Abstract

We perform experimental investigations on the characteristics of graphene-based plasmonic waveguides for development of photonic integrated circuits. By embedding chemical vapor deposited graphene strip in a photoactive UV curable perfluorinated acrylate polymer with a low refractive index and material loss, the two-dimensional metal-like plasmonic waveguide demonstrated as a light signal guiding medium for high-speed optical data transmission. The fabricated graphene-based plasmonic waveguide supports the transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization modes with the averaged extinction ratio of 19 dB at a wavelength of 1.31 µm. The 2.5 Gbps optical signals were successfully transmitted via 6 mm-long graphene plasmonic waveguides. The proposed graphene-based plasmonic waveguides can be exploited further for development of next-generation photonic integrated circuit and devices.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 484–588 (2009) (and references therein).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, “Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13133–13138 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. W. Hanson, “Quasi-transverse electromagnetic modes supported by a graphene parallelplate waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 084314 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. A. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, “New electromagnetic mode in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 016803 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. H. Whang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75(20), 205418 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. J. M. Horing, “Coupling of graphene and surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 193401 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. G. Mishchenko, A. V. Shytov, and P. G. Silvestrov, “Guided plasmons in graphene p-n junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 156806 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Q. Yu, J. Lian, S. Siriponglert, H. Li, Y. P. Chen, and S.-S. Pei, “Graphene segregated on Ni surfaces and transferred to insulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, “Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1374–1376 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. T. Kim, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and J. J. Ju, “Gold stripe optical waveguides fabricated by a novel double-layered liftoff process,” ETRI J. 31(6), 778–783 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.- Kim, J.-M. Lee, J.-S. Choe, M.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, “Silver stripe optical waveguide for chip-to-chip optical interconnection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 902–904 (2009).
  22. R. Wang, S. Wang, D. Zhang, Z. Li, Y. Fang, and X. Qiu, “Control of carrier type and density in exfoliated graphene by interface engineering,” ACS Nano 5(1), 408–412 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, and S.-Y. Shin, “Hybrid plasmonic waveguide for low-loss lightwave guiding,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2808–2813 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wang, S. Wang, D. Zhang, Z. Li, Y. Fang, and X. Qiu, “Control of carrier type and density in exfoliated graphene by interface engineering,” ACS Nano 5(1), 408–412 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, and S.-Y. Shin, “Hybrid plasmonic waveguide for low-loss lightwave guiding,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2808–2813 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. Mishchenko, A. V. Shytov, and P. G. Silvestrov, “Guided plasmons in graphene p-n junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 156806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 484–588 (2009) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. J. M. Horing, “Coupling of graphene and surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 193401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and J. J. Ju, “Gold stripe optical waveguides fabricated by a novel double-layered liftoff process,” ETRI J. 31(6), 778–783 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.- Kim, J.-M. Lee, J.-S. Choe, M.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, “Silver stripe optical waveguide for chip-to-chip optical interconnection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 902–904 (2009).

2008 (4)

Q. Yu, J. Lian, S. Siriponglert, H. Li, Y. P. Chen, and S.-S. Pei, “Graphene segregated on Ni surfaces and transferred to insulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, “Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13133–13138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Hanson, “Quasi-transverse electromagnetic modes supported by a graphene parallelplate waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 084314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S. A. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, “New electromagnetic mode in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 016803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Whang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75(20), 205418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, “Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1374–1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 484–588 (2009) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buljan, H.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. P.

Q. Yu, J. Lian, S. Siriponglert, H. Li, Y. P. Chen, and S.-S. Pei, “Graphene segregated on Ni surfaces and transferred to insulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choe, J.-S.

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.- Kim, J.-M. Lee, J.-S. Choe, M.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, “Silver stripe optical waveguide for chip-to-chip optical interconnection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 902–904 (2009).

Das Sarma, S.

E. H. Whang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75(20), 205418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dresselhaus, M. S.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Y.

R. Wang, S. Wang, D. Zhang, Z. Li, Y. Fang, and X. Qiu, “Control of carrier type and density in exfoliated graphene by interface engineering,” ACS Nano 5(1), 408–412 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanson, G. W.

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Hanson, “Quasi-transverse electromagnetic modes supported by a graphene parallelplate waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 084314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horing, N. J. M.

N. J. M. Horing, “Coupling of graphene and surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 193401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jablan, M.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jia, X.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, D.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ju, J. J.

