Abstract

We report a method in the framework of surface wave holography to manipulate the electromagnetic wave on the metallic surface for realizing complicated electromagnetic wave transport functionalities in three-dimensional (3D) space. The method allows for direct determination of the metallic surface structure morphology for a given transport functionality, by means of writing desirable object information on the metallic surface via interference with a reference surface wave. We have employed the analytical approach to design and build metallic surface structures that realize arbitrary single-point focusing, arbitrary single-direction beam collimation, and simultaneous two-point focusing of electromagnetic wave in 3D space. Good agreement between numerical simulations and microwave experimental measurements has been found and confirms the power of the method in conceptually understanding and exploiting the surface electromagnetic wave on subwavelength metal structures.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. A. Zheng, X. Q. Cui, and C. H. Yang, “Surface-wave-enabled darkfield aperture for background suppression during weak signal detection,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(20), 9043–9048 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, and Y. Lim, “The use of plasmonics in light beaming and focusing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 47–87 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Gratingless enhanced microwave transmission through a subwavelength aperture in a thick metal plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4661–4663 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Observation of off-axis directional beaming via subwavelength asymmetric metallic gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. J. Cowan, “The surface ace plasmon resonance effect in holography,” Opt. Commun. 5(2), 69–72 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. J. Cowan, “Holography with Standing Surface Plasma-Waves,” Opt. Commun. 12(4), 373–378 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, “Evanescent-wave holography by use of surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Opt. 36(11), 2343–2346 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination,” Science 332(6026), 218–220 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys. 2(8), 551–556 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. T. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature 452(7188), 728–731 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), 97–101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. W. Goodman, “Introduction to principles and applications of holography,” Pr. Inst. Electr. Elect. 59, 1292–1304 (1971).
  25. H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 041405 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2011

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination,” Science 332(6026), 218–220 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Zheng, X. Q. Cui, and C. H. Yang, “Surface-wave-enabled darkfield aperture for background suppression during weak signal detection,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(20), 9043–9048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, and Y. Lim, “The use of plasmonics in light beaming and focusing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 47–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Observation of off-axis directional beaming via subwavelength asymmetric metallic gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature 452(7188), 728–731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys. 2(8), 551–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), 97–101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, “Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3629–3651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Gratingless enhanced microwave transmission through a subwavelength aperture in a thick metal plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4661–4663 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1974

J. J. Cowan, “Holography with Standing Surface Plasma-Waves,” Opt. Commun. 12(4), 373–378 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972

J. J. Cowan, “The surface ace plasmon resonance effect in holography,” Opt. Commun. 5(2), 69–72 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

J. W. Goodman, “Introduction to principles and applications of holography,” Pr. Inst. Electr. Elect. 59, 1292–1304 (1971).

1944

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Alloschery, O.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Bischoff, L.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bulu, I.

H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Observation of off-axis directional beaming via subwavelength asymmetric metallic gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bussmann, K.

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Caglayan, H.

H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Observation of off-axis directional beaming via subwavelength asymmetric metallic gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. C.

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. C.

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cowan, J. J.

J. J. Cowan, “Holography with Standing Surface Plasma-Waves,” Opt. Commun. 12(4), 373–378 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Cowan, “The surface ace plasmon resonance effect in holography,” Opt. Commun. 5(2), 69–72 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cui, X. Q.

G. A. Zheng, X. Q. Cui, and C. H. Yang, “Surface-wave-enabled darkfield aperture for background suppression during weak signal detection,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(20), 9043–9048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiron, A.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diehl, L.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edamura, T.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eng, L.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flynn, R. A.

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), 97–101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gay, G.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, “Introduction to principles and applications of holography,” Pr. Inst. Electr. Elect. 59, 1292–1304 (1971).

Grafstrom, S.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hibbins, A. P.

A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Gratingless enhanced microwave transmission through a subwavelength aperture in a thick metal plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4661–4663 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K. T.

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys. 2(8), 551–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kan, H.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kato, J.

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination,” Science 332(6026), 218–220 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination,” Science 332(6026), 218–220 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, “Evanescent-wave holography by use of surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Opt. 36(11), 2343–2346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C. S.

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

B. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, and Y. Lim, “The use of plasmonics in light beaming and focusing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 47–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

B. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, and Y. Lim, “The use of plasmonics in light beaming and focusing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 47–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

H. T. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature 452(7188), 728–731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys. 2(8), 551–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, C. R.

A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Gratingless enhanced microwave transmission through a subwavelength aperture in a thick metal plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4661–4663 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

B. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, and Y. Lim, “The use of plasmonics in light beaming and focusing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 47–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. K.

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, “Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3629–3651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liaw, J. W.

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y.

B. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, and Y. Lim, “The use of plasmonics in light beaming and focusing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 47–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D. Z.

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H. T.

H. T. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature 452(7188), 728–731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. M.

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Long, J. P.

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), 97–101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maruo, S.

Nakamura, O.

O’Dwyer, C.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination,” Science 332(6026), 218–220 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Observation of off-axis directional beaming via subwavelength asymmetric metallic gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), 97–101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pflügl, C.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Gratingless enhanced microwave transmission through a subwavelength aperture in a thick metal plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4661–4663 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, J.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simpkins, B. S.

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, “Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3629–3651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Viaris de Lesegno, B.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. J.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, N. S.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z. Z.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanishi, M.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. H.

G. A. Zheng, X. Q. Cui, and C. H. Yang, “Surface-wave-enabled darkfield aperture for background suppression during weak signal detection,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(20), 9043–9048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, C. S.

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, J. T.

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L. B.

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F. L.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, G. A.

G. A. Zheng, X. Q. Cui, and C. H. Yang, “Surface-wave-enabled darkfield aperture for background suppression during weak signal detection,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(20), 9043–9048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Gratingless enhanced microwave transmission through a subwavelength aperture in a thick metal plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4661–4663 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), 97–101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Observation of off-axis directional beaming via subwavelength asymmetric metallic gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys. 2(8), 551–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

H. T. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature 452(7188), 728–731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. J. Cowan, “The surface ace plasmon resonance effect in holography,” Opt. Commun. 5(2), 69–72 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Cowan, “Holography with Standing Surface Plasma-Waves,” Opt. Commun. 12(4), 373–378 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev.

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pr. Inst. Electr. Elect.

J. W. Goodman, “Introduction to principles and applications of holography,” Pr. Inst. Electr. Elect. 59, 1292–1304 (1971).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

G. A. Zheng, X. Q. Cui, and C. H. Yang, “Surface-wave-enabled darkfield aperture for background suppression during weak signal detection,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(20), 9043–9048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

B. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, and Y. Lim, “The use of plasmonics in light beaming and focusing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 47–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination,” Science 332(6026), 218–220 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2006).

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