Abstract

A silicon-based plasmonic nanoring resonator is proposed for ultrafast, all-optical switching applications. Full-wave numerical simulations demonstrate that the photogeneration of free carriers enables ultrafast switching of the device by shifting the transmission minimum of the resonator with a switching time of 3 ps. The compact 1.00 μm2 device footprint demonstrates the potential for high integration density plasmonic circuitry based on this device geometry.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5836 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3998–4001 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. J. Chau, S. E. Irvine, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “A gigahertz surface magneto-plasmon optical modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 571–579 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Y. Elezzabi, Z. Han, S. Sederberg, and V. Van, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in silicon-based nanoplasmonic devices,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11045–11056 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. N. Caspers, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Ultrafast silicon-based active plasmonics at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19761–19769 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. V. Ermolenko, O. V. Buganov, S. A. Tikhomirov, V. V. Stankevich, S. V. Gaponenko, and A. S. Shulenkov, “Ultrafast all-optical modulator for 1.5 μm controlled by Ti:Al2O3 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073113 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Electro-optic switching element for dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041107 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, “Carrier lifetime versus ion-implantation dose in silicon on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(8), 460–462 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm x-ray zone plates for x-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2004 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. A. Mohammad, T. Fito, J. Chen, M. Aktary, M. Stepanova, and S. K. Dew, “Interdependence of optimum exposure dose regimes and the kinetics of resist dissolution for electron beam nanolithography of polymethylmethacrylate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(1), L1 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. A. Mohammad, S. K. Dew, S. Evoy, and M. Stepanova, “Fabrication of sub-10 nm silicon carbon nitride resonators using a hydrogen silsesquioxane mask prepared by electron beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(8), 2338–2341 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8888–8902 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fully complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021107 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Song, J. Wang, Q. Li, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband coupler between silicon waveguide and hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13173–13179 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, “Experimental realization of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides on a silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 502–504 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. A. Schumann and R. P. Phillips, “Comparison of classical approximations to free carrier absorption in semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 10(9), 943–948 (1967).
    [CrossRef]

2011

M. A. Mohammad, S. K. Dew, S. Evoy, and M. Stepanova, “Fabrication of sub-10 nm silicon carbon nitride resonators using a hydrogen silsesquioxane mask prepared by electron beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(8), 2338–2341 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fully complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8888–8902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, “Experimental realization of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides on a silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 502–504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Song, J. Wang, Q. Li, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband coupler between silicon waveguide and hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13173–13179 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Caspers, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Ultrafast silicon-based active plasmonics at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19761–19769 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Electro-optic switching element for dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mohammad, T. Fito, J. Chen, M. Aktary, M. Stepanova, and S. K. Dew, “Interdependence of optimum exposure dose regimes and the kinetics of resist dissolution for electron beam nanolithography of polymethylmethacrylate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(1), L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Ermolenko, O. V. Buganov, S. A. Tikhomirov, V. V. Stankevich, S. V. Gaponenko, and A. S. Shulenkov, “Ultrafast all-optical modulator for 1.5 μm controlled by Ti:Al2O3 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3998–4001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm x-ray zone plates for x-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Chau, S. E. Irvine, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “A gigahertz surface magneto-plasmon optical modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 571–579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, “Carrier lifetime versus ion-implantation dose in silicon on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(8), 460–462 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1967

P. A. Schumann and R. P. Phillips, “Comparison of classical approximations to free carrier absorption in semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 10(9), 943–948 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Aktary, M.

M. A. Mohammad, T. Fito, J. Chen, M. Aktary, M. Stepanova, and S. K. Dew, “Interdependence of optimum exposure dose regimes and the kinetics of resist dissolution for electron beam nanolithography of polymethylmethacrylate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(1), L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ambati, M.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3998–4001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, T. B.

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3998–4001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buganov, O. V.

M. V. Ermolenko, O. V. Buganov, S. A. Tikhomirov, V. V. Stankevich, S. V. Gaponenko, and A. S. Shulenkov, “Ultrafast all-optical modulator for 1.5 μm controlled by Ti:Al2O3 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Caspers, J. N.

Chau, K. J.

K. J. Chau, S. E. Irvine, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “A gigahertz surface magneto-plasmon optical modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 571–579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

M. A. Mohammad, T. Fito, J. Chen, M. Aktary, M. Stepanova, and S. K. Dew, “Interdependence of optimum exposure dose regimes and the kinetics of resist dissolution for electron beam nanolithography of polymethylmethacrylate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(1), L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm x-ray zone plates for x-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chi, C. C.

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, “Carrier lifetime versus ion-implantation dose in silicon on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(8), 460–462 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Leon, I.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dew, S. K.

M. A. Mohammad, S. K. Dew, S. Evoy, and M. Stepanova, “Fabrication of sub-10 nm silicon carbon nitride resonators using a hydrogen silsesquioxane mask prepared by electron beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(8), 2338–2341 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mohammad, T. Fito, J. Chen, M. Aktary, M. Stepanova, and S. K. Dew, “Interdependence of optimum exposure dose regimes and the kinetics of resist dissolution for electron beam nanolithography of polymethylmethacrylate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(1), L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diest, K.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doany, F. E.

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, “Carrier lifetime versus ion-implantation dose in silicon on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(8), 460–462 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elezzabi, A. Y.

