Abstract

We present a high-speed and low-cost approach for structured light pattern sequence projection. Using a fast rotating binary spatial light modulator, our method is potentially capable of projection frequencies in the kHz domain, while enabling pattern rasterization as low as 2 μm pixel size and inherently linear grayscale reproduction quantized at 12 bits/pixel or better. Due to the circular arrangement of the projected fringe patterns, we extend the widely used ray-plane triangulation method to ray-cone triangulation and provide a detailed description of the optical calibration procedure. Using the proposed projection concept in conjunction with the recently published coded phase shift (CPS) pattern sequence, we demonstrate high accuracy 3-D measurement at 200 Hz projection frequency and 20 Hz 3-D reconstruction rate.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. F. Forster, “A high-resolution and high accuracy real-time 3d sensor based on structured light,” Int’l Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization and Transmission pp. 208–215 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Zhang, B. Curless, and S. M. Seitz, “Rapid shape acquisition using color structured light and multi-pass dynamic programming,” in “The 1st IEEE Int’l Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization, and Transmission,”(2002), pp. 24–36.
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Schmalz and E. Angelopoulou, “Robust single-shot structured light,” in “7th IEEE Int’l. Workshop on Projector-Camera Systems (PROCAMS),” (2010), pp. 1–8.
  4. S. Zhang, “High-resolution, real-time three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 45, 2644–2649 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Weise, “Fast 3d scanning with automatic motion compensation,” in “IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR),” (2007), pp. 1–8.
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Kuehmstedt, “3d shape measurement with phase correlation based fringe projection,” in “Proceedings of SPIE,”, vol.  6616 (2007), vol. 6616, pp. 1–9.
  7. G. Haeusler, S. Kreipl, R. Lampalzer, A. Schielzeth, and B. Spellenberg, “New range sensors at the physical limit of measuring uncertainty,” in “Proc. of the EOS Topical Meeting on Optoelectronics, Distance Measurements and Application,”(1997), pp. 1–7.
  8. J. Pfeiffer and A. Schwotzer, “3-d camera for recording surface structures, in particular for dental purposes,” pp. 1–7 (1999). US Patent 6,885,484 B1.
  9. P. Wissmann, R. Schmitt, and F. Forster, “Fast and accurate 3d scanning using coded phase shifting and high speed pattern projection,” 3D Imaging, Modeling, Processing, Visualization and Transmission, International Conference on pp. 108–115 (2011).
  10. S. Zhang and P. S. Huang, “Novel method for structured light system calibration,” Opt. Eng. 45, 1–8 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Legarda-Senz, T. Bothe, and W. P. Jueptner, “Accurate procedure for the calibration of a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 43, 464–471 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Audet and M. Okutomi, “A user-friendly method to geometrically calibrate projector-camera systems,” in “PROCAMS09,”(2009), pp. 47–54.
  13. M. Ashdown and Y. Sato, “Steerable projector calibration,” in “Proc. of the 2005 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR’05),”(2005), pp. 1–8.
  14. Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1330–1334 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Y. Tsai, “An efficient and accurate camera calibration technique for 3d machine vision,” Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition pp. 364–374 (1986).
  16. “Optical 3-d measuring systems; optical systems based on area scanning,” VDI/VDE Guideline 2634, Part 2, pp. 1–11 (1999).

2007

P. Kuehmstedt, “3d shape measurement with phase correlation based fringe projection,” in “Proceedings of SPIE,”, vol.  6616 (2007), vol. 6616, pp. 1–9.

2006

S. Zhang and P. S. Huang, “Novel method for structured light system calibration,” Opt. Eng. 45, 1–8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, “High-resolution, real-time three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 45, 2644–2649 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Legarda-Senz, T. Bothe, and W. P. Jueptner, “Accurate procedure for the calibration of a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 43, 464–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1330–1334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Angelopoulou, E.

C. Schmalz and E. Angelopoulou, “Robust single-shot structured light,” in “7th IEEE Int’l. Workshop on Projector-Camera Systems (PROCAMS),” (2010), pp. 1–8.

