Abstract

We present an efficient and realizable scheme for the generation of an ultrashort single attosecond (as) pulse. The feasibility of such a scheme is demonstrated by solving accurately the time-dependent Schrödinger equation using the time-dependent generalized pseudospectral (TDGPS) method. This scheme involves the use of the optimization of the three-color laser fields. The optimized laser pulse is synthesized by three one-color laser pulses with proper relative phases. It can provide a longer acceleration time for the tunneling and oscillating electrons, and allows the electrons to gain more kinetic energy. We show that the plateau of high-order harmonic generation is extended dramatically and a broadband supercontinuum spectra is produced. As a result, an isolated 23 as pulse with a bandwidth of 163 eV can be obtained directly by superposing the supercontinuum harmonics near the cutoff region. We will show that such a metrology can be realized experimentally.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, Hiromichi Niikura, H. Ppin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Z. Y. Yang, Y. H. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband xuv supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033410 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Zou, Z. N. Zeng, Y. H. Zheng, Y. Y. Lu, P. Liu, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Coherent control of broadband isolated attosecond pulses in a chirped two-color laser field,” Phys.Rev. A 81, 033428 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. J. Carrera, X. M. Tong, and S. I. Chu, “Creation and control of a single coherent attosecond xuv pulse by few-cycle intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74(2), 023404 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. J. Xu, “Isolated short attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized multicycle chirped laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 033823 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Wu, G. T. Zhang, C. L. Xia, and X. S. Liu, “Control of the high-order harmonics cutoff and attosecond pulse generation through the combination of a chirped fundamental laser and a subharmonic laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 013411 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. I. L. Liu, P. C. Li, and S. I. Chu, “Coherent control of the electron quantum paths for the generation of single ultrashort attosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 033414 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Z. H. Chang, “Chirp of the single attosecond pulse generated by a polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 023813 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. S. Yakovlev, M. Ivanov, and F. Krausz, “Enhanced phasematchingfor generation of soft x-ray harmonics and attosecond pulses in atomic gases,” Opt. Express 15, 15351–15364 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063003 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. I. A. Ivanov and A. S. Kheifets, “Tailoring the waveforms to extend the high-order harmonic generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023809 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̈ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carr, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salires, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. López-Martens, K. Varj, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salires, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, Claes-Göran, Wahlström, and Anne L Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. T. Auguste, P. Salires, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033817 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Theoretical study of multiple high-order harmonic generation by intense ultrashort pulsed laser fields: A new generalized pseudospectral time-dependent method,” Chem. Phys. 217, 119–130 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. K. Ishikawa, “Photoemission and ionization of He+ under simultaneous irradiation of fundamental laser and high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043002 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

J. J. Xu, “Isolated short attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized multicycle chirped laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 033823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. L. Liu, P. C. Li, and S. I. Chu, “Coherent control of the electron quantum paths for the generation of single ultrashort attosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 033414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. Wu, G. T. Zhang, C. L. Xia, and X. S. Liu, “Control of the high-order harmonics cutoff and attosecond pulse generation through the combination of a chirped fundamental laser and a subharmonic laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 013411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Zou, Z. N. Zeng, Y. H. Zheng, Y. Y. Lu, P. Liu, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Coherent control of broadband isolated attosecond pulses in a chirped two-color laser field,” Phys.Rev. A 81, 033428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Ivanov and A. S. Kheifets, “Tailoring the waveforms to extend the high-order harmonic generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Auguste, P. Salires, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Z. Y. Yang, Y. H. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband xuv supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Yakovlev, M. Ivanov, and F. Krausz, “Enhanced phasematchingfor generation of soft x-ray harmonics and attosecond pulses in atomic gases,” Opt. Express 15, 15351–15364 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Carrera, X. M. Tong, and S. I. Chu, “Creation and control of a single coherent attosecond xuv pulse by few-cycle intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74(2), 023404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

Z. H. Chang, “Chirp of the single attosecond pulse generated by a polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 023813 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. López-Martens, K. Varj, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salires, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, Claes-Göran, Wahlström, and Anne L Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, Hiromichi Niikura, H. Ppin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

K. Ishikawa, “Photoemission and ionization of He+ under simultaneous irradiation of fundamental laser and high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̈ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carr, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salires, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Theoretical study of multiple high-order harmonic generation by intense ultrashort pulsed laser fields: A new generalized pseudospectral time-dependent method,” Chem. Phys. 217, 119–130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̈ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carr, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salires, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aug, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auguste, T.

