Abstract

Indium tin oxide is used as a top cladding electrode of optical disk resonators with subwavelength size in all dimensions. Calculated quality (Q)-factors exceed 104 in visible wavelengths (650-670nm). The disk aspect ratio is an important parameter to optimize the resonator properties. The Q-factor and threshold material gain based on finite-difference time-domain method are optimized for eight different disk resonator optical modes. Proposed cavity designs are promising for building electrically-pumped, low-threshold nano-lasers at room temperature.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Yu, A. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8790–8799 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Huang, S. H. Kim, and A. Scherer, “Design of a surface-emitting, subwavelength metal-clad disk laser in the visible spectrum,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19581–19591 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. O. Senlik, L. Tang, P. Tor-ngern, and T. Yoshie, “Optical microcavities clad by low-absorption electrode media,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(5), 794–801 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. A. Synowicki, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of indium tin oxide film microstructure and optical constants,” Thin Solid Films 313–314(1-2), 394–397 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Filmetrics, “Filmetrics refractive index database” (Filmetrics, 2011). http://www.filmetrics.com/refractive-index-database .
  9. M. A. Matin, A. F. Jezierski, S. A. Bashar, D. E. Lacklison, T. M. Benson, T. S. Cheng, J. S. Roberts, T. E. Sale, J. W. Orton, C. T. Foxon, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ohmic contacts in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 30(4), 318–320 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics:Optical Electronics In Modern Communications (Oxford University Press, 2007), App. 2.
  11. A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Hunziker, W. Knop, and C. Harder, “Gain measurements on one, two, and three strained GaInP quantum well laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(10), 2235–2238 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2010

O. Senlik, L. Tang, P. Tor-ngern, and T. Yoshie, “Optical microcavities clad by low-absorption electrode media,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(5), 794–801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yu, A. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8790–8799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huang, S. H. Kim, and A. Scherer, “Design of a surface-emitting, subwavelength metal-clad disk laser in the visible spectrum,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19581–19591 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

R. A. Synowicki, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of indium tin oxide film microstructure and optical constants,” Thin Solid Films 313–314(1-2), 394–397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. A. Matin, A. F. Jezierski, S. A. Bashar, D. E. Lacklison, T. M. Benson, T. S. Cheng, J. S. Roberts, T. E. Sale, J. W. Orton, C. T. Foxon, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ohmic contacts in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 30(4), 318–320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Hunziker, W. Knop, and C. Harder, “Gain measurements on one, two, and three strained GaInP quantum well laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(10), 2235–2238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashar, S. A.

M. A. Matin, A. F. Jezierski, S. A. Bashar, D. E. Lacklison, T. M. Benson, T. S. Cheng, J. S. Roberts, T. E. Sale, J. W. Orton, C. T. Foxon, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ohmic contacts in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 30(4), 318–320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Benson, T. M.

M. A. Matin, A. F. Jezierski, S. A. Bashar, D. E. Lacklison, T. M. Benson, T. S. Cheng, J. S. Roberts, T. E. Sale, J. W. Orton, C. T. Foxon, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ohmic contacts in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 30(4), 318–320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bondarenko, O.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T. S.

M. A. Matin, A. F. Jezierski, S. A. Bashar, D. E. Lacklison, T. M. Benson, T. S. Cheng, J. S. Roberts, T. E. Sale, J. W. Orton, C. T. Foxon, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ohmic contacts in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 30(4), 318–320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, L.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foxon, C. T.

M. A. Matin, A. F. Jezierski, S. A. Bashar, D. E. Lacklison, T. M. Benson, T. S. Cheng, J. S. Roberts, T. E. Sale, J. W. Orton, C. T. Foxon, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ohmic contacts in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 30(4), 318–320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harder, C.

G. Hunziker, W. Knop, and C. Harder, “Gain measurements on one, two, and three strained GaInP quantum well laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(10), 2235–2238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

Hunziker, G.

G. Hunziker, W. Knop, and C. Harder, “Gain measurements on one, two, and three strained GaInP quantum well laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(10), 2235–2238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jezierski, A. F.

M. A. Matin, A. F. Jezierski, S. A. Bashar, D. E. Lacklison, T. M. Benson, T. S. Cheng, J. S. Roberts, T. E. Sale, J. W. Orton, C. T. Foxon, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ohmic contacts in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 30(4), 318–320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ju, Y. G.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. B.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

J. Huang, S. H. Kim, and A. Scherer, “Design of a surface-emitting, subwavelength metal-clad disk laser in the visible spectrum,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19581–19591 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knop, W.

G. Hunziker, W. Knop, and C. Harder, “Gain measurements on one, two, and three strained GaInP quantum well laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(10), 2235–2238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lacklison, D. E.