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, and S.-Y. Shin, “Hybrid plasmonic waveguide for low-loss lightwave guiding,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2808–2813 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and J. J. Ju, “Gold stripe optical waveguides fabricated by a novel double-layered liftoff process,” ETRI J. 31(6), 778–783 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.- Kim, J.-M. Lee, J.-S. Choe, M.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, “Silver stripe optical waveguide for chip-to-chip optical interconnection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 902–904 (2009).

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, “Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13133–13138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, “Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1374–1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. T.

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, and S.-Y. Shin, “Hybrid plasmonic waveguide for low-loss lightwave guiding,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2808–2813 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and J. J. Ju, “Gold stripe optical waveguides fabricated by a novel double-layered liftoff process,” ETRI J. 31(6), 778–783 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.- Kim, J.-M. Lee, J.-S. Choe, M.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, “Silver stripe optical waveguide for chip-to-chip optical interconnection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 902–904 (2009).

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, “Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13133–13138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, “Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1374–1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.- Kim, J.-M. Lee, J.-S. Choe, M.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, “Silver stripe optical waveguide for chip-to-chip optical interconnection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 902–904 (2009).

Kim, M. S.

Kim, M.-S.

J. T. Kim, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and J. J. Ju, “Gold stripe optical waveguides fabricated by a novel double-layered liftoff process,” ETRI J. 31(6), 778–783 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, “Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1374–1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-M.

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.- Kim, J.-M. Lee, J.-S. Choe, M.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, “Silver stripe optical waveguide for chip-to-chip optical interconnection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 902–904 (2009).

Lee, M. H.

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, “Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1374–1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-H.

J. T. Kim, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and J. J. Ju, “Gold stripe optical waveguides fabricated by a novel double-layered liftoff process,” ETRI J. 31(6), 778–783 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.- Kim, J.-M. Lee, J.-S. Choe, M.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, “Silver stripe optical waveguide for chip-to-chip optical interconnection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 902–904 (2009).

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, “Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13133–13138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

Q. Yu, J. Lian, S. Siriponglert, H. Li, Y. P. Chen, and S.-S. Pei, “Graphene segregated on Ni surfaces and transferred to insulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

R. Wang, S. Wang, D. Zhang, Z. Li, Y. Fang, and X. Qiu, “Control of carrier type and density in exfoliated graphene by interface engineering,” ACS Nano 5(1), 408–412 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lian, J.

Q. Yu, J. Lian, S. Siriponglert, H. Li, Y. P. Chen, and S.-S. Pei, “Graphene segregated on Ni surfaces and transferred to insulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C. H. Y. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loh, K. P.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, S. A.

S. A. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, “New electromagnetic mode in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 016803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishchenko, E. G.

E. G. Mishchenko, A. V. Shytov, and P. G. Silvestrov, “Guided plasmons in graphene p-n junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 156806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morozov, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mueller, T.

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nezich, D.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, K. S.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S.

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, and S.-Y. Shin, “Hybrid plasmonic waveguide for low-loss lightwave guiding,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2808–2813 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.- Kim, J.-M. Lee, J.-S. Choe, M.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, “Silver stripe optical waveguide for chip-to-chip optical interconnection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 902–904 (2009).

J. T. Kim, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and J. J. Ju, “Gold stripe optical waveguides fabricated by a novel double-layered liftoff process,” ETRI J. 31(6), 778–783 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, “Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13133–13138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, “Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1374–1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. K.

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, and S.-Y. Shin, “Hybrid plasmonic waveguide for low-loss lightwave guiding,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2808–2813 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and J. J. Ju, “Gold stripe optical waveguides fabricated by a novel double-layered liftoff process,” ETRI J. 31(6), 778–783 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.- Kim, J.-M. Lee, J.-S. Choe, M.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, “Silver stripe optical waveguide for chip-to-chip optical interconnection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 902–904 (2009).

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, “Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13133–13138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, “Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1374–1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pei, S.-S.

Q. Yu, J. Lian, S. Siriponglert, H. Li, Y. P. Chen, and S.-S. Pei, “Graphene segregated on Ni surfaces and transferred to insulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, X.

R. Wang, S. Wang, D. Zhang, Z. Li, Y. Fang, and X. Qiu, “Control of carrier type and density in exfoliated graphene by interface engineering,” ACS Nano 5(1), 408–412 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reina, A.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, S.-Y.

