reduced cost photonic instantaneous frequency measurement system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1521–1523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frisken, S.

Fu, S.

Hunter, D. B.

L. V. T. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lin, J.

Lin, J. T.

Luo, B.

Mitchell, A.

L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22983–22991 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. Bui, and A. Mitchell, “Reduced cost photonic instantaneous frequency measurement system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1521–1523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Monteiro, P.

Nguyen, L. V. T.

L. V. T. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Niu, J.

Nogueira, R. N.

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

Pelusi, M. D.

Poole, S.

Roelens, M. A. F.

Sarkhosh, N.

L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22983–22991 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. Bui, and A. Mitchell, “Reduced cost photonic instantaneous frequency measurement system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1521–1523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Vo, T. D.

Wu, J.

Xu, K.

Yan, L.

Yao, J.

J. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. Shum, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous Microwave Frequency Measurement Using a Photonic Microwave Filter with an Infinite Impulse Response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 682–684 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Zou, H. Chi, and J. Yao, “Microwave frequency measurement based on optical power monitoring using a complementary optical filter pair,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(2), 505–511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1249–1251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Zou and J. Yao, “An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1989–1991 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Niu, S. Fu, K. Xu, J. Zhou, S. Aditya, J. Wu, P. Shum, and J. T. Lin, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement based on amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay loop and broadband incoherent light source,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 78–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. Shum, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous Microwave Frequency Measurement Using a Photonic Microwave Filter with an Infinite Impulse Response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 682–684 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J. Q.

Zou, X.

X. Zou, H. Chi, and J. Yao, “Microwave frequency measurement based on optical power monitoring using a complementary optical filter pair,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(2), 505–511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1249–1251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zou, X. H.

X. H. Zou, W. Pan, B. Luo, and L. Yan, “Full-scale phase demodulation approach for photonic instantaneous frequency measurement,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2747–2749 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Zou and J. Yao, “An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1989–1991 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

J. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. Shum, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous Microwave Frequency Measurement Using a Photonic Microwave Filter with an Infinite Impulse Response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 682–684 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. Bui, and A. Mitchell, “Reduced cost photonic instantaneous frequency measurement system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1521–1523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1249–1251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. V. T. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Zou and J. Yao, “An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1989–1991 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

X. Zou, H. Chi, and J. Yao, “Microwave frequency measurement based on optical power monitoring using a complementary optical filter pair,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(2), 505–511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

H. Gruciiala and A. Slowik, “The complex signals instantaneous frequency measurement using multichannel IFM systems,” in Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Microwaves, Radar and Wireless Communications, 1, 210–213 (2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic setup for the proposed IFM system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the proposed IFM approach.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical optimization of proposed ACF. (a) with respect to Δ τ 2 . (b) with respect to the ΔΓ .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement results. (a) Measured ACF and theoretical ACF against frequency. (b) Estimated frequency versus the input microwave frequency.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurement error as a function of input frequency

Equations (9)

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v 1 ( t )= V 2 cos( Ωt )
v 2 ( t )=α V 2 cos[ Ω( t τ 1 ) ]
E 1 ( t )= L 1 E( t )sin[ π v 1 ( t ) 2 V π1 ]= L 1 E( t )sin[ β 1 cos( Ωt ) ]
E 2 ( t )= L 2 E 1 ( t τ 2 )sin[ π v 2 ( t ) 2 V π2 ]= L 2 E 1 ( t τ 2 )sin{ β 2 cos[ Ω( t τ 1 ) ] }
E 2 ( t )= L 1 L 2 P 0 e j ω 0 ( t τ 2 ) sin{ β 1 cos[ Ω( t τ 2 ) ] }sin{ β 2 cos[ Ω( t τ 1 ) ] } L 1 L 2 P 0 J 1 ( β 1 ) J 1 ( β 2 ) ×{ e j( ω 0 +2Ω )tjΩ( τ 1 + τ 2 )j ω 0 τ 2 + e j( ω 0 2Ω )t+jΩ( τ 1 + τ 2 )j ω 0 τ 2 +2cos[ Ω( τ 2 τ 1 ) ] e j ω 0 ( t τ 2 ) }
P out =2 L 1 L 2 P 0 J 1 2 ( β 1 ) J 1 2 ( β 2 )[ 2+cos( 4πfΔτ ) ]
P out1 =2 L 1 L 2 P 0 J 1 2 ( β 1 ) J 1 2 ( β 2 ){ 2+cos[ 4πf( Δ τ 2 ΔΓ ) ] }
P out2 =2 L 1 L 2 P 0 J 1 2 ( β 1 ) J 1 2 ( β 2 )[ 2+cos( 4πfΔ τ 2 ) ]
ACF= P out2 P out1 = 2+cos( 4πfΔ τ 2 ) 2+cos[ 4πf( Δ τ 2 ΔΓ ) ]

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