M. A. Matin, A. F. Jezierski, S. A. Bashar, D. E. Lacklison, T. M. Benson, T. S. Cheng, J. S. Roberts, T. E. Sale, J. W. Orton, C. T. Foxon, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ohmic contacts in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 30(4), 318–320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lakhani, A.

Lee, Y. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lomakin, V.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matin, M. A.

M. A. Matin, A. F. Jezierski, S. A. Bashar, D. E. Lacklison, T. M. Benson, T. S. Cheng, J. S. Roberts, T. E. Sale, J. W. Orton, C. T. Foxon, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ohmic contacts in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 30(4), 318–320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, A.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nezhad, M. P.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nötzel, R.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y.-S.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Orton, J. W.

M. A. Matin, A. F. Jezierski, S. A. Bashar, D. E. Lacklison, T. M. Benson, T. S. Cheng, J. S. Roberts, T. E. Sale, J. W. Orton, C. T. Foxon, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ohmic contacts in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 30(4), 318–320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. G.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rezazadeh, A. A.

M. A. Matin, A. F. Jezierski, S. A. Bashar, D. E. Lacklison, T. M. Benson, T. S. Cheng, J. S. Roberts, T. E. Sale, J. W. Orton, C. T. Foxon, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ohmic contacts in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 30(4), 318–320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. S.

M. A. Matin, A. F. Jezierski, S. A. Bashar, D. E. Lacklison, T. M. Benson, T. S. Cheng, J. S. Roberts, T. E. Sale, J. W. Orton, C. T. Foxon, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ohmic contacts in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 30(4), 318–320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sale, T. E.

M. A. Matin, A. F. Jezierski, S. A. Bashar, D. E. Lacklison, T. M. Benson, T. S. Cheng, J. S. Roberts, T. E. Sale, J. W. Orton, C. T. Foxon, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ohmic contacts in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 30(4), 318–320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Senlik, O.

O. Senlik, L. Tang, P. Tor-ngern, and T. Yoshie, “Optical microcavities clad by low-absorption electrode media,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(5), 794–801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Simic, A.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B. A.

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Synowicki, R. A.

R. A. Synowicki, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of indium tin oxide film microstructure and optical constants,” Thin Solid Films 313–314(1-2), 394–397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tang, L.

O. Senlik, L. Tang, P. Tor-ngern, and T. Yoshie, “Optical microcavities clad by low-absorption electrode media,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(5), 794–801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tor-ngern, P.

O. Senlik, L. Tang, P. Tor-ngern, and T. Yoshie, “Optical microcavities clad by low-absorption electrode media,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(5), 794–801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Otten, F. W. M.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Veldhoven, P. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

Yang, J. K.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshie, T.

O. Senlik, L. Tang, P. Tor-ngern, and T. Yoshie, “Optical microcavities clad by low-absorption electrode media,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(5), 794–801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K.

Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. A. Matin, A. F. Jezierski, S. A. Bashar, D. E. Lacklison, T. M. Benson, T. S. Cheng, J. S. Roberts, T. E. Sale, J. W. Orton, C. T. Foxon, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ohmic contacts in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 30(4), 318–320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. Hunziker, W. Knop, and C. Harder, “Gain measurements on one, two, and three strained GaInP quantum well laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(10), 2235–2238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J.

O. Senlik, L. Tang, P. Tor-ngern, and T. Yoshie, “Optical microcavities clad by low-absorption electrode media,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(5), 794–801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films

R. A. Synowicki, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of indium tin oxide film microstructure and optical constants,” Thin Solid Films 313–314(1-2), 394–397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

Filmetrics, “Filmetrics refractive index database” (Filmetrics, 2011). http://www.filmetrics.com/refractive-index-database .

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics:Optical Electronics In Modern Communications (Oxford University Press, 2007), App. 2.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Sub-λ-scale, ITO-clad disk resonator. Schematic representation of the disk optical cavity with ITO top disk electrode, an AlOx bottom cladding layer and an AlAs current path. A substrate can be GaAs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity z-r plane (r > 0) distributions of Ez and Hz field components of HE711, TE711, EH721 and TE712 modes respectively for various aspect ratios (r/h). Outline of the structure profile is overlaid onto image where the top rectangle is ITO cladding. The intensity is normalized by the maximum field component. Modes are stretched vertically as the aspect ratio decreases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mode characteristics (a) Normalized mode frequency, (b) effective mode volume (Veff), (b) Q-factor, (d) disk diameter, (e) Purcell factor (Fp), and (f) threshold material gain (gth) as a function of disk aspect ratio (r/h). Some zigzag lines are caused by mode coupling.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fractions of the energy density stored in ITO (Γ2) for ITO-clad disk modes

Metrics