Abstract

We theoretically investigate the broadband water-window supercontinuum generation from pre-excited medium with a mid-infrared pulse. We find that the wavelength scaling of the harmonic yield from near-visible (0.8 μm) to mid-infrared (1.8 μm) in single-atom level is λ−2.7. Using an intense phase-stabilized few-cycle 1.6 μm laser pulse, a broadband water window supercontinuum with bandwidth of approximately 140 eV is obtained. We also investigate the macroscopic effects and find that large initial population of the excited state leads to the high-density of free electrons, which shift the carrier-envelop phase of the driving pulse and further diminish the water-window supercontinuum generation. The highly-ionized medium also results in poor temporal and spatial properties of the attosecond pulse. Instead, small initial population of the excited state can produce well phase-matched xuv supercontinuum in water-window region and an 100-as pulse with central wavelength of 2.8 nm and pulse energy of 0.15 nJ can be filtered out.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. F. Krausz, “Attosecond physics.” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mucke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesisi for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, X. Li, X. Chen, P. Liu, H. Xiong, H. Lu, S. Zhao, P. Wei, L. Zhang, X. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Cheng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement and broadening of extreme-ultraviolet supercontinuum in a relative phase controlled two-color laser field,” Opt. Lett. 33, 234–236 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Becker, A. Lohr, M. Kleber, and M. Lewenstein, “A unified theory of high-harmonic generation: Application to polarization properties of the harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 645 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent Water Window X Ray by Phase-Matched High-Order Harmonic Generation in Neutral Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and Anthony F. Starace, “Wavelength Scaling of High-Harmonic Yield: Threshold Phenomena and Bound State Symmetry Dependence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 173001 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdorfer, “Quantum Path Interference in theWavelength Dependence of High-Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 253903 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Lan, P. Lu, P. Lan, F. Li, Y. Li, and Z. Yang, “Carrier-envelope phase measurement from half-cycle high harmonics,” Opt. Express 16, 5868–5873 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

E. takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mucke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesisi for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hong, P. Wei, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Mid-infrared modulated polarization gating for ultra-broadband supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 18, 11308–11315 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

W. Hong, P. Lu, Q. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Broadband water window supercontinuum generation with a tailored mid-IR pulse in neutral media,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2102–2104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Krausz, “Attosecond physics.” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (7)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, X. Li, X. Chen, P. Liu, H. Xiong, H. Lu, S. Zhao, P. Wei, L. Zhang, X. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Cheng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement and broadening of extreme-ultraviolet supercontinuum in a relative phase controlled two-color laser field,” Opt. Lett. 33, 234–236 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Multi-cycle laser-driven broadband supercontinuum with a modulated polarization gating, ” Opt. Express 16, 9795–9803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent Water Window X Ray by Phase-Matched High-Order Harmonic Generation in Neutral Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and Anthony F. Starace, “Wavelength Scaling of High-Harmonic Yield: Threshold Phenomena and Bound State Symmetry Dependence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 173001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lan, P. Lu, P. Lan, F. Li, Y. Li, and Z. Yang, “Carrier-envelope phase measurement from half-cycle high harmonics,” Opt. Express 16, 5868–5873 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdorfer, “Quantum Path Interference in theWavelength Dependence of High-Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 253903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of Wave-Packet Dynamics in an Intense Midinfrared Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

W. Becker, A. Lohr, M. Kleber, and M. Lewenstein, “A unified theory of high-harmonic generation: Application to polarization properties of the harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, M. Lewenstein, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic-generation control,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 4320 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of Wave-Packet Dynamics in an Intense Midinfrared Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Auguste, T.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of Wave-Packet Dynamics in an Intense Midinfrared Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

W. Becker, A. Lohr, M. Kleber, and M. Lewenstein, “A unified theory of high-harmonic generation: Application to polarization properties of the harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bruzzese, R.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burgdorfer, J.

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdorfer, “Quantum Path Interference in theWavelength Dependence of High-Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 253903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, K.

A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, M. Lewenstein, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic-generation control,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 4320 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ceccherini, P.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Cheng, Y.

Corkum, P. B.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Lisio, C.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

DiMauro, L. F.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of Wave-Packet Dynamics in an Intense Midinfrared Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frolov, M. V.

M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and Anthony F. Starace, “Wavelength Scaling of High-Harmonic Yield: Threshold Phenomena and Bound State Symmetry Dependence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 173001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilbertson, S.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, W.

Ishikawa, K.

E. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent Water Window X Ray by Phase-Matched High-Order Harmonic Generation in Neutral Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, K. L.

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdorfer, “Quantum Path Interference in theWavelength Dependence of High-Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 253903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanai, T.

E. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent Water Window X Ray by Phase-Matched High-Order Harmonic Generation in Neutral Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, S. D.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kleber, M.

W. Becker, A. Lohr, M. Kleber, and M. Lewenstein, “A unified theory of high-harmonic generation: Application to polarization properties of the harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz, “Attosecond physics.” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, Anne

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lan, P.

Lewenstein, M.

W. Becker, A. Lohr, M. Kleber, and M. Lewenstein, “A unified theory of high-harmonic generation: Application to polarization properties of the harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, M. Lewenstein, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic-generation control,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 4320 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, F.

Li, Q.

Li, R.

Li, X.

Li, Y.

Liu, J.

Liu, P.

Lohr, A.

W. Becker, A. Lohr, M. Kleber, and M. Lewenstein, “A unified theory of high-harmonic generation: Application to polarization properties of the harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

Lu, P.

Manakov, N. L.

M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and Anthony F. Starace, “Wavelength Scaling of High-Harmonic Yield: Threshold Phenomena and Bound State Symmetry Dependence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 173001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mashiko, H.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Midorikawa, K.

E. takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mucke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesisi for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent Water Window X Ray by Phase-Matched High-Order Harmonic Generation in Neutral Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, E.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mucke, O. D.

E. takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mucke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesisi for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of Wave-Packet Dynamics in an Intense Midinfrared Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nabekawa, Y.

E. takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mucke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesisi for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent Water Window X Ray by Phase-Matched High-Order Harmonic Generation in Neutral Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Persson, E.

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdorfer, “Quantum Path Interference in theWavelength Dependence of High-Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 253903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Priori, E.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of Wave-Packet Dynamics in an Intense Midinfrared Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanpera, A.

A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, M. Lewenstein, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic-generation control,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 4320 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schiessl, K.

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdorfer, “Quantum Path Interference in theWavelength Dependence of High-Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 253903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, M. M.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Starace, Anthony F.

M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and Anthony F. Starace, “Wavelength Scaling of High-Harmonic Yield: Threshold Phenomena and Bound State Symmetry Dependence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 173001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

takahashi, E.

E. takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mucke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesisi for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent Water Window X Ray by Phase-Matched High-Order Harmonic Generation in Neutral Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tate, J.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of Wave-Packet Dynamics in an Intense Midinfrared Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Wang, X.

Watson, J. B.

A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, M. Lewenstein, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic-generation control,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 4320 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, P.

Xiong, H.

Xu, Z.

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

Zeng, Z.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, S.

Zheng, Y.

Zhu, X.

Zou, P.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, M. Lewenstein, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic-generation control,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 4320 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Becker, A. Lohr, M. Kleber, and M. Lewenstein, “A unified theory of high-harmonic generation: Application to polarization properties of the harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent Water Window X Ray by Phase-Matched High-Order Harmonic Generation in Neutral Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of Wave-Packet Dynamics in an Intense Midinfrared Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mucke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesisi for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and Anthony F. Starace, “Wavelength Scaling of High-Harmonic Yield: Threshold Phenomena and Bound State Symmetry Dependence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 173001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdorfer, “Quantum Path Interference in theWavelength Dependence of High-Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 253903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz, “Attosecond physics.” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science, (1)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized populations of excited state (red dashed line) and ground state (blue dashed line) as functions of time when the initial state is a coherent superposition of ground and excited states with equally weighted populations. The electric field (green line) of the driving pulse with intensity of 6 × 1014W/cm2 and CEP ϕ = 0.6π.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

High-order harmonic spectra generated from He+ at the intensity of 6×1014W/cm2 for cases of ground state (blue dashed line) and superposition state (red thick line). In superposition state case, the initial populations of ground and excited state are equal. The inset is the harmonic spectra for both cases when the wavelength of the driving pulse is 0.8 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-frequency distributions of the harmonics when the initial state is coherent superposition state.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength scaling of HHG yield integrated over the energy range 50–80 eV at constant intensity when the initial state is a coherent superposition of ground and first excited states with equal populations. The intensity of the driving pulse is 3×1014W/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The population variations of the excited state as functions of CEP and (b) the harmonic spectra as functions of CEP.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The macroscopic harmonic spectra generated from He+ in coherent superposition state with different initial excited state population of p = 0.05 (red line), p = 0.1 (blue line) and p = 0.3 (green line).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The electric fields of the driving pulses after propagation with the excited-state populations of p = 0.05, p = 0.1 and p = 0.3.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized temporal profiles of the attosecond pulses with the excited-state populations of (a) p = 0.05, (b) p = 0.1 and (c) p = 0.3. Spatiotemporal profiles of the attosecond pulses at the end of the medium with the excited-state populations of (d) p = 0.05, (e) p = 0.1 and (f) p = 0.3.

Equations (14)

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H ^ = 2 2 + V ( x ) x E ( t )
V ( x ) = a b + x 2 ,
E ( t ) = E 0 sin 2 ( π t T ) cos ( ω t + ϕ ) ,
Ψ ( r , t 0 ) = α | g > + e i φ β | e > ,
Ψ ( r , t ) = ψ g ( r , t ) + ψ e ( r , t ) ,
a ( t ) = < Ψ ( r , t ) | x ¨ ^ | Ψ ( r , t ) > .
A ( n ) = | 1 T 0 T a ( t ) exp ( i n ω t ) d t | 2 .
a ( t ) = < ψ g ( r , t ) | x ¨ ^ | ψ g ( r , t ) > + < ψ e ( r , t ) | x ¨ ^ | ψ e ( r , t ) > + < ψ g ( r , t ) | x ¨ ^ | ψ e ( r , t ) > + c . c .
ψ g ( r , t ) = α e i ω g t | g > ,
ψ e ( r , t ) = β ( γ e ( t ) e i ω e t | e > + γ c ( t ) e i ω c t | c > d c ) .
a ( t ) = | β | 2 γ e * ( t ) γ c ( t ) < e | x ¨ ^ | c > e i ( ω e ω c ) t d c + α * β ( γ e ( t ) < g | x ¨ ^ | e > e i ( ω e ω c ) t + γ c ( t ) < g | x ¨ ^ | c > e i ( ω e ω c ) t d c ) + c . c .
2 E f ( ρ , z , t ) 1 c 2 2 E f ( ρ , z , t ) t 2 = ω p 2 ( ρ , z , t ) c 2 E f ( ρ , z , t ) ,
2 E h ( ρ , z , t ) 1 c 2 2 E h ( ρ , z , t ) t 2 = ω p 2 ( ρ , z , t ) c 2 E h ( ρ , z , t ) + μ 0 2 P n l ( ρ , z , t ) t 2 ,
ω p ( ρ , z , t ) = [ e 2 n e ( ρ , z , t ) ɛ 0 m e ] 1 / 2 .

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