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, and S.-Y. Shin, “Hybrid plasmonic waveguide for low-loss lightwave guiding,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2808–2813 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.- Kim, J.-M. Lee, J.-S. Choe, M.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, “Silver stripe optical waveguide for chip-to-chip optical interconnection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 902–904 (2009).

Shytov, A. V.

E. G. Mishchenko, A. V. Shytov, and P. G. Silvestrov, “Guided plasmons in graphene p-n junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 156806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silvestrov, P. G.

E. G. Mishchenko, A. V. Shytov, and P. G. Silvestrov, “Guided plasmons in graphene p-n junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 156806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siriponglert, S.

Q. Yu, J. Lian, S. Siriponglert, H. Li, Y. P. Chen, and S.-S. Pei, “Graphene segregated on Ni surfaces and transferred to insulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Son, H.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakil, A.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

R. Wang, S. Wang, D. Zhang, Z. Li, Y. Fang, and X. Qiu, “Control of carrier type and density in exfoliated graphene by interface engineering,” ACS Nano 5(1), 408–412 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

R. Wang, S. Wang, D. Zhang, Z. Li, Y. Fang, and X. Qiu, “Control of carrier type and density in exfoliated graphene by interface engineering,” ACS Nano 5(1), 408–412 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Whang, E. H.

E. H. Whang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75(20), 205418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Q.

Q. Yu, J. Lian, S. Siriponglert, H. Li, Y. P. Chen, and S.-S. Pei, “Graphene segregated on Ni surfaces and transferred to insulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

R. Wang, S. Wang, D. Zhang, Z. Li, Y. Fang, and X. Qiu, “Control of carrier type and density in exfoliated graphene by interface engineering,” ACS Nano 5(1), 408–412 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziegler, K.

S. A. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, “New electromagnetic mode in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 016803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

R. Wang, S. Wang, D. Zhang, Z. Li, Y. Fang, and X. Qiu, “Control of carrier type and density in exfoliated graphene by interface engineering,” ACS Nano 5(1), 408–412 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 484–588 (2009) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Q. Yu, J. Lian, S. Siriponglert, H. Li, Y. P. Chen, and S.-S. Pei, “Graphene segregated on Ni surfaces and transferred to insulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ETRI J. (1)

J. T. Kim, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and J. J. Ju, “Gold stripe optical waveguides fabricated by a novel double-layered liftoff process,” ETRI J. 31(6), 778–783 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.- Kim, J.-M. Lee, J.-S. Choe, M.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, “Silver stripe optical waveguide for chip-to-chip optical interconnection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 902–904 (2009).

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, “Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1374–1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Hanson, “Quasi-transverse electromagnetic modes supported by a graphene parallelplate waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 084314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

E. H. Whang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75(20), 205418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. J. M. Horing, “Coupling of graphene and surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 193401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. G. Mishchenko, A. V. Shytov, and P. G. Silvestrov, “Guided plasmons in graphene p-n junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 156806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, “New electromagnetic mode in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 016803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic view of the proposed graphene-based plasmonic waveguide and (b) infrared images of the intensity of the guided mode measured at the output of the fabricated graphene plasmonic waveguide. The surface plasmon wave of the graphene strip is excited by means of a simple end-fire excitation using a single-mode polarization maintaining fiber. Similar to metal-based plasmonic waveguide, TM-polarization wave is supported by the graphene strips.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman shift of the fabricated graphene strip on the polymer surface. The inset depicts the optical images of the graphene strip.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Guided modes of the fabricated graphene-based plasmonic waveguide. (a) Intensity variation and (b) normalized output optical power of the guided modes according to the polarization. Un-polarized light is launched at the input of the waveguide and a polarizer is inserted between the waveguide output facet and a CCD (and an optical power meter). The inset of Fig. 3(b) depicts the insertion loss of the waveguide depending on the polarization. The calculated extinction ratio is about 19 dB in average.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Assembled optical signal transmission experiment set-up with 5.7 mm-long graphene strip optical waveguide. (a) The input and the output facets of the graphene waveguide are coupled with the PMF and the photodiode, respectively. (b) Measured optical eye diagram for 2.5 Gbps modulated optical signal; the inset is the eye pattern of the original back-to-back signal measured without graphene waveguide.

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