T. Auguste, P. Salires, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, S.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biegert, J.

T. Auguste, P. Salires, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blaga, C. I.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Breger, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̈ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carr, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salires, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carr, B.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̈ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carr, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salires, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carrera, J. J.

J. J. Carrera, X. M. Tong, and S. I. Chu, “Creation and control of a single coherent attosecond xuv pulse by few-cycle intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74(2), 023404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Catoire, F.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z. H.

Z. H. Chang, “Chirp of the single attosecond pulse generated by a polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 023813 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chipperfield, L. E.

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chirilä, C. C.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chirla, R.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. I.

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K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
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K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
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M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
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R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
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M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
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R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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T. Auguste, P. Salires, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033817 (2009).
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R. López-Martens, K. Varj, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salires, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, Claes-Göran, Wahlström, and Anne L Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
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Ivanov, M.

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R. López-Martens, K. Varj, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salires, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, Claes-Göran, Wahlström, and Anne L Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
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M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
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Keller, U.

T. Auguste, P. Salires, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033817 (2009).
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K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
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I. A. Ivanov and A. S. Kheifets, “Tailoring the waveforms to extend the high-order harmonic generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023809 (2009).
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J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, Hiromichi Niikura, H. Ppin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
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R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
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Kitzler, M.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
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Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
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R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
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Kling, M. F.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
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Kompa, K. L.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
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Kovac¨ev, M.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̈ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carr, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salires, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
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F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
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V. S. Yakovlev, M. Ivanov, and F. Krausz, “Enhanced phasematchingfor generation of soft x-ray harmonics and attosecond pulses in atomic gases,” Opt. Express 15, 15351–15364 (2007).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
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Lan, P. F.

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Z. Y. Yang, Y. H. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband xuv supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033410 (2008).
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Lein, M.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
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Levesque, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, Hiromichi Niikura, H. Ppin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
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Lezius, M.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, P. C.

I. L. Liu, P. C. Li, and S. I. Chu, “Coherent control of the electron quantum paths for the generation of single ultrashort attosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 033414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. X.

P. Zou, Z. N. Zeng, Y. H. Zheng, Y. Y. Lu, P. Liu, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Coherent control of broadband isolated attosecond pulses in a chirped two-color laser field,” Phys.Rev. A 81, 033428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. H.

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Z. Y. Yang, Y. H. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband xuv supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Q.

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Z. Y. Yang, Y. H. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband xuv supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, I. L.

I. L. Liu, P. C. Li, and S. I. Chu, “Coherent control of the electron quantum paths for the generation of single ultrashort attosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 033414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P.

P. Zou, Z. N. Zeng, Y. H. Zheng, Y. Y. Lu, P. Liu, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Coherent control of broadband isolated attosecond pulses in a chirped two-color laser field,” Phys.Rev. A 81, 033428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. S.

J. Wu, G. T. Zhang, C. L. Xia, and X. S. Liu, “Control of the high-order harmonics cutoff and attosecond pulse generation through the combination of a chirped fundamental laser and a subharmonic laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 013411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

López-Martens, R.

R. López-Martens, K. Varj, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salires, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, Claes-Göran, Wahlström, and Anne L Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, P. X.

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Z. Y. Yang, Y. H. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband xuv supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. Y.

P. Zou, Z. N. Zeng, Y. H. Zheng, Y. Y. Lu, P. Liu, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Coherent control of broadband isolated attosecond pulses in a chirped two-color laser field,” Phys.Rev. A 81, 033428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mairesse, Y.

R. López-Martens, K. Varj, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salires, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, Claes-Göran, Wahlström, and Anne L Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̈ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carr, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salires, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marangos, J. P.

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

March, A. M.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mauritsson, J.

R. López-Martens, K. Varj, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salires, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, Claes-Göran, Wahlström, and Anne L Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merdji, H.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̈ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carr, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salires, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Monchicourt, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̈ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carr, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salires, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monmayrant, A.