Ashdown, M.

M. Ashdown and Y. Sato, “Steerable projector calibration,” in “Proc. of the 2005 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR’05),”(2005), pp. 1–8.

Audet, S.

S. Audet and M. Okutomi, “A user-friendly method to geometrically calibrate projector-camera systems,” in “PROCAMS09,”(2009), pp. 47–54.

Bothe, T.

R. Legarda-Senz, T. Bothe, and W. P. Jueptner, “Accurate procedure for the calibration of a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 43, 464–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Curless, B.

L. Zhang, B. Curless, and S. M. Seitz, “Rapid shape acquisition using color structured light and multi-pass dynamic programming,” in “The 1st IEEE Int’l Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization, and Transmission,”(2002), pp. 24–36.
[CrossRef]

Forster, F.

P. Wissmann, R. Schmitt, and F. Forster, “Fast and accurate 3d scanning using coded phase shifting and high speed pattern projection,” 3D Imaging, Modeling, Processing, Visualization and Transmission, International Conference on pp. 108–115 (2011).

F. Forster, “A high-resolution and high accuracy real-time 3d sensor based on structured light,” Int’l Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization and Transmission pp. 208–215 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haeusler, G.

G. Haeusler, S. Kreipl, R. Lampalzer, A. Schielzeth, and B. Spellenberg, “New range sensors at the physical limit of measuring uncertainty,” in “Proc. of the EOS Topical Meeting on Optoelectronics, Distance Measurements and Application,”(1997), pp. 1–7.

Huang, P. S.

S. Zhang and P. S. Huang, “Novel method for structured light system calibration,” Opt. Eng. 45, 1–8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jueptner, W. P.

R. Legarda-Senz, T. Bothe, and W. P. Jueptner, “Accurate procedure for the calibration of a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 43, 464–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kreipl, S.

G. Haeusler, S. Kreipl, R. Lampalzer, A. Schielzeth, and B. Spellenberg, “New range sensors at the physical limit of measuring uncertainty,” in “Proc. of the EOS Topical Meeting on Optoelectronics, Distance Measurements and Application,”(1997), pp. 1–7.

Kuehmstedt, P.

P. Kuehmstedt, “3d shape measurement with phase correlation based fringe projection,” in “Proceedings of SPIE,”, vol.  6616 (2007), vol. 6616, pp. 1–9.

Lampalzer, R.

G. Haeusler, S. Kreipl, R. Lampalzer, A. Schielzeth, and B. Spellenberg, “New range sensors at the physical limit of measuring uncertainty,” in “Proc. of the EOS Topical Meeting on Optoelectronics, Distance Measurements and Application,”(1997), pp. 1–7.

Legarda-Senz, R.

R. Legarda-Senz, T. Bothe, and W. P. Jueptner, “Accurate procedure for the calibration of a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 43, 464–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okutomi, M.

S. Audet and M. Okutomi, “A user-friendly method to geometrically calibrate projector-camera systems,” in “PROCAMS09,”(2009), pp. 47–54.

Pfeiffer, J.

J. Pfeiffer and A. Schwotzer, “3-d camera for recording surface structures, in particular for dental purposes,” pp. 1–7 (1999). US Patent 6,885,484 B1.

Sato, Y.

M. Ashdown and Y. Sato, “Steerable projector calibration,” in “Proc. of the 2005 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR’05),”(2005), pp. 1–8.

Schielzeth, A.

G. Haeusler, S. Kreipl, R. Lampalzer, A. Schielzeth, and B. Spellenberg, “New range sensors at the physical limit of measuring uncertainty,” in “Proc. of the EOS Topical Meeting on Optoelectronics, Distance Measurements and Application,”(1997), pp. 1–7.

Schmalz, C.

C. Schmalz and E. Angelopoulou, “Robust single-shot structured light,” in “7th IEEE Int’l. Workshop on Projector-Camera Systems (PROCAMS),” (2010), pp. 1–8.

