Abstract

We report an optical switch based on a diffraction grating by combining PDMS microstructures with a photo-responsive Nematic Liquid Crystal (NLC). The grating was realized via replica molding and was subsequently coated with a thin SiO layer. SiO induced a full planar alignment of the liquid crystal. The induced parallel alignment of the LC reduces the response time of the structure by approximately an order of magnitude compared to the same structures without SiO. We explored the effect of the pump intensity on the transmission properties and time response of the switch and identified a strong dependence on the probe polarization, due to the full planar alignment in this structure. The aforementioned inclusion of the SiO layer enables enhanced performance of optical devices based on the fusion of nematogens with soft and flexible substrates.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, L. De Sio, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidic modulator based on peristaltic nematogen microflows,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 234–238 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Mesogenic versus non-mesogenic azo dye confined in a soft-matter template for realization of optically switchable diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(19), 6811–6814 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

L. De Sio, J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, and D. Psaltis, “All-optical switching in an optofluidic polydimethylsiloxane: Liquid crystal grating defined by cast-molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, F. Vita, and F. Simoni, “All-optical switching of diffraction gratings infiltrated with dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, S. Serak, and N. Tabiryan, “All-optical switching of holographic gratings made of polymer-liquid-crystal-polymer slices containing azo-compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, “Control of liquid crystal alignment by deposition of silicon oxide thin film,” Thin Solid Films 515(5), 3102–3106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J.-H. Li, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(42), 13580–13581 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Lee, T. L. Fu, K. T. Cheng, T. S. Mo, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically Switchable Bragg Reflectors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(16), 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wen, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Ultraviolet stability of liquid crystals containing cyano and isothiocyanato terminal groups,” Liq. Cryst. 31(11), 1479–1485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1998

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Systems in Poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70(23), 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268(5219), 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

Bunning, T.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically Switchable Bragg Reflectors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(16), 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J.-H. Li, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(42), 13580–13581 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

Cheng, K. T.

C. R. Lee, T. L. Fu, K. T. Cheng, T. S. Mo, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuennet, J. G.

J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, L. De Sio, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidic modulator based on peristaltic nematogen microflows,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 234–238 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, and D. Psaltis, “All-optical switching in an optofluidic polydimethylsiloxane: Liquid crystal grating defined by cast-molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Sio, L.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Mesogenic versus non-mesogenic azo dye confined in a soft-matter template for realization of optically switchable diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(19), 6811–6814 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, L. De Sio, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidic modulator based on peristaltic nematogen microflows,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 234–238 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. De Sio, J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, and D. Psaltis, “All-optical switching in an optofluidic polydimethylsiloxane: Liquid crystal grating defined by cast-molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, S. Serak, and N. Tabiryan, “All-optical switching of holographic gratings made of polymer-liquid-crystal-polymer slices containing azo-compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duffy, D. C.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Systems in Poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70(23), 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferjani, S.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francescangeli, O.

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, T. L.

C. R. Lee, T. L. Fu, K. T. Cheng, T. S. Mo, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuh, A. Y. G.

C. R. Lee, T. L. Fu, K. T. Cheng, T. S. Mo, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauza, S.

C. H. Wen, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Ultraviolet stability of liquid crystals containing cyano and isothiocyanato terminal groups,” Liq. Cryst. 31(11), 1479–1485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Huang, H.

Huang, T. J.

Ikeda, T.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically Switchable Bragg Reflectors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(16), 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268(5219), 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khoo, I. C.

Kim, J. C.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, “Control of liquid crystal alignment by deposition of silicon oxide thin film,” Thin Solid Films 515(5), 3102–3106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klosterman, J.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically Switchable Bragg Reflectors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(16), 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuksenok, O. V.

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. R.

C. R. Lee, T. L. Fu, K. T. Cheng, T. S. Mo, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.-H.

A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J.-H. Li, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(42), 13580–13581 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. J.

Lucchetta, D. E.

D. E. Lucchetta, F. Vita, and F. Simoni, “All-optical switching of diffraction gratings infiltrated with dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, J. C.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Systems in Poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70(23), 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mo, T. S.

C. R. Lee, T. L. Fu, K. T. Cheng, T. S. Mo, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moharam, M. G.

Natarajan, L.

A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J.-H. Li, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(42), 13580–13581 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically Switchable Bragg Reflectors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(16), 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ouskova, E.

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J. H.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, “Control of liquid crystal alignment by deposition of silicon oxide thin film,” Thin Solid Films 515(5), 3102–3106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, L. De Sio, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidic modulator based on peristaltic nematogen microflows,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 234–238 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, and D. Psaltis, “All-optical switching in an optofluidic polydimethylsiloxane: Liquid crystal grating defined by cast-molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reznikov, Yu.

