Abstract

We address technical impediments to the generation of high-photon flux XUV frequency combs through cavity-enhanced high harmonic generation. These difficulties arise from mirror damage, cavity nonlinearity, the intracavity plasma generated during the HHG process, and imperfect phase-matching. By eliminating or minimizing each of these effects we have developed a system capable of generating > 200 μW and delivering ~20 μW of average power for each spectrally separated harmonic (wavelengths ranging from 50 nm - 120 nm), to actual comb-based spectroscopy experiments.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. I. Hartl, T. R. Schibli, A. Marcinkevicius, D. C. Yost, D. D. Hudson, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced similariton Yb-fiber laser frequency comb: 3 x 1014 W/ cm2 peak intensity at 136 MHz,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2870–2872 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  37. A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  39. A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Accepted to Nature (2011).
  40. J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 013901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. L. D. Merkle, N. Koumvakalis, and M. Bass, “Laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2 at 1.064, 0.532, and 0.355 µm,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(3), 772 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  42. I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, C. H. Nam, T. Mocek, and K. Jakubczak, “Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021125 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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  44. J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66(2), 021801 (2002).
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2011

J. Lee, D. R. Carlson, and R. J. Jones, “Optimizing intracavity high harmonic generation for XUV fs frequency combs," Opt. Express 19(23), 23315–23326 (2011).

A. Vernaleken, J. Weitenberg, T. Sartorius, P. Russbueldt, W. Schneider, S. L. Stebbings, M. F. Kling, P. Hommelhoff, H. D. Hoffmann, R. Poprawe, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Single-pass high-harmonic generation at 20.8 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3428–3430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. Baer, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Pulse compression of a high-power thin disk laser using rod-type fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1395–1407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-Y. Yang, F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, I. Pupeza, J. Kaster, D. Lehr, H.-J. Fuchs, E.-B. Kley, E. Fill, X.-M. Duan, Z.-S. Zhao, F. Krausz, S. L. Stebbings, and M. F. Kling, “Optimization and characterization of a highly-efficient diffraction nanograting for MHz XUV pulses,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1954–1962 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Weitenberg, P. Rußbüldt, T. Eidam, and I. Pupeza, “Transverse mode tailoring in a quasi-imaging high-finesse femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9551–9561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, E. E. Fill, and F. Krausz, “Low-loss VIS/IR-XUV beam splitter for high-power applications,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12108–12118 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme nonlinear optics in a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev Lett. 107, 183903 (2011).

D. R. Carlson, J. Lee, J. Mongelli, E. M. Wright, and R. J. Jones, “Intracavity ionization and pulse formation in femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2991–2993 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Broadband phase noise suppression in a Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 743–745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Accepted to Nature (2011).

2010

2009

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuumultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, Ch. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schüssler, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

E. E. Eyler, D. E. Chieda, M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Prospects for precision measurements of atomic helium using direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 43–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Loh and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast strong-field dissociative ionization dynamics of CH2Br2 probed by femtosecond soft x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(20), 204302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1099–1101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, A. Vernaleken, W. Schneider, I. Gotlibovych, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Non-collinear high harmonic generation: a promising outcoupling method for cavity-assisted XUV generation,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6233–6239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, C. H. Nam, T. Mocek, and K. Jakubczak, “Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

I. Hartl, T. R. Schibli, A. Marcinkevicius, D. C. Yost, D. D. Hudson, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced similariton Yb-fiber laser frequency comb: 3 x 1014 W/ cm2 peak intensity at 136 MHz,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2870–2872 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

K. Moll, R. Jones, and J. Ye, “Nonlinear dynamics inside femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1672–1678 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurements of absolute optical frequencies and population transfer dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(2), 023001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure,” Science 306(5704), 2063–2068 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of 10- µJ coherent extreme-ultraviolet light by use of high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1920–1922 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66(2), 021801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1984

L. D. Merkle, N. Koumvakalis, and M. Bass, “Laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2 at 1.064, 0.532, and 0.355 µm,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(3), 772 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1977

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(3), 235–254 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66(2), 021801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alahmed, Z. A.

Allison, T. K.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Accepted to Nature (2011).

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Broadband phase noise suppression in a Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 743–745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme nonlinear optics in a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev Lett. 107, 183903 (2011).