Schmitt, R.

P. Wissmann, R. Schmitt, and F. Forster, “Fast and accurate 3d scanning using coded phase shifting and high speed pattern projection,” 3D Imaging, Modeling, Processing, Visualization and Transmission, International Conference on pp. 108–115 (2011).

Schwotzer, A.

J. Pfeiffer and A. Schwotzer, “3-d camera for recording surface structures, in particular for dental purposes,” pp. 1–7 (1999). US Patent 6,885,484 B1.

Seitz, S. M.

L. Zhang, B. Curless, and S. M. Seitz, “Rapid shape acquisition using color structured light and multi-pass dynamic programming,” in “The 1st IEEE Int’l Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization, and Transmission,”(2002), pp. 24–36.
[CrossRef]

Spellenberg, B.

G. Haeusler, S. Kreipl, R. Lampalzer, A. Schielzeth, and B. Spellenberg, “New range sensors at the physical limit of measuring uncertainty,” in “Proc. of the EOS Topical Meeting on Optoelectronics, Distance Measurements and Application,”(1997), pp. 1–7.

Tsai, R. Y.

R. Y. Tsai, “An efficient and accurate camera calibration technique for 3d machine vision,” Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition pp. 364–374 (1986).

Weise, T.

T. Weise, “Fast 3d scanning with automatic motion compensation,” in “IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR),” (2007), pp. 1–8.
[CrossRef]

Wissmann, P.

P. Wissmann, R. Schmitt, and F. Forster, “Fast and accurate 3d scanning using coded phase shifting and high speed pattern projection,” 3D Imaging, Modeling, Processing, Visualization and Transmission, International Conference on pp. 108–115 (2011).

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, B. Curless, and S. M. Seitz, “Rapid shape acquisition using color structured light and multi-pass dynamic programming,” in “The 1st IEEE Int’l Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization, and Transmission,”(2002), pp. 24–36.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, “High-resolution, real-time three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 45, 2644–2649 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang and P. S. Huang, “Novel method for structured light system calibration,” Opt. Eng. 45, 1–8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1330–1334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1330–1334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

S. Zhang and P. S. Huang, “Novel method for structured light system calibration,” Opt. Eng. 45, 1–8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Legarda-Senz, T. Bothe, and W. P. Jueptner, “Accurate procedure for the calibration of a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 43, 464–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, “High-resolution, real-time three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 45, 2644–2649 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of SPIE

P. Kuehmstedt, “3d shape measurement with phase correlation based fringe projection,” in “Proceedings of SPIE,”, vol.  6616 (2007), vol. 6616, pp. 1–9.

Other

G. Haeusler, S. Kreipl, R. Lampalzer, A. Schielzeth, and B. Spellenberg, “New range sensors at the physical limit of measuring uncertainty,” in “Proc. of the EOS Topical Meeting on Optoelectronics, Distance Measurements and Application,”(1997), pp. 1–7.

J. Pfeiffer and A. Schwotzer, “3-d camera for recording surface structures, in particular for dental purposes,” pp. 1–7 (1999). US Patent 6,885,484 B1.

P. Wissmann, R. Schmitt, and F. Forster, “Fast and accurate 3d scanning using coded phase shifting and high speed pattern projection,” 3D Imaging, Modeling, Processing, Visualization and Transmission, International Conference on pp. 108–115 (2011).

T. Weise, “Fast 3d scanning with automatic motion compensation,” in “IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR),” (2007), pp. 1–8.
[CrossRef]

F. Forster, “A high-resolution and high accuracy real-time 3d sensor based on structured light,” Int’l Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization and Transmission pp. 208–215 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, B. Curless, and S. M. Seitz, “Rapid shape acquisition using color structured light and multi-pass dynamic programming,” in “The 1st IEEE Int’l Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization, and Transmission,”(2002), pp. 24–36.
[CrossRef]

C. Schmalz and E. Angelopoulou, “Robust single-shot structured light,” in “7th IEEE Int’l. Workshop on Projector-Camera Systems (PROCAMS),” (2010), pp. 1–8.

