Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate angle-insensitive (i.e., isotropic) coloration of nanostructured metal surfaces by engineered light scattering from homogenized Pinwheel aperiodic arrays of gold nanoparticles deposited on gold substrates. In sharp contrast to the colorimetric responses of periodically nanopatterned surfaces, which strongly depend on the observation angle, Pinwheel nanoparticle arrays give rise to intense and isotropic structural coloration enhanced by plasmonic resonance. Pinwheel nanoparticle arrays with isotropic Fourier space were fabricated on a gold thin film and investigated using dark-field scattering and angle-resolved reflectivity measurements. Isotropic green coloration of metal films was demonstrated on Pinwheel patterns, with greatly reduced angular sensitivity and enhanced spatial uniformity of coloration compared to both periodic and random arrays. These findings, which are supported by coupled-dipole numerical simulations of differential scattering cross sections and radiation diagrams, could advance plasmonic applications to display, optical tagging and colorimetric sensing technologies.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

2010

2009

2008

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N. N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in deterministic aperiodic structures,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2423–2431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dal Negro, N. N. Feng, and A. Gopinath, “Electromagnetic coupling and plasmon localization in deterministic aperiodic arrays,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(6), 064013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

D. J. Brink, N. G. Berg, L. C. Prinsloo, and I. J. Hodgkinson, “Unusual coloration in scarabaeid beetles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(7), 2189–2196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Yoshioka and S. Kinoshita, “Polarization-sensitive color mixing in the wing of the Madagascan sunset moth,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2691–2701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 24(6), 3248–3251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, “Brilliant blue observation from a morpho-butterfly-scale quasi-structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L48–L50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Yoshioka and S. Kinoshita, “Wavelength-selective and anisotropic light-diffusing scale on the wing of the Morpho butterfly,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 271(1539), 581–587 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, “Photonic structures in biology,” Nature 424(6950), 852–855 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Torquato and F. H. Stillinger, “Local density fluctuations, hyperuniformity, and order metrics,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(4), 041113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, Y. Fujii, and N. Okamoto, “Photophysics of structural color in the morpho butterflies,” Forma 17, 103–121 (2002).

1994

C. Radin, “The Pinwheel tilings of the plane,” Ann. Math. 139(3), 661–702 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1934

B. Delaunay, “Sur la sphere ride,” Izvestia Akademii Nauk SSSR, Otdelenie Matematicheskikh i Estestvennykh Nauk 7, 793–800 (1934).

Amsden, J. J.

Berg, N. G.

D. J. Brink, N. G. Berg, L. C. Prinsloo, and I. J. Hodgkinson, “Unusual coloration in scarabaeid beetles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(7), 2189–2196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bin Imran, A.

M. Harun-Ur-Rashid, A. Bin Imran, T. Seki, M. Ishii, H. Nakamura, and Y. Takeoka, “Angle-independent structural color in colloidal amorphous arrays,” ChemPhysChem 11(3), 579–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bokic, B.

Boriskina, S. V.

Brink, D. J.

D. J. Brink, N. G. Berg, L. C. Prinsloo, and I. J. Hodgkinson, “Unusual coloration in scarabaeid beetles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(7), 2189–2196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Curcic, B.

Curcic, S.

Dal Negro, L.

J. Trevino, H. Cao, and L. Dal Negro, “Circularly symmetric light scattering from nanoplasmonic spirals,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 2008–2016 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Boriskina, S. Y. K. Lee, J. J. Amsden, F. G. Omenetto, and L. Dal Negro, “Formation of colorimetric fingerprints on nano-patterned deterministic aperiodic surfaces,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14568–14576 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Forestiere, G. F. Walsh, G. Miano, and L. Dal Negro, “Nanoplasmonics of prime number arrays,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24288–24303 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Forestiere, G. Miano, S. V. Boriskina, and L. Dal Negro, “The role of nanoparticle shapes and deterministic aperiodicity for the design of nanoplasmonic arrays,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9648–9661 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N. N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in deterministic aperiodic structures,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2423–2431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dal Negro, N. N. Feng, and A. Gopinath, “Electromagnetic coupling and plasmon localization in deterministic aperiodic arrays,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(6), 064013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Delaunay, B.