T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, and A. Belkacem, “Femtosecond spectroscopy with vacuum ultraviolet pulse pairs,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3664–3666 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, T. V.

Apolonski, A.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, Th. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arms, D. A.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Auguste, T.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 013901 (2007).
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Azzeer, A. M.

Baer, C. R.

Bass, M.

L. D. Merkle, N. Koumvakalis, and M. Bass, “Laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2 at 1.064, 0.532, and 0.355 µm,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(3), 772 (1984).
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Batteiger, V.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, Ch. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schüssler, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Belkacem, A.

Bernhardt, B.

Billon, M.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
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Bourhis, E.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66(2), 021801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, D. R.

Carré, B.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66(2), 021801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Caumes, J.-P.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chieda, D. E.

E. E. Eyler, D. E. Chieda, M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Prospects for precision measurements of atomic helium using direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 43–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cingöz, A.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Broadband phase noise suppression in a Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 743–745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme nonlinear optics in a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev Lett. 107, 183903 (2011).

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Accepted to Nature (2011).

Constant, E.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dimarcello, F. V.

DiMauro, L. F.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorrer, Ch.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.-M.

Dufresne, E. M.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dunford, R. W.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ederer, D. L.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eidam, T.

Eikema, K. S. E.

D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(6), 063001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eyler, E. E.

E. E. Eyler, D. E. Chieda, M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Prospects for precision measurements of atomic helium using direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 43–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fajardo, M.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falcone, R. W.

Felinto, D.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurements of absolute optical frequencies and population transfer dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(2), 023001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure,” Science 306(5704), 2063–2068 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fermann, M. E.

Fernandez, A.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fill, E.

Fill, E. E.

Fuchs, H.-J.

Gaarde, M. B.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuumultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).

Gabler, T.

Garzella, D.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gautier, J.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Géléoc, M.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghalmi, S.

Gierak, J.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gobert, O.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gohle, Ch.

D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(6), 063001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, Ch. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schüssler, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gotlibovych, I.

Graf, R.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haas, M.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, Ch. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schüssler, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hädrich, S.

Hajdu, J.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanf, S.

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Vernaleken, J. Weitenberg, T. Sartorius, P. Russbueldt, W. Schneider, S. L. Stebbings, M. F. Kling, P. Hommelhoff, H. D. Hoffmann, R. Poprawe, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Single-pass high-harmonic generation at 20.8 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3428–3430 (2011).
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I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, Th. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, Ch. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schüssler, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozawa, A. Vernaleken, W. Schneider, I. Gotlibovych, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Non-collinear high harmonic generation: a promising outcoupling method for cavity-assisted XUV generation,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6233–6239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Heckl, O. H.

Hergott, J. F.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hergott, J.-F.

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66(2), 021801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, M.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, Ch. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schüssler, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, H. D.

Höhr, C.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hommelhoff, P.

Hostetter, J.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuumultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).

Hubert, C.

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66(2), 021801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D. D.

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jakubczak, K.

I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, C. H. Nam, T. Mocek, and K. Jakubczak, “Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jean, E.

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66(2), 021801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jentschura, U. D.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, Ch. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schüssler, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

Jones, R. J.

Kandula, D. Z.

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D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(6), 063001 (2010).
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Schiedt, B.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, W.

Schreiber, T.

Schuessler, H. A.

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schüssler, H. A.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, Ch. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schüssler, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seise, E.

Southworth, S. H.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stebbings, S. L.

Stooke, A. M.

Stowe, M. C.

E. E. Eyler, D. E. Chieda, M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Prospects for precision measurements of atomic helium using direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 43–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurements of absolute optical frequencies and population transfer dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(2), 023001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure,” Science 306(5704), 2063–2068 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Südmeyer, T.

Süßmann, F.

Takahashi, E.

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(3), 235–254 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tate, J.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tate, J. L.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuumultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).

Tavella, F.

Thorpe, M. J.

E. E. Eyler, D. E. Chieda, M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Prospects for precision measurements of atomic helium using direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 43–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

Ubachs, W.

D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(6), 063001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, T.

Udem, Th.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, Th. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, Ch. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schüssler, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozawa, A. Vernaleken, W. Schneider, I. Gotlibovych, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Non-collinear high harmonic generation: a promising outcoupling method for cavity-assisted XUV generation,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6233–6239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Tilborg, J.

