Abstract

Optical waveguides were fabricated in neodymium-doped silicate glass by using a low-repetition-rate (1 kHz) femtosecond laser inscription. Two different types of waveguide structure are fabricated. In the first, guiding occurs in the focal spot. In the second, guiding occurs in the region between the two filaments. The near-field intensity distribution, propagation loss, index profile reconstruction, and calculation of the modal intensity distribution by the beam propagation method of these waveguides are presented. On the basis of near-field intensity distribution of the light guided through the waveguides and the propagation loss measurement, the optimum writing conditions such as the pulse energy and scan velocity were determined. The waveguide written with 2.2 µJ pulse energy and 50 µm/s scan velocity shows strong guidance at 632.8 nm, with an index contrast of 7 × 10−4 and a propagation loss of ~0.8 dB/cm.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

X. Liu, S. Qu, Y. Tan, C. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 fabricated by low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 145–149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumatoriya, M. Nakbayashi, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, T. Fujii, and K. Hirao, “Optical Properties of a Waveguide Written Inside a LiTaO3 Crystal by Irradiation with Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Opt. Rev. 18(1), 166–170 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

Y. L. Lee, T. J. Eom, W. Shin, B.-A. Yu, D.-K. Ko, W.-K. Kim, and H.-Y. Lee, “Characteristics of a multi-mode interference device based on Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10718–10724 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S.-L. Li, “Optical waveguides in LiNbO3 and stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals by proton exchange,” Sci. China Ser. G 51(10), 1479–1488 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, and K.-M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, “Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Study of the influence of femtosecond laser polarisation on direct writing of waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13158–13163 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(2), 165–170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2001

1997

J. A. Au, D. Kopf, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “60-fs pulses from a diode-pumped Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 307–309 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Shi, T. C. Chong, Z. Zhuo, W. X. Hou, and P. F. Hu, “Properties of ion exchanged planar and channel optical waveguides fabricated in Cu doped KTiOPO4 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2737–2739 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive Index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 423–428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

Agnesi, A.

Aitchison, J. S.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

Au, J. A.

Bardyszewski, W.

Benayas, A.

Bhatnagar, A.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blewett, I. J.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, “Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(2), 165–170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Caccavale, F.

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive Index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 423–428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, S.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, “Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cantelar, E.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Chalapathi, K.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

X. Liu, S. Qu, Y. Tan, C. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 fabricated by low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 145–149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 916–918 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, and K.-M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, G. Fu, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, and R. Nie, “Monomode optical waveguide excited at 1540 nm in LiNbO(3) formed by MeV carbon ion implantation at low doses,” Opt. Express 12(5), 747–752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, T. C.

L. P. Shi, T. C. Chong, Z. Zhuo, W. X. Hou, and P. F. Hu, “Properties of ion exchanged planar and channel optical waveguides fabricated in Cu doped KTiOPO4 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2737–2739 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Della Valle, G.

Dhaman, R. K.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dharmadhikari, A. K.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dharmadhikari, J. A.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S. M.

T. T. Fernandez, S. M. Eaton, G. Della Valle, R. M. Vazquez, M. Irannejad, G. Jose, A. Jha, G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond laser written optical waveguide amplifier in phospho-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20289–20297 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eom, T. J.

Fernandez, T. T.

Fu, G.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, G. Fu, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, and R. Nie, “Monomode optical waveguide excited at 1540 nm in LiNbO(3) formed by MeV carbon ion implantation at low doses,” Opt. Express 12(5), 747–752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, T.

M. Kumatoriya, M. Nakbayashi, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, T. Fujii, and K. Hirao, “Optical Properties of a Waveguide Written Inside a LiTaO3 Crystal by Irradiation with Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Opt. Rev. 18(1), 166–170 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, E. N.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Greborio, A.

Hartung, H.

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(2), 165–170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Helmy, A. S.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

M. Kumatoriya, M. Nakbayashi, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, T. Fujii, and K. Hirao, “Optical Properties of a Waveguide Written Inside a LiTaO3 Crystal by Irradiation with Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Opt. Rev. 18(1), 166–170 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hnatovsky, C.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hou, W. X.

L. P. Shi, T. C. Chong, Z. Zhuo, W. X. Hou, and P. F. Hu, “Properties of ion exchanged planar and channel optical waveguides fabricated in Cu doped KTiOPO4 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2737–2739 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hu, P. F.

L. P. Shi, T. C. Chong, Z. Zhuo, W. X. Hou, and P. F. Hu, “Properties of ion exchanged planar and channel optical waveguides fabricated in Cu doped KTiOPO4 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2737–2739 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Irannejad, M.

Itoh, K.

Iyer, R.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacinto, C.

Jaque, D.

Jaque, F.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

Jiang, Y.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jose, G.

Kar, A. K.

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, “Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

Kim, W.-K.

Kip, D.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ko, D.-K.

Kopf, D.

Kraemer, D.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kumatoriya, M.

M. Kumatoriya, M. Nakbayashi, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, T. Fujii, and K. Hirao, “Optical Properties of a Waveguide Written Inside a LiTaO3 Crystal by Irradiation with Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Opt. Rev. 18(1), 166–170 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lamela, J.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

Lee, H.-Y.

