Abstract

Carrier-envelope-offset (CEO) and pulse-repetition frequencies of a Ti:sapphire-pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator were locked to uncertainties of 0.09 Hz and 0.16 mHz respectively, with the CEO beat signal linewidth being stabilized to 15 Hz (instrument limited). In-loop phase-noise power spectral density measurements showed a contribution of our servo electronics to the comb-line frequency uncertainty of up to 110 Hz. Complementary time-series data implied an in-loop comb instability of 2 x 10−11 (1-s gate time), matching the Rb-stabilized reference used and verifying that dual servo-control of the CEO and repetition frequencies was effective in stabilizing the comb to at least this precision.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

2009

2008

G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, D. Brida, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Carrier-envelope phase stable, few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from visible to near IR,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), 62–69 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Reid, B. J. S. Gale, and J. Sun, “Frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope phase control in femtosecond optical parametric oscillators,” Laser Phys. 18(2), 87–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Gebs, T. Dekorsy, S. A. Diddams, and A. Bartels, “1-GHz repetition rate femtosecond OPO with stabilized offset between signal and idler frequency combs,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5397–5405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Mulder, R. P. Scott, and B. H. Kolner, “Amplitude and envelope phase noise of a modelocked laser predicted from its noise transfer function and the pump noise power spectrum,” Opt. Express 16(18), 14186–14191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian fceo phase excursions,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 219–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Composite frequency comb spanning 0.4-2.4 microm from a phase-controlled femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser and synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1414–1416 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, “Phase locking of grating-tuned diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 241–248 (1995).

Adler, F.

Amezcua-Correa, R.

Baltuška, A.

G. Cerullo, A. Baltuška, O. D. Mücke, and C. Vozzi, “Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(3), 323–351 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

Benabid, F.

Binhammer, T.

Brida, D.

G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, D. Brida, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Carrier-envelope phase stable, few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from visible to near IR,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), 62–69 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Cerullo, G.

G. Cerullo, A. Baltuška, O. D. Mücke, and C. Vozzi, “Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(3), 323–351 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, D. Brida, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Carrier-envelope phase stable, few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from visible to near IR,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), 62–69 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cirmi, G.

G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, D. Brida, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Carrier-envelope phase stable, few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from visible to near IR,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), 62–69 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, K. L.

Cossel, K. C.

Couny, F.

Dawkins, S. T.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, D. Brida, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Carrier-envelope phase stable, few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from visible to near IR,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), 62–69 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

Diddams, S. A.

Emons, M.

Fermann, M. E.

Ferreiro, T. I.

Freegarde, T.

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, “Phase locking of grating-tuned diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 241–248 (1995).

Gale, B. J. S.

D. T. Reid, B. J. S. Gale, and J. Sun, “Frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope phase control in femtosecond optical parametric oscillators,” Laser Phys. 18(2), 87–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Composite frequency comb spanning 0.4-2.4 microm from a phase-controlled femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser and synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1414–1416 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gebs, R.

Hänsch, T. W.

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, “Phase locking of grating-tuned diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 241–248 (1995).

Hartl, I.

Knabe, K.

Knight, J. C.

Kolner, B. H.

Lang, T.

Leindecker, N.

Light, P. S.

Lim, J.

Luiten, A. N.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manzoni, C.

G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, D. Brida, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Carrier-envelope phase stable, few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from visible to near IR,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), 62–69 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marandi, A.

McFerran, J. J.

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian fceo phase excursions,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 219–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Mücke, O. D.

G. Cerullo, A. Baltuška, O. D. Mücke, and C. Vozzi, “Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(3), 323–351 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mulder, T. D.

Neely, W.

Newbury, N. R.

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian fceo phase excursions,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 219–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

Palmer, G.

Prevedelli, M.

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, “Phase locking of grating-tuned diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 241–248 (1995).

Reid, D. T.

Schultze, M.

Schunemann, P. G.

Scott, R. P.

Sorokin, E.

Sorokina, I. T.

Sun, J.

Sun, J. H.

Swann, W. C.

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian fceo phase excursions,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 219–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thapa, R.

Thorpe, M. J.

Tillman, K. A.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Vozzi, C.

G. Cerullo, A. Baltuška, O. D. Mücke, and C. Vozzi, “Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(3), 323–351 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Washburn, B. R.

Wu, S.

Ye, J.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian fceo phase excursions,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 219–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, “Phase locking of grating-tuned diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 241–248 (1995).

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, D. Brida, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Carrier-envelope phase stable, few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from visible to near IR,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), 62–69 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

G. Cerullo, A. Baltuška, O. D. Mücke, and C. Vozzi, “Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(3), 323–351 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

D. T. Reid, B. J. S. Gale, and J. Sun, “Frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope phase control in femtosecond optical parametric oscillators,” Laser Phys. 18(2), 87–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

Spectratime “iSource+™ Ultra LCR-900 Spec,” (2008), www.spectratime.com/documents/lcr_spec.pdf .

Jean-Luc Schwizgebel, Operational Manager, Spectratime, Vauseyon 29, 2000 Neuchatel, Switzerland, (personal communication, July 2011).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical layout: M, dielectric mirrors; GTI, Gires-Tournois interferometer mirror; OC, output couplers; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; PRM, partially-reflecting mirror; PCF, photonic crystal fiber; PBS, polarizing beam-splitter; IF, interference filter; PL, polarizer; PD, photodiode; APD, avalanche photodiode; Amp, amplifier; LPF, low-pass filter; BPF, band-pass filter; SSG, synthesized signal generator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

RF spectrum of fCEO, recorded while frep was locked, with a span of 2 kHz (200 kHz inset). The −3 dB bandwidth is 15 Hz with an instrument resolution of 10 Hz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In-loop measurement (1 s observation time) of the phase-noise PSD for (a) fCEO and (b) frep. The integrated phase-noise from 1 Hz - 2 MHz is 0.56 rad (0.98 mrad) for fCEO (frep). (b) The PSD phase-noise for frep is shown for the 8th harmonic, and the integrated data are scaled appropriately to show the cumulative phase-noise in frep.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Configurations for recording frequency data for two-sample frequency deviation calculations. (a) Direct measurement of fluctuations in the OPO signal-pulse fCEO using frequency counter. (b) Measurement of fluctuations in the Ti:sapphire frep by the heterodyne technique. SSG, synthesized signal generator; APD, avalanche photodiode; PD, photodiode; LPF, low-pass filter; Amp, amplifier.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Frequency fluctuations from a mean value recorded on a frequency counter with a 1 s gate time. (a) In-loop measurement of the fCEO beat showing fluctuations (ΔfCEO) about the 10 MHz frequency lock. (b) In-loop measurement of the frep showing fluctuations about the 280.18 MHz frequency lock. The frep was combined in a mixer with a synthesized signal offset by 20 kHz so the fluctuations shown are for this 20 kHz mixer output signal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fractional comb instability (scaled by fn = 200 THz and n = 714285) from in-loop frep and fCEO signals. Data for the electronic system (Δfelec/felec) and the Rb clock (ΔfClock/fClock) show the intrinsic uncertainty in the frep measurements.

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