Vernaleken, A.

Walker, D. R.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitenberg, J.

Willner, A.

Wirth, C.

Wisk, P.

Wright, E. M.

Wright, T. W.

Yan, M. F.

Yang, Y.-Y.

Ye, J.

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme nonlinear optics in a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev Lett. 107, 183903 (2011).

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Broadband phase noise suppression in a Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 743–745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Accepted to Nature (2011).

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuumultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1099–1101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Eyler, D. E. Chieda, M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Prospects for precision measurements of atomic helium using direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 43–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Hartl, T. R. Schibli, A. Marcinkevicius, D. C. Yost, D. D. Hudson, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced similariton Yb-fiber laser frequency comb: 3 x 1014 W/ cm2 peak intensity at 136 MHz,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2870–2872 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Output coupling methods for cavity-based high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8189–8197 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurements of absolute optical frequencies and population transfer dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(2), 023001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moll, R. Jones, and J. Ye, “Nonlinear dynamics inside femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1672–1678 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure,” Science 306(5704), 2063–2068 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yost, D. C.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Broadband phase noise suppression in a Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 743–745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme nonlinear optics in a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev Lett. 107, 183903 (2011).

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Accepted to Nature (2011).

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuumultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1099–1101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Hartl, T. R. Schibli, A. Marcinkevicius, D. C. Yost, D. D. Hudson, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced similariton Yb-fiber laser frequency comb: 3 x 1014 W/ cm2 peak intensity at 136 MHz,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2870–2872 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, L.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeitoun, P.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.-S.

Zherebtsov, S.

Appl. Phys. (Berl.)

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(3), 235–254 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, C. H. Nam, T. Mocek, and K. Jakubczak, “Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D

E. E. Eyler, D. E. Chieda, M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Prospects for precision measurements of atomic helium using direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 43–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

L. D. Merkle, N. Koumvakalis, and M. Bass, “Laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2 at 1.064, 0.532, and 0.355 µm,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(3), 772 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

Z. H. Loh and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast strong-field dissociative ionization dynamics of CH2Br2 probed by femtosecond soft x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(20), 204302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuumultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).

Nature

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Accepted to Nature (2011).

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

K. Moll, R. Jones, and J. Ye, “Nonlinear dynamics inside femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1672–1678 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Output coupling methods for cavity-based high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8189–8197 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, A. Vernaleken, W. Schneider, I. Gotlibovych, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Non-collinear high harmonic generation: a promising outcoupling method for cavity-assisted XUV generation,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6233–6239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hädrich, J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, F. Tavella, A. Willner, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High harmonic generation by novel fiber amplifier based sources,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20242–20250 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. Baer, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Pulse compression of a high-power thin disk laser using rod-type fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1395–1407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-Y. Yang, F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, I. Pupeza, J. Kaster, D. Lehr, H.-J. Fuchs, E.-B. Kley, E. Fill, X.-M. Duan, Z.-S. Zhao, F. Krausz, S. L. Stebbings, and M. F. Kling, “Optimization and characterization of a highly-efficient diffraction nanograting for MHz XUV pulses,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1954–1962 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Weitenberg, P. Rußbüldt, T. Eidam, and I. Pupeza, “Transverse mode tailoring in a quasi-imaging high-finesse femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9551–9561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, E. E. Fill, and F. Krausz, “Low-loss VIS/IR-XUV beam splitter for high-power applications,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12108–12118 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, D. R. Carlson, and R. J. Jones, “Optimizing intracavity high harmonic generation for XUV fs frequency combs," Opt. Express 19(23), 23315–23326 (2011).

Opt. Lett.

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of 10- µJ coherent extreme-ultraviolet light by use of high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1920–1922 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Carlson, J. Lee, J. Mongelli, E. M. Wright, and R. J. Jones, “Intracavity ionization and pulse formation in femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2991–2993 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vernaleken, J. Weitenberg, T. Sartorius, P. Russbueldt, W. Schneider, S. L. Stebbings, M. F. Kling, P. Hommelhoff, H. D. Hoffmann, R. Poprawe, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Single-pass high-harmonic generation at 20.8 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3428–3430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Broadband phase noise suppression in a Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 743–745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, and A. Belkacem, “Femtosecond spectroscopy with vacuum ultraviolet pulse pairs,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3664–3666 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1099–1101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, Th. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ruehl, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and I. Hartl, “80 W, 120 fs Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3015–3017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, T. R. Schibli, A. Marcinkevicius, D. C. Yost, D. D. Hudson, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced similariton Yb-fiber laser frequency comb: 3 x 1014 W/ cm2 peak intensity at 136 MHz,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2870–2872 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, E. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Anomalous dispersion in a solid, silica-based fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2532–2534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev Lett.

