Abstract

An instrument for measuring carrier-envelope phase (CEP) drift of amplified femtosecond laser pulses at repetition rates up to the 100-kHz regime is presented. The device can be used for real-time pulse labeling and it could also enable single-loop CEP control of future high-repetition rate laser amplifiers. The scheme is demonstrated by measuring the CEP drift of a 1-kHz source.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Polonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 20, 443–446 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 20, 1614–1617 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Wang, M. Chini, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, C. Li, and Z. Chang, “Coupling between energy and phase in hollow-core fiber based f-to2f interferometers,” Opt. Express 17, 12082–12089 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. Wang, C. Li, J. Tackett, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, and Z. Zhang, “Power-locking of high-repetition rate chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 275–279 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2011

2009

2008

S. Koke, C. Grebing, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Fast f-to-2f interferometer for a direct measurement of the carrier-envelope phase drift of ultrashort amplified laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2545–2547 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 20, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Osvay, M. Görbe, C. Grebing, and G. Steinmeyer, “Bandwidth-independent linear method for detection of the carrier-envelope offset phase,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3095–3097 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, E. Moon, H. Wang, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, J. Tackett, and Z. Zhang, “Determining the phase-energy coupling coefficient in carrier-envelope phase measurements,” Opt. Lett. 32, 796–798 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3, 52–57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, C. Li, J. Tackett, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, and Z. Zhang, “Power-locking of high-repetition rate chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 275–279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 20, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kress, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

O. D. Mücke, O. Kuzucu, F. N. C. Wong, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, S. M. Foreman, D. J. Jones, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Experimental implementation of optical clockwork without carrier-envelope phase control,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2806–2808 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. T. Cundiff, “Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, R43–R59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond modelocked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Polonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 20, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, A.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4, 462–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anscombe, M.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 20, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Assion, A.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4, 462–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 20, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 20, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baltuška, A.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 20, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 20, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cavalieri, A. L.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helmi, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

H. Wang, M. Chini, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, C. Li, and Z. Chang, “Coupling between energy and phase in hollow-core fiber based f-to2f interferometers,” Opt. Express 17, 12082–12089 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chini, M.

H. Wang, M. Chini, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, C. Li, and Z. Chang, “Coupling between energy and phase in hollow-core fiber based f-to2f interferometers,” Opt. Express 17, 12082–12089 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chipperfield, L. E.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3, 52–57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

P. A. Roos, L. Xiaoqin, R. P. Smith, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, and S. T. Cundiff, “Solid-state carrier-envelope phase stabilization via quantum interference control of injected photocurrents,” Opt. Lett. 30, 735–737 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff, “Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, R43–R59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond modelocked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 20, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond modelocked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

K. Kress, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eckle, P.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ergler, T.

K. Kress, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 20, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fordell, T.

Foreman, S. M.

Fortier, T. M.

Frei, H.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4, 462–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujihira, Y.

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 20, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilbertson, S.

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gimpel, H.

K. Kress, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Görbe, M.

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 20, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grebing, C.

Gu, X.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helmi, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guandalini, A.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 20, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

O. D. Mücke, O. Kuzucu, F. N. C. Wong, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, S. M. Foreman, D. J. Jones, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Experimental implementation of optical clockwork without carrier-envelope phase control,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2806–2808 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond modelocked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Polonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haworth, C. A.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3, 52–57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Helmi, W.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helmi, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 20, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Polonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Homma, T.

Hong, K.-H.

Horvath, B.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helmi, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Jones, D. J.

O. D. Mücke, O. Kuzucu, F. N. C. Wong, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, S. M. Foreman, D. J. Jones, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Experimental implementation of optical clockwork without carrier-envelope phase control,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2806–2808 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond modelocked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kakehata, M.

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khan, S. D.

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Müller, K. Rühle, R. Kienberger, and G. G. Paulus, “Precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 20, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 20, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Knight, P. L.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3, 52–57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

Koke, S.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Fast f-to-2f interferometer for a direct measurement of the carrier-envelope phase drift of ultrashort amplified laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2545–2547 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4, 462–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 20, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Polonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kress, K.

K. Kress, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuzucu, O.

L’Huillier, A.

Lee, Y. S.

Li, C.

Löffler, T.

K. Kress, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

Manschwetus, B.