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, “Experimental realization of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides on a silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 502–504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Y. Elezzabi, Z. Han, S. Sederberg, and V. Van, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in silicon-based nanoplasmonic devices,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11045–11056 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Chau, S. E. Irvine, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “A gigahertz surface magneto-plasmon optical modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 571–579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ermolenko, M. V.

M. V. Ermolenko, O. V. Buganov, S. A. Tikhomirov, V. V. Stankevich, S. V. Gaponenko, and A. S. Shulenkov, “Ultrafast all-optical modulator for 1.5 μm controlled by Ti:Al2O3 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Evoy, S.

M. A. Mohammad, S. K. Dew, S. Evoy, and M. Stepanova, “Fabrication of sub-10 nm silicon carbon nitride resonators using a hydrogen silsesquioxane mask prepared by electron beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(8), 2338–2341 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm x-ray zone plates for x-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feser, M.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm x-ray zone plates for x-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fito, T.

M. A. Mohammad, T. Fito, J. Chen, M. Aktary, M. Stepanova, and S. K. Dew, “Interdependence of optimum exposure dose regimes and the kinetics of resist dissolution for electron beam nanolithography of polymethylmethacrylate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(1), L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gaponenko, S. V.

M. V. Ermolenko, O. V. Buganov, S. A. Tikhomirov, V. V. Stankevich, S. V. Gaponenko, and A. S. Shulenkov, “Ultrafast all-optical modulator for 1.5 μm controlled by Ti:Al2O3 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E. J.

Genov, D. A.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3998–4001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gosciniak, J.

Grischkowsky, D.

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, “Carrier lifetime versus ion-implantation dose in silicon on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(8), 460–462 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. T.

Irvine, S. E.

K. J. Chau, S. E. Irvine, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “A gigahertz surface magneto-plasmon optical modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 571–579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karouta, F.

Kjelstrup-Hansen, J.

Krasavin, A. V.

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Electro-optic switching element for dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fully complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8888–8902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laine, J.-P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laluet, J.-Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leong, E. S. P.

Leosson, K.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Liow, T. Y.

S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8888–8902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fully complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fully complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8888–8902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyon, A.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm x-ray zone plates for x-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, K. F.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marell, M.

Markey, L.

Mohammad, M. A.

M. A. Mohammad, S. K. Dew, S. Evoy, and M. Stepanova, “Fabrication of sub-10 nm silicon carbon nitride resonators using a hydrogen silsesquioxane mask prepared by electron beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(8), 2338–2341 (2011).
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K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
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M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3998–4001 (2008).
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K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
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M. V. Ermolenko, O. V. Buganov, S. A. Tikhomirov, V. V. Stankevich, S. V. Gaponenko, and A. S. Shulenkov, “Ultrafast all-optical modulator for 1.5 μm controlled by Ti:Al2O3 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073113 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3998–4001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
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Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic depiction of the device geometry. The nanoring is designed to have a radius, r = 560 nm, silver film thickness, tAg = 100 nm, input coupler separation, gSi = 25 nm, modulation coupler separation, gSiO2 = 20 nm, and uniform waveguide widths, wSi = wSiO2 = 100 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electric field intensity distribution of the excited mode in a silicon-loaded plasmonic waveguide at λ = 1515 nm. (b) Broadband transmission through silicon bus plasmonic waveguide coupled to nanoring resonator. (c) Electric field intensity distribution of the excited mode in a SiO2-loaded plasmonic waveguide at λ = 800 nm. (d) Pump power (λ = 800 nm) coupled to nanoring versus nanoring angle, θ (see inset). The coupled power is normalized to the input power. A skewed Gaussian function is fitted to the recorded points.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index of silicon as a function of time and nanoring angle when excited by ultrafast above-bandgap pulses of τp = 10 fs duration at λ = 800 nm. The real component of the refractive index of II-Si in the ring is modeled for pump strengths of n0/nc = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 in (a), (b), (c), and (d), respectively. The imaginary component of the refractive index of II-Si in the nanoring is modeled for pump strengths of n0/nc = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 in (e), (f), (g), and (h), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Intensity distribution of the nanoring resonator in the “off” state without any pump. (b) Intensity distribution of the ring resonator for a pump strength of n0/nc = 0.10. (c) Intensity distribution of the nanoring resonator in the “on” state, with a pump strength of n0/nc = 0.22. Each of the three intensity distributions is presented on the same scale. (d) Effect of the pump strength on the position of the transmission minimum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Dependence of the power transmission through II-Si bus waveguide on the pump strength. (b) Power transmission through the II-Si bus waveguide as a function of time for pump strengths of n0/nc = {0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.22}.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P= a 2π exp[ b 2 ( θc ) 2 ]×[ 1+erf[ d 2 ( θe ) ] ]
ε(t)= ε ' b [1 n(t) e 2 <τ > 2 ε ' b ε 0 m * (1+ ω 2 τ > 2 ) ]i ε ' b [ ε " b ε ' b + n(t) e 2 <τ > 2 ε ' b ε 0 m * ω(1+ ω 2 <τ > 2 ) ]
n c = ε 0 ε b ' m * (1+ ω 2 <τ > 2 ) e 2 <τ > 2
n(t) t = n 0 τ p sec h 2 ( t t 0 τ p ) n(t) τ c
E pump =η E p n 0 V

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