Abstract

High-index contrast grating mirrors providing wave front control of the transmitted light as well as high reflectivity over a broad bandwidth are suggested and both numerically and experimentally investigated. General design rules to engineer these structures for different applications are derived. Such grating mirrors would have a significant impact on low cost laser fabrication, since a more efficient integration of optoelectronic modules can be achieved by avoiding expensive external lens systems.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12-1.62 µm) using a sub-wavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I.-S. Chung, J. Mørk, P. Gilet, and A. Chelnokov, “Subwavelength grating-mirror VCSEL with a thin oxide gap,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 105–107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I.-S. Chung and J. Mo̸rk, “Silicon-photonics light source realized by III-V/Si-grating-mirror laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151113 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4, 466–470 (2010).
  7. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of planar-grating diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71(7), 811–818 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, and T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 1068–1076 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, p. 438 (Wiley, 1995).

2010 (3)

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I.-S. Chung and J. Mo̸rk, “Silicon-photonics light source realized by III-V/Si-grating-mirror laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4, 466–470 (2010).

2008 (1)

I.-S. Chung, J. Mørk, P. Gilet, and A. Chelnokov, “Subwavelength grating-mirror VCSEL with a thin oxide gap,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 105–107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12-1.62 µm) using a sub-wavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1981 (1)

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of planar-grating diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71(7), 811–818 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4, 466–470 (2010).

Caliman, A.

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12-1.62 µm) using a sub-wavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chelnokov, A.

I.-S. Chung, J. Mørk, P. Gilet, and A. Chelnokov, “Subwavelength grating-mirror VCSEL with a thin oxide gap,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 105–107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12-1.62 µm) using a sub-wavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, I.-S.

I.-S. Chung and J. Mo̸rk, “Silicon-photonics light source realized by III-V/Si-grating-mirror laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I.-S. Chung, J. Mørk, P. Gilet, and A. Chelnokov, “Subwavelength grating-mirror VCSEL with a thin oxide gap,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 105–107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fattal, D.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4, 466–470 (2010).

Fiorentino, M.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4, 466–470 (2010).

Gaylord, T. K.

Gilet, P.

I.-S. Chung, J. Mørk, P. Gilet, and A. Chelnokov, “Subwavelength grating-mirror VCSEL with a thin oxide gap,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 105–107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grann, E. B.

Huang, M. C. Y.

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12-1.62 µm) using a sub-wavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iakovlev, V.

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kapon, E.

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4, 466–470 (2010).

Mateus, C. F. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12-1.62 µm) using a sub-wavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mereuta, A.

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mo?rk, J.

I.-S. Chung and J. Mo̸rk, “Silicon-photonics light source realized by III-V/Si-grating-mirror laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Mørk, J.

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I.-S. Chung, J. Mørk, P. Gilet, and A. Chelnokov, “Subwavelength grating-mirror VCSEL with a thin oxide gap,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 105–107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Z.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4, 466–470 (2010).

Pommet, D. A.

Sirbu, A.

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12-1.62 µm) using a sub-wavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I.-S. Chung and J. Mo̸rk, “Silicon-photonics light source realized by III-V/Si-grating-mirror laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

I.-S. Chung, J. Mørk, P. Gilet, and A. Chelnokov, “Subwavelength grating-mirror VCSEL with a thin oxide gap,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 105–107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12-1.62 µm) using a sub-wavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4, 466–470 (2010).

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, p. 438 (Wiley, 1995).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Light coupling from multiple VCSEL elements to an optical fiber by using HCGs. (b) Light coupling by using a lens. (c) Beam propagation angle can be dynamically steered between the solid and dashed lines by changing the refractive index of the HCG.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the investigated HCG sample, with the resulting spatially modulated transmission phase response and transmittivity profile. (b) Illustration of characterization set-up. (c) Scanning electron microscope image of the fabricated HCG structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Contour plot of transmittivity (in dB, color scale) versus wavelength and grating period. The vertical black line corresponds to a wavelength of 1.55 µm. (b) Phase and transmittivity as a function of grating periodicity, Λ, for a wavelength of 1.55 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation results for HCG grating designed for beam steering. (a) Evolution of magnetic field intensity profile (|Hz|2) with distance z from the HCG top surface, located at z = 0. (b) Phase profile of the electric field (Ex) at z = 10 µm. The black dashed lines delimit the projection of the non-periodic HCG region assuming negligible beam divergence and θ = 5.5°. (c) Magnetic field profiles (|Hz|2) at z = 60 μm and 90 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured beam profiles at different distances from the HCG. Markers (hollow dots) are measurements and solid lines show corresponding fitted Gaussian profiles.

Equations (1)

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θ = sin 1 ( ΔΦ dk ) .

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