Marangos, J. P.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3, 52–57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mashiko, H.

Miranda, M.

Moon, E.

Morgner, U.

K. Kress, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

K. Kress, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mücke, O. D.

Müller, W.

Nakamura, C. M.

C. Li, E. Moon, H. Wang, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, J. Tackett, and Z. Zhang, “Determining the phase-energy coupling coefficient in carrier-envelope phase measurements,” Opt. Lett. 32, 796–798 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, C. Li, J. Tackett, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, and Z. Zhang, “Power-locking of high-repetition rate chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 275–279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nam, C. H.

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 20, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Osvay, K.

Paulus, G. G.

A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Müller, K. Rühle, R. Kienberger, and G. G. Paulus, “Precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helmi, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Persson, A.

Pipis, J. A.

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 20, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polonski, A.

A. Polonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poppe, A.

A. Polonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond modelocked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rathje, T.

Roos, P. A.

Roskos, H. G.

K. Kress, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rühle, K.

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 20, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sayler, A. M.

Schätzel, M. G.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helmi, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schlup, P.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 20, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. P.

Spielmann, Ch.

A. Polonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 20, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond modelocked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sung, J. H.

Tackett, J.

C. Li, E. Moon, H. Wang, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, J. Tackett, and Z. Zhang, “Determining the phase-energy coupling coefficient in carrier-envelope phase measurements,” Opt. Lett. 32, 796–798 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, C. Li, J. Tackett, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, and Z. Zhang, “Power-locking of high-repetition rate chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 275–279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takada, H.

Takahashi, H.

Tempea, G.

A. Polonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M. D.

K. Kress, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tisch, J. W. G.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3, 52–57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

Udem, Th.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Polonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 20, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ullrich, J.

K. Kress, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 20, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 20, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 20, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond modelocked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittmann, T.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helmi, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, F. N. C.

Wu, Y.

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiaoqin, L.

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 20, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Yu, T. J.

Zhang, Z.

C. Li, E. Moon, H. Wang, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, J. Tackett, and Z. Zhang, “Determining the phase-energy coupling coefficient in carrier-envelope phase measurements,” Opt. Lett. 32, 796–798 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, C. Li, J. Tackett, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, and Z. Zhang, “Power-locking of high-repetition rate chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 275–279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zrost, K.

K. Kress, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

H. Wang, C. Li, J. Tackett, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, and Z. Zhang, “Power-locking of high-repetition rate chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 275–279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.

S. T. Cundiff, “Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, R43–R59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4, 462–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

K. Kress, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3, 52–57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helmi, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

P. A. Roos, L. Xiaoqin, R. P. Smith, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, and S. T. Cundiff, “Solid-state carrier-envelope phase stabilization via quantum interference control of injected photocurrents,” Opt. Lett. 30, 735–737 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Osvay, M. Görbe, C. Grebing, and G. Steinmeyer, “Bandwidth-independent linear method for detection of the carrier-envelope offset phase,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3095–3097 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, O. Kuzucu, F. N. C. Wong, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, S. M. Foreman, D. J. Jones, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Experimental implementation of optical clockwork without carrier-envelope phase control,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2806–2808 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, E. Moon, H. Wang, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, J. Tackett, and Z. Zhang, “Determining the phase-energy coupling coefficient in carrier-envelope phase measurements,” Opt. Lett. 32, 796–798 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Single-shot measurement of carrier-envelope phase changes by spectral interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1436–1438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Fast f-to-2f interferometer for a direct measurement of the carrier-envelope phase drift of ultrashort amplified laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2545–2547 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Müller, K. Rühle, R. Kienberger, and G. G. Paulus, “Precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Polonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 20, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 20, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond modelocked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup. POL: polarizer; F: short pass filter; G: grating; PDA: photodiode array. A spectrum of the hollow fiber output is also shown. (b) Electronics for signal processing. Trans-Z: transimpedance amplifier; ADC: analog to digital converter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Raw data of the interference pattern on the PDA (circles) with piecewise linear (black) and spline (red) interpolations. (b) Double-sided complex Fourier transform of the raw data in (a). The CEP is given by the phase of the Fourier component at position 4.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A short excerpt of 1000 consecutive interference patterns recorded at 1 kHz with only the oscillator being locked. For visual clarity, a spline interpolation as in Fig. 2a has been done for each pulse.

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