Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate for the first time a hybrid optical packet and wavelength selective switching platform for high-performance data center networks. This architecture based on cascaded silicon microrings and semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) supports wavelength reconfigurable packet and circuit switching, and is highly scalable, energy efficient and potentially integratable. By combining the wavelength-selective behavior of the microring and the broadband behavior of the SOA switch, we are able to achieve fast switching transitions, high extinction ratios, and low driving voltages, which are all requirements for future optical high-performance data center networks. Routing correctness and error-free operation (<10−12) are verified for both 10-Gb/s and 40-Gb/s packets and streaming data with format transparency.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. J. Hamilton, “Cooperative expendable micro-slice servers (CEMS): low cost, low power servers for internet-scale services,” presented at 4th Biennial Conference on Innovative Data Systems Research (CIDR) Asilomar, California, USA, Jan. 4–7, 2009.
  2. A. Greenberg, J. R. Hamilton, N. Jain, S. Kandula, C. Kim, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “VL2: a scalable and flexible data center network,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2009 Conference on Data Communication (ACM, 2009), pp. 63–74.
  3. T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” in WREN '09 Proceedings of the 1st ACM Workshop on Research on Enterprise Networking (ACM, 2009), pp. 65–72.
  4. C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 32–39 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Al-Fares, A. Loukissas, and A. Vahdat, “A scalable, commodity data center network architecture,” in SIGCOMM '08 Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2008 Conference on Data Communication (ACM, 2008), pp. 63–74.
  6. G. Astfalk, “Why optical data communications and why now,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 933–940 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, A. Shacham, B. A. Small, B. G. Lee, H. Wang, C. P. Lai, A. Biberman, and K. Bergman, “The data vortex optical packet switched interconnection network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(13), 1777–1789 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. P. Luijten and R. Grzybowski, “The Osmosis optical packet switch for supercomputers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OTuF3.
  9. X. Ye, P. Mejia, Y. Yin, R. Proietti, S. J. B. Yoo, and V. Akella, “DOS—a scalable optical switch for datacenters,” in ANCS '10 Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems (ACS, 2010), article 24.
  10. N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in SIGCOMM '10 Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2010 Conference on SIGCOMM (ACM, 2010), pp. 339–350.
  11. G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” in SIGCOMM '10 Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2010 conference on SIGCOMM (ACM, 2010), pp. 327-338.
  12. A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Proteus: a topology malleable data center networks,” in Hotnets '10 Proceedings of the Ninth ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (ACM, 2010), article 8.
  13. A. Shacham and K. Bergman, “An experimental validation of a wavelength-striped, packet switched, optical interconnection network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(7), 841–850 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Wang, A. S. Garg, and K. Bergman, “Design and demonstration of all-optical hybrid packet and circuit switched network platform for next generation data center,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OTuP3.
  15. M. Glick, “Optical interconnects in next generation data centers: an end to end view,” in 2008 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 178–181.
  16. H. Wang and K. Bergman, “A bidirectional 2×2 photonic network building-block for high-performance data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OTuH4.
  17. A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Xu, J. Chan, A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “DPSK transmission through silicon microring switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(16), 1103–1105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. P. Lai, D. Brunina, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of 8×40 Gb/s wavelength striped packet switching in a multi-terabit capacity optical network testbed,” in Proceedings of 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), paper ThQ2
  20. H. L. R. Lira, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Broadband hitless silicon electro-optic switch for on-chip optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22271–22280 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. P. Lai, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of asynchronous operation of a multiwavelength optical packet-switched fabric,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(16), 1223–1225 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-microm radius,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4309–4315 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, J. Chan, A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “DPSK transmission through silicon microring switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(16), 1103–1105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

C. P. Lai, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of asynchronous operation of a multiwavelength optical packet-switched fabric,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(16), 1223–1225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

Astfalk, G.

G. Astfalk, “Why optical data communications and why now,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 933–940 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bergman, K.

L. Xu, J. Chan, A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “DPSK transmission through silicon microring switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(16), 1103–1105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Lai, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of asynchronous operation of a multiwavelength optical packet-switched fabric,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(16), 1223–1225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Shacham and K. Bergman, “An experimental validation of a wavelength-striped, packet switched, optical interconnection network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(7), 841–850 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, A. Shacham, B. A. Small, B. G. Lee, H. Wang, C. P. Lai, A. Biberman, and K. Bergman, “The data vortex optical packet switched interconnection network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(13), 1777–1789 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, A.

L. Xu, J. Chan, A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “DPSK transmission through silicon microring switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(16), 1103–1105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, A. Shacham, B. A. Small, B. G. Lee, H. Wang, C. P. Lai, A. Biberman, and K. Bergman, “The data vortex optical packet switched interconnection network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(13), 1777–1789 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J.

L. Xu, J. Chan, A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “DPSK transmission through silicon microring switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(16), 1103–1105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fattal, D.

Gill, V.

C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kamalov, V.

C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koley, B.

C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. P.