S. Audet and M. Okutomi, “A user-friendly method to geometrically calibrate projector-camera systems,” in “PROCAMS09,”(2009), pp. 47–54.

M. Ashdown and Y. Sato, “Steerable projector calibration,” in “Proc. of the 2005 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR’05),”(2005), pp. 1–8.

R. Y. Tsai, “An efficient and accurate camera calibration technique for 3d machine vision,” Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition pp. 364–374 (1986).

“Optical 3-d measuring systems; optical systems based on area scanning,” VDI/VDE Guideline 2634, Part 2, pp. 1–11 (1999).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Concept of rotational pattern transport and exposure timing controlled pattern switching.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of binary SLM pattern tracks; white illustrates translucent regions. (a) Linear SLM pattern track with ordered distribution of translucent and opaque regions. (b) SLM pattern track with dithered distribution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase errors due to concentric runout of SLM. (a) Projected phase for varying excentricity (two periods displayed, modulation factor M = 0.15 [9]). (b) Phase error for varying rotational excentricity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Concept of floating rotational center for mechanical alignment procedure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Manufacturing tolerances adding to overall excentricity of rotation (concentric runout) e. The adjustment procedure using a floating rotational center partially compensates for excentricity. Figures indicate tolerance field widths obtained from suppliers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The distance of the SLM to the objective lens oscillates due to axial runout.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Phase errors due to axial runout of SLM. (a) Projected phase for varying axial runout amplitude a (two periods, modulation factor M = 0.15, angle offset Θ0 = 0.9 rad). (b) Phase error for varying axial runout amplitude.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Maximum phase error in projection due to axial runout of SLM. Contours mark equal phase errors for combinations of axial runout amplitude a and angle offset Θ0. Contour values are ϕe ∈ [0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1, 0.12] rad.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Generating the phase calibration look-up-table (LUT). (a) Raw phase row obtained using a flat ground truth target (blue). A 3rd degree polynomial fit yields the reference phase for a phase calibration LUT (red). (b) Exemplary magnified phase interval.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calibration images. (a) Planar calibration target. (b) Projector calibration pattern projected onto planar calibration target.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Concept of ray-cone triangulation. Given an absolute phase value ϕabs , the radius rc is determined via Eq. (7). With known focal point pp,0 and optical axis, an ideal cone is triangulated with the camera’s line of sight. Please note that the SLM is virtually mirrored against the projector’s optical axis due to projection, i.e. the physical axis of rotation is actually located left to the focal point.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Exemplary measurement results. (a) First out of four camera images with CPS pattern illumination. (b) Relative phase image ϕrel generated using Eq. (6). (c) Embedded image to assist unwrapping process [9]. (d) Unwrapped phase image ϕabs . (e) 3-D result obtained using ray-cone triangulation.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Prototype SL projector and 3-D scanner. (a) High speed analogue pattern projector. (b) SL mono/stereo 3-D scanner.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Summary of experimental results. (a) Probing error. (b) Sphere spacing error. (c) Flatness measurement error. (d) Relative error (quality parameter) of single measurement versus 32 averaged measurements. According to [16], final quality parameters were obtained from the respective maximum errors throughout the series of experiments.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Configuration of SL Setup with High-Speed Analogue Pattern Projector

Equations (7)

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I ( r ) = l t ( r ) l t ( r ) + l o ( r )
D N R I ( r ) = l o g 2 l t ( r ) + l o ( r ) d p
1 f = 1 d a + δ a + 1 d b + δ b
δ b = f ( d a + δ a ) d a + δ a f d b
D b = D d b δ b
φ r e l = arctan 2 ( I C , 3 I C , 1 , I C , 4 I C , 2 ) ( π , π ]
r c = r m i n + φ a b s ( r m a x r m i n )

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