Abstract

Gold wire bonding is an important packaging process of lighting emitting diode (LED). In this work, we studied the effect of gold wire bonding on the angular uniformity of correlated color temperature (CCT) in white LEDs whose phosphor layers were coated by freely dispersed coating process. Experimental study indicated that different gold wire bonding impacts the geometry of phosphor layer, and it results in different fluctuation trends of angular CCT at different spatial planes in one LED sample. It also results in various fluctuating amplitudes of angular CCT distributions at the same spatial plane for samples with different wire bonding angles. The gold wire bonding process has important impact on angular uniformity of CCT in LED package.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. X. Luo, B. Wu, and S. Liu, “Effects of moist environments on LED module reliability,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 10(2), 182–186 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. P. Loh, P. S. Andrews, and N. W. Medendorp, “Light emitting device packages, light emitting diode packages and related methods,” U.S. Patent 20,080,054,286 (Aug. 27, 2008).
  3. G. H. Negley and M. Leung, “Methods of coating semiconductor light emitting elements by evaporating solvent from a suspension,” U.S. Patent 7,217,583 (May 15, 2007).
  4. G. O. Muller, R. G. Muller, M. R. Krames, P. J. Schmidt, H. H. Bechtel, J. Meyer, J. Graaf, and T. A. Kop, “Luminescent ceramics for a light emitting device,” U.S. Patent 7,361,938 (Apr. 22, 2008).
  5. B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. P. You, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Light extraction enhanced white light-emitting diodes with multi-layered phosphor configuration,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5055–5060 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. T. Tran and F. G. Shi, “Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(21), 3556–3559 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, and S. Tasch, “On the effect of light scattering in phosphor converted white light-emitting diodes,” in Solid-State and Organic Lighting, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper SOTuB5
  11. Y. Shuai, Y. Z. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, and P. Liang, “Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1765–1767 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Zheng, J. L. Ma, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Precise model of phosphor geometry by conventional dispensing in LEDs packaging,” presented at the 12th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, Shanghai, China, 8–11 Aug. 2011.

2011

Y. Shuai, Y. Z. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, and P. Liang, “Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1765–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo, B. Wu, and S. Liu, “Effects of moist environments on LED module reliability,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 10(2), 182–186 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. You, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Light extraction enhanced white light-emitting diodes with multi-layered phosphor configuration,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5055–5060 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Tran and F. G. Shi, “Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(21), 3556–3559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Braune, B.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cen, S.

R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, and P. Liang, “Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1765–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

Hartmann, P.

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, Y. Z.

Y. Shuai, Y. Z. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S.

R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, and P. Liang, “Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1765–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaempf, M.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kromotis, P.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leising, G.

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, P.

R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, and P. Liang, “Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1765–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

X. Luo, B. Wu, and S. Liu, “Effects of moist environments on LED module reliability,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 10(2), 182–186 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. Y.

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

X. Luo, B. Wu, and S. Liu, “Effects of moist environments on LED module reliability,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 10(2), 182–186 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X. B.

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pachler, P.

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, K.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schweighart, M.

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F. G.

Shuai, Y.

Y. Shuai, Y. Z. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sommer, C.

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strauss, J.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tasch, S.

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tran, N. T.

Wang, K.

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wenzl, F.-P.

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

X. Luo, B. Wu, and S. Liu, “Effects of moist environments on LED module reliability,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 10(2), 182–186 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

You, J. P.

Yu, R.

R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, and P. Liang, “Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1765–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. Sommer, F.-P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuai, Y. Z. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, and P. Liang, “Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1765–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab.

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo, B. Wu, and S. Liu, “Effects of moist environments on LED module reliability,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 10(2), 182–186 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, and S. Tasch, “On the effect of light scattering in phosphor converted white light-emitting diodes,” in Solid-State and Organic Lighting, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper SOTuB5

B. P. Loh, P. S. Andrews, and N. W. Medendorp, “Light emitting device packages, light emitting diode packages and related methods,” U.S. Patent 20,080,054,286 (Aug. 27, 2008).

G. H. Negley and M. Leung, “Methods of coating semiconductor light emitting elements by evaporating solvent from a suspension,” U.S. Patent 7,217,583 (May 15, 2007).

G. O. Muller, R. G. Muller, M. R. Krames, P. J. Schmidt, H. H. Bechtel, J. Meyer, J. Graaf, and T. A. Kop, “Luminescent ceramics for a light emitting device,” U.S. Patent 7,361,938 (Apr. 22, 2008).

H. Zheng, J. L. Ma, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Precise model of phosphor geometry by conventional dispensing in LEDs packaging,” presented at the 12th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, Shanghai, China, 8–11 Aug. 2011.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LED module sample without phosphor layer: (a) top view; (b) sectional drawing at plane C0°–180°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Freely dispersed phosphor coating process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of angular CCT measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical 1W LED package.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Actual geometry of phosphor layer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Left and front views of phosphor layers in LED modules: (a) without gold wires; (b) with gold wires.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Left and front views of phosphor layers in LED module samples.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Gold wires shape and height of the five samples and phosphor profile.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Angular CCT distributions at plane C0°–180° and plane C90°–270°: (a) sample 1, sample 2 and sample 3; (b) sample 4 and sample 5.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Angular CCT distributions of sample 1 and sample 3 at plane C90°–270°.

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