C. P. Lai, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of asynchronous operation of a multiwavelength optical packet-switched fabric,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(16), 1223–1225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, A. Shacham, B. A. Small, B. G. Lee, H. Wang, C. P. Lai, A. Biberman, and K. Bergman, “The data vortex optical packet switched interconnection network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(13), 1777–1789 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lam, C.

C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

Liboiron-Ladouceur, O.

Lipson, M.

L. Xu, J. Chan, A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “DPSK transmission through silicon microring switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(16), 1103–1105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. L. R. Lira, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Broadband hitless silicon electro-optic switch for on-chip optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22271–22280 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lira, H. L. R.

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, J. Chan, A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “DPSK transmission through silicon microring switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(16), 1103–1105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. L. R. Lira, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Broadband hitless silicon electro-optic switch for on-chip optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22271–22280 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manipatruni, S.

Ophir, N.

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Padmaraju, K.

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shacham, A.

Small, B. A.

Wang, H.

Xu, L.

L. Xu, J. Chan, A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “DPSK transmission through silicon microring switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(16), 1103–1105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Zhao, X.

C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.

G. Astfalk, “Why optical data communications and why now,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 933–940 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, J. Chan, A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “DPSK transmission through silicon microring switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(16), 1103–1105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Lai, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of asynchronous operation of a multiwavelength optical packet-switched fabric,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(16), 1223–1225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Other

C. P. Lai, D. Brunina, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of 8×40 Gb/s wavelength striped packet switching in a multi-terabit capacity optical network testbed,” in Proceedings of 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), paper ThQ2

M. Al-Fares, A. Loukissas, and A. Vahdat, “A scalable, commodity data center network architecture,” in SIGCOMM '08 Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2008 Conference on Data Communication (ACM, 2008), pp. 63–74.

J. Hamilton, “Cooperative expendable micro-slice servers (CEMS): low cost, low power servers for internet-scale services,” presented at 4th Biennial Conference on Innovative Data Systems Research (CIDR) Asilomar, California, USA, Jan. 4–7, 2009.

A. Greenberg, J. R. Hamilton, N. Jain, S. Kandula, C. Kim, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “VL2: a scalable and flexible data center network,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2009 Conference on Data Communication (ACM, 2009), pp. 63–74.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” in WREN '09 Proceedings of the 1st ACM Workshop on Research on Enterprise Networking (ACM, 2009), pp. 65–72.

R. P. Luijten and R. Grzybowski, “The Osmosis optical packet switch for supercomputers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OTuF3.

X. Ye, P. Mejia, Y. Yin, R. Proietti, S. J. B. Yoo, and V. Akella, “DOS—a scalable optical switch for datacenters,” in ANCS '10 Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems (ACS, 2010), article 24.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in SIGCOMM '10 Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2010 Conference on SIGCOMM (ACM, 2010), pp. 339–350.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” in SIGCOMM '10 Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2010 conference on SIGCOMM (ACM, 2010), pp. 327-338.

A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Proteus: a topology malleable data center networks,” in Hotnets '10 Proceedings of the Ninth ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (ACM, 2010), article 8.

H. Wang, A. S. Garg, and K. Bergman, “Design and demonstration of all-optical hybrid packet and circuit switched network platform for next generation data center,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OTuP3.

M. Glick, “Optical interconnects in next generation data centers: an end to end view,” in 2008 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008), pp. 178–181.

H. Wang and K. Bergman, “A bidirectional 2×2 photonic network building-block for high-performance data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OTuH4.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Concept of the optical packet/circuit and wavelength/space hybrid switching platform. Bidirectional arrows indicate two-way communication. (b) Working diagram of the WSS photonics switch and broadband photonics switch.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A schematic hybrid switching architecture consisting of microring resonators, SOAs, PIN photodetectors, electronic control logic circuits as well as passive optical elements (i.e. couplers and wavelength filters).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) WDM channels positioning (arrows) respective to the optical spectrum of two cascaded microring switch in passive and active states. (b-e) Four possible configurations of the wavelength-selective spatially routed switch. (f) Schematic diagrams of the wavelength-striped packet switching and circuit switching, depicting the optical frame, address and data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Top-view scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) image of the silicon microring device. (b) Experimental 2x2 switch is comprised of SOAs, optical couplers (ellipses, with coupling ratios), wavelength filters (λ), PIN receivers (O/E), optical fibers, and an electronic control circuit implemented by a complex programmable logic device (CPLD).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup using the silicon electro-optic microring WSS switch and SOA based broadband switch.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The through port and drop port spectra of the microring device in the passive state. (b) Spectrum of the input WDM channels for address, frame and signal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental waveforms showing the correct routing functionality of the optical packets. In: the input port of the microring switch; Out0 and Out1: the output ports of 2x2 SOA switch.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

BER curves for the input and output 10-Gb/s signals and respective eye-diagrams in (a) ASK format, circuit switching (b) ASK format, packet switching (c) DPSK format, circuit switching and (d) DPSK format, packet switching. Input and output refer to the input port and output port of the switch fabric test-bed shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

BER curves for the input and output 40-Gb/s ASK signals and respective eye-diagrams in (a) circuit switching (b) packet switching. Input and output refer to the input port and output port of the switch fabric test-bed shown in Fig. 5.

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