T. Auguste, P. Salires, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̈ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carr, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salires, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H.-G.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niikura, Hiromichi

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, Hiromichi Niikura, H. Ppin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Persson, A.

R. López-Martens, K. Varj, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salires, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, Claes-Göran, Wahlström, and Anne L Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ppin, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, Hiromichi Niikura, H. Ppin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenberger, J.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. S.

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salières, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salires, P.

T. Auguste, P. Salires, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. López-Martens, K. Varj, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salires, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, Claes-Göran, Wahlström, and Anne L Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̈ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carr, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salires, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

R. López-Martens, K. Varj, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salires, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, Claes-Göran, Wahlström, and Anne L Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schapper, F.

T. Auguste, P. Salires, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, H.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scrinzi, A.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R. A.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, Ch.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svanberg, S.

R. López-Martens, K. Varj, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salires, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, Claes-Göran, Wahlström, and Anne L Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taïeb, R.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̈ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carr, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salires, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tate, J.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teng, H.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tisch, J. W. G.

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, X. M.

J. J. Carrera, X. M. Tong, and S. I. Chu, “Creation and control of a single coherent attosecond xuv pulse by few-cycle intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74(2), 023404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Theoretical study of multiple high-order harmonic generation by intense ultrashort pulsed laser fields: A new generalized pseudospectral time-dependent method,” Chem. Phys. 217, 119–130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uphues, Th.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Varj, K.

R. López-Martens, K. Varj, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salires, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, Claes-Göran, Wahlström, and Anne L Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhoef, A. J.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, D. M.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, Hiromichi Niikura, H. Ppin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

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Vrakking, M. J. J.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
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Wahlström,

R. López-Martens, K. Varj, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salires, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, Claes-Göran, Wahlström, and Anne L Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
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T. Auguste, P. Salires, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033817 (2009).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
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R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
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P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wieland, M.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
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Wu, J.

J. Wu, G. T. Zhang, C. L. Xia, and X. S. Liu, “Control of the high-order harmonics cutoff and attosecond pulse generation through the combination of a chirped fundamental laser and a subharmonic laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 013411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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T. Auguste, P. Salires, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033817 (2009).
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J. Wu, G. T. Zhang, C. L. Xia, and X. S. Liu, “Control of the high-order harmonics cutoff and attosecond pulse generation through the combination of a chirped fundamental laser and a subharmonic laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 013411 (2010).
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J. J. Xu, “Isolated short attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized multicycle chirped laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 033823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Z.

P. Zou, Z. N. Zeng, Y. H. Zheng, Y. Y. Lu, P. Liu, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Coherent control of broadband isolated attosecond pulses in a chirped two-color laser field,” Phys.Rev. A 81, 033428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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V. S. Yakovlev, M. Ivanov, and F. Krausz, “Enhanced phasematchingfor generation of soft x-ray harmonics and attosecond pulses in atomic gases,” Opt. Express 15, 15351–15364 (2007).
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Yang, Z. Y.

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Z. Y. Yang, Y. H. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband xuv supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zaïr, A.

T. Auguste, P. Salires, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033817 (2009).
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Zeidler, D.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, Hiromichi Niikura, H. Ppin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
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P. Zou, Z. N. Zeng, Y. H. Zheng, Y. Y. Lu, P. Liu, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Coherent control of broadband isolated attosecond pulses in a chirped two-color laser field,” Phys.Rev. A 81, 033428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. T.

J. Wu, G. T. Zhang, C. L. Xia, and X. S. Liu, “Control of the high-order harmonics cutoff and attosecond pulse generation through the combination of a chirped fundamental laser and a subharmonic laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 013411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y. H.