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme nonlinear optics in a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev Lett. 107, 183903 (2011).

Phys. Rev. A

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66(2), 021801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, Ch. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schüssler, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J. F. Hergott, A. M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurements of absolute optical frequencies and population transfer dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(2), 023001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(6), 063001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193201 (2005).
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F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
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Science

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure,” Science 306(5704), 2063–2068 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. E. Fermann, M. L. Stock, A. Galvanauskas, G. C. Cho, and B. C. Thomsen, “Third-order dispersion control in ultrafast Yb fiber amplifiers”, Conf. on Advanced Solid State Lasers, ASSL 2001, paper TuA3.

D. Attwood, Soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation (Cambridge University Press, 1999).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition (Academic, 2003).

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, L. Dong, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultra-compact dispersion compensated femtosecond fiber oscillators and amplifiers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CThG1. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2005-CThG1

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The laser spectrum incident on the enhancement cavity is compared with the intracavity spectrum for two different designs of grating output coupler. a) solid curve is the intracavity spectrum for grating output coupler with 100 nm SiO2 top layer. Dotted curve is the incident spectrum for comparison. b) same as in a) but with 460 nm SiO2 top layer for which the lack of evanescent waveguide coupling is clearly evident. Some difference between the incident and the intracavity spectra is attributed to intracavity mirror dispersion.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Diagram showing both the intracavity power as a function of resonance detuning (blue curve), as well as the frequency shift in the resonance position due to plasma (dotted green curve). b) Diagram showing the detuning from the resonance as a function of the laser frequency with the shift in the resonance position shown in a) added to the otherwise linear relationship. c) Intracavity power as a function of time with an offset of the locking position from the resonance (red curve) and without an offset (blue curve). With zero offset from the resonance, the system will lock to point 1 on b). Slight laser noise at this position will cause the system to jump to point 2. The lock will then adjust the laser frequency to minimize the detuning from the resonance, moving quickly through points 2-4 on the diagram. This cycle repeats and creates characteristic oscillations as shown on the blue curve in c). By adjusting the lock so that the laser is detuned from the resonance by ≈1/6 the cavity resonance width, the system locks at point 5. This locking position is stable against frequency noise as represented by the gray box in b) and results in elimination of the oscillations as shown in the red curve in c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Intracavity power as a function of incident power for a cavity with F ≈1000 for both an empty optical cavity (red circles) and an optical cavity where Xe gas was injected at the focus with a 100 μm nozzle and 1.5 atm of backing pressure (blue squares). b) Same as in a) but with F ≈400. The insets show the intracavity spectra at a representative power of 6 kW for the respective cases. Spectral distortion is clearly visible in the higher finesse cavity when intracavity plasma is present. The nozzle position with respect to the focus was identical in both cases. The mismatch in the buildup for the low finesse case is due to imperfect transverse mode matching. For the F ≈400 cavity, the power begins to clamp at 7 kW of intracavity power when Xe is used as the target gas. However, when Kr is used as the target gas (not shown) 8 kW of intracavity power is achievable.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Harmonic power plotted as a function of intracavity power for all harmonics showing a marginal increase in harmonic power for intracavity powers between 5.5 and 6.5 kW. The oscillations visible for some harmonics are due to quantum path interference [38] b) Comparison of the generated power of high performance HHG systems for representative harmonics. Reference [12] and [37] are also intracavity harmonic systems operating at ~800 nm but with collinear output coupling that requires additional spectral filtering before spectroscopic experiments. As described in the text, the shorter fundamental wavelength will tend to produce higher flux. Our system in the only one in the figure not utilizing Ti:Sapp and operating at fundamental wavelength around 1 μm.

Equations (2)

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α=2π ( sin(θ) λ + m λ g ) 2 n 2 λ 2 ,
1 1+ ( 2F π ) 2 si n 2 ( ϕ(t) 2 ) ,

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