B. Delaunay, “Sur la sphere ride,” Izvestia Akademii Nauk SSSR, Otdelenie Matematicheskikh i Estestvennykh Nauk 7, 793–800 (1934).

Diao, Y. Y.

Dong, B. Q.

Dufresne, E. R.

Feng, N. N.

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N. N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in deterministic aperiodic structures,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2423–2431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dal Negro, N. N. Feng, and A. Gopinath, “Electromagnetic coupling and plasmon localization in deterministic aperiodic arrays,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(6), 064013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Forestiere, C.

Fujii, Y.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, Y. Fujii, and N. Okamoto, “Photophysics of structural color in the morpho butterflies,” Forma 17, 103–121 (2002).

Gopinath, A.

L. Dal Negro, N. N. Feng, and A. Gopinath, “Electromagnetic coupling and plasmon localization in deterministic aperiodic arrays,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(6), 064013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N. N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in deterministic aperiodic structures,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2423–2431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, C.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harun-Ur-Rashid, M.

M. Harun-Ur-Rashid, A. Bin Imran, T. Seki, M. Ishii, H. Nakamura, and Y. Takeoka, “Angle-independent structural color in colloidal amorphous arrays,” ChemPhysChem 11(3), 579–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haruyama, Y.

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, “Brilliant blue observation from a morpho-butterfly-scale quasi-structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L48–L50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, Y.

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 24(6), 3248–3251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hodgkinson, I. J.

D. J. Brink, N. G. Berg, L. C. Prinsloo, and I. J. Hodgkinson, “Unusual coloration in scarabaeid beetles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(7), 2189–2196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Honda, M.

Y. Takeoka, M. Honda, T. Seki, M. Ishii, and H. Nakamura, “Structural colored liquid membrane without angle dependence,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(5), 982–986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoshino, T.

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, “Brilliant blue observation from a morpho-butterfly-scale quasi-structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L48–L50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z. Q.

Ishii, M.

M. Harun-Ur-Rashid, A. Bin Imran, T. Seki, M. Ishii, H. Nakamura, and Y. Takeoka, “Angle-independent structural color in colloidal amorphous arrays,” ChemPhysChem 11(3), 579–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takeoka, M. Honda, T. Seki, M. Ishii, and H. Nakamura, “Structural colored liquid membrane without angle dependence,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(5), 982–986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, Y.

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 24(6), 3248–3251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L. P.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kanda, K.

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, “Brilliant blue observation from a morpho-butterfly-scale quasi-structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L48–L50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, S.

S. Yoshioka and S. Kinoshita, “Polarization-sensitive color mixing in the wing of the Madagascan sunset moth,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2691–2701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yoshioka and S. Kinoshita, “Wavelength-selective and anisotropic light-diffusing scale on the wing of the Morpho butterfly,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 271(1539), 581–587 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, Y. Fujii, and N. Okamoto, “Photophysics of structural color in the morpho butterflies,” Forma 17, 103–121 (2002).

Korac, A.

Kovacevic, A.

Kuwahara, Y.

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 24(6), 3248–3251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. Y. K.

Liew, S. F.

Liu, F.

Liu, X. H.

Liu, X. Y.

Matsui, S.

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, “Brilliant blue observation from a morpho-butterfly-scale quasi-structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L48–L50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miano, G.

Miyamura, Y.

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 24(6), 3248–3251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mochrie, S. G. J.

Nakajima, M.

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 24(6), 3248–3251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, H.

M. Harun-Ur-Rashid, A. Bin Imran, T. Seki, M. Ishii, H. Nakamura, and Y. Takeoka, “Angle-independent structural color in colloidal amorphous arrays,” ChemPhysChem 11(3), 579–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takeoka, M. Honda, T. Seki, M. Ishii, and H. Nakamura, “Structural colored liquid membrane without angle dependence,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(5), 982–986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noh, H.

Okamoto, N.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, Y. Fujii, and N. Okamoto, “Photophysics of structural color in the morpho butterflies,” Forma 17, 103–121 (2002).

Omenetto, F. G.

Pantelic, D.

Prinsloo, L. C.

D. J. Brink, N. G. Berg, L. C. Prinsloo, and I. J. Hodgkinson, “Unusual coloration in scarabaeid beetles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(7), 2189–2196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prum, R. O.