Lee, Y. L.

Li, S.-L.

Lifante, G.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, S. Qu, Y. Tan, C. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 fabricated by low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 145–149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q.

Lu, Q. M.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H. J.

Mallik, A.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mansour, I.

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive Index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 423–428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

Mathur, D.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Merchant, C. A.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. J. D.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

M. Kumatoriya, M. Nakbayashi, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, T. Fujii, and K. Hirao, “Optical Properties of a Waveguide Written Inside a LiTaO3 Crystal by Irradiation with Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Opt. Rev. 18(1), 166–170 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F.

Moser, M.

Nakbayashi, M.

M. Kumatoriya, M. Nakbayashi, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, T. Fujii, and K. Hirao, “Optical Properties of a Waveguide Written Inside a LiTaO3 Crystal by Irradiation with Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Opt. Rev. 18(1), 166–170 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nie, R.

Nishii, J.

Nolte, S.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(2), 165–170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

Petermann, K.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pirzio, F.

Qu, S.

X. Liu, S. Qu, Y. Tan, C. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 fabricated by low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 145–149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rademaker, K.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reali, G.

Reid, D. T.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, “Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rodenas, A.

Ródenas, A.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roso, L.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ruter, C. E.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakakura, M.

M. Kumatoriya, M. Nakbayashi, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, T. Fujii, and K. Hirao, “Optical Properties of a Waveguide Written Inside a LiTaO3 Crystal by Irradiation with Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Opt. Rev. 18(1), 166–170 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Y.

Shi, L. P.

L. P. Shi, T. C. Chong, Z. Zhuo, W. X. Hou, and P. F. Hu, “Properties of ion exchanged planar and channel optical waveguides fabricated in Cu doped KTiOPO4 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2737–2739 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

M. Kumatoriya, M. Nakbayashi, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, T. Fujii, and K. Hirao, “Optical Properties of a Waveguide Written Inside a LiTaO3 Crystal by Irradiation with Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Opt. Rev. 18(1), 166–170 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shin, W.

Siebenmorgen, J.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Silva, W. F.

Singh, P. C.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y.

Taylor, R. S.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, R. R.

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, “Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toma, T.

Torchia, G. A.

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 916–918 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(2), 165–170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vazquez, R. M.

Vazquez de Aldana, J. R.

Wang, K. M.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.-M.

Wang, L.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.-L.

Watanabe, W.

Withford, M. J.

Yamada, K.

Yevick, D.

Yu, B.-A.

Zhang, C.

X. Liu, S. Qu, Y. Tan, C. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 fabricated by low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 145–149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhuo, Z.

L. P. Shi, T. C. Chong, Z. Zhuo, W. X. Hou, and P. F. Hu, “Properties of ion exchanged planar and channel optical waveguides fabricated in Cu doped KTiOPO4 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2737–2739 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zilkie, A. J.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, S. Qu, Y. Tan, C. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 fabricated by low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 145–149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, “Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Shi, T. C. Chong, Z. Zhuo, W. X. Hou, and P. F. Hu, “Properties of ion exchanged planar and channel optical waveguides fabricated in Cu doped KTiOPO4 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2737–2739 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd: YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(2), 165–170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive Index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 423–428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, and K.-M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev.

M. Kumatoriya, M. Nakbayashi, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, T. Fujii, and K. Hirao, “Optical Properties of a Waveguide Written Inside a LiTaO3 Crystal by Irradiation with Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Opt. Rev. 18(1), 166–170 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sci. China Ser. G

S.-L. Li, “Optical waveguides in LiNbO3 and stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals by proton exchange,” Sci. China Ser. G 51(10), 1479–1488 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the waveguide fabrication experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two types of waveguides in Nd: silicate glass at a fixed scan velocity of 400 μm/s and different pulse energy: (a), (c) microscopy image of end view and near-field mode profile at 632.8 nm for a pulse energy of 2.2 μJ; (b), (d) microscopy image of end view and near-field mode profile at 632.8 nm for a pulse energy of 1.0 μJ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The measured near-field intensity profile of quasi TE00 mode fabricated with 2.2 μJ pulse energy and 50 μm/s scan velocity, (b) the reconstructed refractive index distribution, (c) the corresponding calculated modal profile; (d) the measured TM00 mode, (e) the measured TE10 mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Near-field intensity profile of TM mode in the single-scan waveguide, (b) Near-field intensity profile of TM mode in the multi-scan waveguide. Data correspond to these waveguides fabricated with a pulse energy of 2.2 μJ and scan velocity of 400 μm/s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The reconstructed refractive index distribution in Type II waveguide fabricated with a pulse energy of 1.0 μJ and a scan velocity of 400 μm/s, (b) the calculated modal profile.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Near-field intensity distribution of (a) TE mode and (b) TM mode. White real lines indicate the position of the damage tracks. Data correspond to the waveguide fabricated with a pulse energy of 1.0 μJ.

Equations (1)

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Δn = sin 2 Θ m /2n

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