P. Zou, Z. N. Zeng, Y. H. Zheng, Y. Y. Lu, P. Liu, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Coherent control of broadband isolated attosecond pulses in a chirped two-color laser field,” Phys.Rev. A 81, 033428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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P. Zou, Z. N. Zeng, Y. H. Zheng, Y. Y. Lu, P. Liu, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Coherent control of broadband isolated attosecond pulses in a chirped two-color laser field,” Phys.Rev. A 81, 033428 (2010).
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P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (4)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz,“Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, Hiromichi Niikura, H. Ppin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Phys. Rev. A (8)

Z. H. Chang, “Chirp of the single attosecond pulse generated by a polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 023813 (2005).
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I. A. Ivanov and A. S. Kheifets, “Tailoring the waveforms to extend the high-order harmonic generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023809 (2009).
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T. Auguste, P. Salires, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033817 (2009).
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J. J. Carrera, X. M. Tong, and S. I. Chu, “Creation and control of a single coherent attosecond xuv pulse by few-cycle intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74(2), 023404 (2006).
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J. J. Xu, “Isolated short attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized multicycle chirped laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 033823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, G. T. Zhang, C. L. Xia, and X. S. Liu, “Control of the high-order harmonics cutoff and attosecond pulse generation through the combination of a chirped fundamental laser and a subharmonic laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 013411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Z. Y. Yang, Y. H. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband xuv supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033410 (2008).
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I. L. Liu, P. C. Li, and S. I. Chu, “Coherent control of the electron quantum paths for the generation of single ultrashort attosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 033414 (2011).
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K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
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Phys.Rev. A (1)

P. Zou, Z. N. Zeng, Y. H. Zheng, Y. Y. Lu, P. Liu, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Coherent control of broadband isolated attosecond pulses in a chirped two-color laser field,” Phys.Rev. A 81, 033428 (2010).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
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S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̈ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carr, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salires, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A 5-fs 800 nm laser pulse with peak intensity I = 1.0 × 1014W/cm2 (black solid line) and a 5-fs 2000 nm laser pulse with peak intensity I = 1.2 × 1014W/cm2 (red dotted line). (b) The combination of the 5-fs 800 nm and 2000 nm laser pulse shown in (a). (c) A 5-fs 2200 nm laser pulse with peak intensity I = 1.5 × 1014W/cm2 (black dotted line). For reference, two-color combination case (green solid line) is also presented. (d) The optimized three-color laser field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The travel time versus returning energy for the 800 nm laser pulse (green line), the 2000 nm aser pulse (red line), and the optimized three-color laser field (blue line), respectively. The same laser parameters are used in Fig. 1(a) and Fig. 1(d). (b) Corresponding to the high-order harmonic spectra.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The HHG power spectra from hydrogen atom driven by the optimized three-color laser field shown as in Fig. 1(d). (b) Wavelet time-frequency profile of the HHG power spectra. (c) Dipole time profiles of consecutive harmonics near the cutoff. (d) The temporal profiles of the attosecond pulse by superposing the harmonic from 105th to 165th order.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Optimized three-color laser field. The green dashed line represents laser frequency ω2=0.019 a.u. (2400 nm). The blue solid line represents laser frequency ω2=0.019 a.u. (2400 nm) and intensity I1 = I2 = 1.5 × 1014W/cm2 and I3 = 1.7 × 1014W/cm2. The other laser parameters are the same as those in Fig. 1(d). (b) The corresponding HHG power spectrum and (c) Temporal profiles of the attosecond pulses by superposing the HHG near cutoff region. For comparison, the previous case (red dotted line) is also included in (a)–(c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The optimized three-color laser pulse with 5-fs and 8-fs duration, respectively. The other laser parameters are the same as in Fig. 1(d). (b) Corresponding to the high-order harmonic spectra.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i ψ ( r , t ) t = H ^ ψ ( r , t ) = [ H ^ 0 + V ^ ( r , t ) ] ψ ( r , t ) ,
H ^ 0 = 1 2 d 2 d r 2 + L ^ 2 2 r 2 1 r ,
V ^ ( r , t ) = E ( t ) r = z E ( t ) .
d A ( t ) = < ψ ( r , t ) | d z 2 d t 2 | ψ ( r , t ) > = < ψ ( r , t ) | z r 3 + E ( t ) | ψ ( r , t ) > ,
P A ( ω ) = | 1 t f t i 1 ω 2 t i t f d A ( t ) e i ω t d t | 2 .
I ( t ) = | q a q e i q ω t | 2 ,
A ω ( t 0 , ω ) = d A ( t ) ω W [ ω ( t t 0 ) ] d t .
W ( x ) = 1 τ e i x e x 2 2 τ 2 .
E ( t ) = i = 1 3 E i f ( t ) cos ( ω i t + ϕ i ) ,

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