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schueller, O. J. A.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Systems in Poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70(23), 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serak, S.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Mesogenic versus non-mesogenic azo dye confined in a soft-matter template for realization of optically switchable diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(19), 6811–6814 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, S. Serak, and N. Tabiryan, “All-optical switching of holographic gratings made of polymer-liquid-crystal-polymer slices containing azo-compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

Shih, M. Y.

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simoni, F.

D. E. Lucchetta, F. Vita, and F. Simoni, “All-optical switching of diffraction gratings infiltrated with dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Son, P. K.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, “Control of liquid crystal alignment by deposition of silicon oxide thin film,” Thin Solid Films 515(5), 3102–3106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Su, L.

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutherland, R.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically Switchable Bragg Reflectors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(16), 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J.-H. Li, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(42), 13580–13581 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tabiryan, N.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Mesogenic versus non-mesogenic azo dye confined in a soft-matter template for realization of optically switchable diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(19), 6811–6814 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, S. Serak, and N. Tabiryan, “All-optical switching of holographic gratings made of polymer-liquid-crystal-polymer slices containing azo-compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V.

A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J.-H. Li, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(42), 13580–13581 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically Switchable Bragg Reflectors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(16), 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, O.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically Switchable Bragg Reflectors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(16), 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268(5219), 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umeton, C.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Mesogenic versus non-mesogenic azo dye confined in a soft-matter template for realization of optically switchable diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(19), 6811–6814 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, S. Serak, and N. Tabiryan, “All-optical switching of holographic gratings made of polymer-liquid-crystal-polymer slices containing azo-compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Urbas, A.

A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J.-H. Li, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(42), 13580–13581 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically Switchable Bragg Reflectors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(16), 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vasdekis, A. E.

J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, L. De Sio, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidic modulator based on peristaltic nematogen microflows,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 234–238 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, and D. Psaltis, “All-optical switching in an optofluidic polydimethylsiloxane: Liquid crystal grating defined by cast-molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Veltri, A.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, S. Serak, and N. Tabiryan, “All-optical switching of holographic gratings made of polymer-liquid-crystal-polymer slices containing azo-compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vita, F.

D. E. Lucchetta, F. Vita, and F. Simoni, “All-optical switching of diffraction gratings infiltrated with dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walker, T. R.

Wen, C. H.

C. H. Wen, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Ultraviolet stability of liquid crystals containing cyano and isothiocyanato terminal groups,” Liq. Cryst. 31(11), 1479–1485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Systems in Poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70(23), 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, M.

Wu, S. T.

C. H. Wen, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Ultraviolet stability of liquid crystals containing cyano and isothiocyanato terminal groups,” Liq. Cryst. 31(11), 1479–1485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, T. H.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, “Control of liquid crystal alignment by deposition of silicon oxide thin film,” Thin Solid Films 515(5), 3102–3106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J.-H. Li, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(42), 13580–13581 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y. B.

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically Switchable Bragg Reflectors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(16), 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Systems in Poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70(23), 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, S. Serak, and N. Tabiryan, “All-optical switching of holographic gratings made of polymer-liquid-crystal-polymer slices containing azo-compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, and D. Psaltis, “All-optical switching in an optofluidic polydimethylsiloxane: Liquid crystal grating defined by cast-molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, F. Vita, and F. Simoni, “All-optical switching of diffraction gratings infiltrated with dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J.-H. Li, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(42), 13580–13581 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Mesogenic versus non-mesogenic azo dye confined in a soft-matter template for realization of optically switchable diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(19), 6811–6814 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst.

C. H. Wen, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Ultraviolet stability of liquid crystals containing cyano and isothiocyanato terminal groups,” Liq. Cryst. 31(11), 1479–1485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, L. De Sio, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidic modulator based on peristaltic nematogen microflows,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 234–238 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

C. R. Lee, T. L. Fu, K. T. Cheng, T. S. Mo, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268(5219), 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, “Control of liquid crystal alignment by deposition of silicon oxide thin film,” Thin Solid Films 515(5), 3102–3106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. G. De Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford Science Publications, 1994)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarized transmission spectrum (polarization vector along the long axes of the NLC) of the mixture realized with an optical spectrometer. Inset: photo of the mixture taken with a 20X objective.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

View of the grating sample (a) and corresponding SEM image (b). In (c) is reported an optical microscope view of the sample along with the far field diffraction pattern obtained by probing with a He-Ne laser the flexible grating (d).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized diffracted Intensity versus the polarization angle of the impinging probe beam for different values of the external pump power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency versus the time. Curves have been acquired for different values of the pump radiation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the fall times of the structure without (a) and with SiO treatment (b) versus the pump power density. (a1, b1) and (a2, b2) are the hybrid and planar conditions before and after the pump irradiation respectively. The probe and pump beam are both polarized along the x direction.

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