Radin, C.

C. Radin, “The Pinwheel tilings of the plane,” Ann. Math. 139(3), 661–702 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reinhard, B. M.

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N. N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in deterministic aperiodic structures,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2423–2431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, A.

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 24(6), 3248–3251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, “Photonic structures in biology,” Nature 424(6950), 852–855 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saranathan, V.

Savic-Ševic, S.

Seki, T.

M. Harun-Ur-Rashid, A. Bin Imran, T. Seki, M. Ishii, H. Nakamura, and Y. Takeoka, “Angle-independent structural color in colloidal amorphous arrays,” ChemPhysChem 11(3), 579–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takeoka, M. Honda, T. Seki, M. Ishii, and H. Nakamura, “Structural colored liquid membrane without angle dependence,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(5), 982–986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sogo, K.

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 24(6), 3248–3251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stillinger, F. H.

S. Torquato and F. H. Stillinger, “Local density fluctuations, hyperuniformity, and order metrics,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(4), 041113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeoka, Y.

M. Harun-Ur-Rashid, A. Bin Imran, T. Seki, M. Ishii, H. Nakamura, and Y. Takeoka, “Angle-independent structural color in colloidal amorphous arrays,” ChemPhysChem 11(3), 579–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takeoka, M. Honda, T. Seki, M. Ishii, and H. Nakamura, “Structural colored liquid membrane without angle dependence,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(5), 982–986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torquato, S.

S. Torquato and F. H. Stillinger, “Local density fluctuations, hyperuniformity, and order metrics,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(4), 041113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trevino, J.

J. Trevino, H. Cao, and L. Dal Negro, “Circularly symmetric light scattering from nanoplasmonic spirals,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 2008–2016 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vorobyev, A. Y.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vukusic, P.

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, “Photonic structures in biology,” Nature 424(6950), 852–855 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, G. F.

Watanabe, K.

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, “Brilliant blue observation from a morpho-butterfly-scale quasi-structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L48–L50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yin, H. W.

Yoshioka, S.

S. Yoshioka and S. Kinoshita, “Polarization-sensitive color mixing in the wing of the Madagascan sunset moth,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2691–2701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yoshioka and S. Kinoshita, “Wavelength-selective and anisotropic light-diffusing scale on the wing of the Morpho butterfly,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 271(1539), 581–587 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, Y. Fujii, and N. Okamoto, “Photophysics of structural color in the morpho butterflies,” Forma 17, 103–121 (2002).

Zhan, T. R.

Zhang, G. S.

Zheng, Y. M.

Zi, J.

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces

Y. Takeoka, M. Honda, T. Seki, M. Ishii, and H. Nakamura, “Structural colored liquid membrane without angle dependence,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(5), 982–986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Math.

C. Radin, “The Pinwheel tilings of the plane,” Ann. Math. 139(3), 661–702 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

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D. J. Brink, N. G. Berg, L. C. Prinsloo, and I. J. Hodgkinson, “Unusual coloration in scarabaeid beetles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(7), 2189–2196 (2007).
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A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 24(6), 3248–3251 (2006).
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K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, “Brilliant blue observation from a morpho-butterfly-scale quasi-structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L48–L50 (2005).
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J. Trevino, H. Cao, and L. Dal Negro, “Circularly symmetric light scattering from nanoplasmonic spirals,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 2008–2016 (2011).
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Nature

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, “Photonic structures in biology,” Nature 424(6950), 852–855 (2003).
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Opt. Express

S. Yoshioka and S. Kinoshita, “Polarization-sensitive color mixing in the wing of the Madagascan sunset moth,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2691–2701 (2007).
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A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, Y. Ishikawa, J. Murase, M. Akai-Kasaya, and Y. Kuwahara, “Reproduction, mass production, and control of the Morpho butterfly's blue,” in Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics II, (SPIE, 2009), 720506–720509.

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J. Illian, A. Penttinen, H. Stoyan, and D. Stoyan, Statistical Analysis and Modeling of Spatial Point Patterns, S. Senn, M. Scott, and V. Barnett, ed.(John Wiley, 2008).

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S. Kinoshita, Structural Colors in the Realm of Nature (World Scientific, 2008).

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