Abstract

We demonstrate enhanced light emission in blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by multiple Mie scattering from embedded silica nanosphere stacking layers (SNSL). A honeycomb cone structure is introduced in the GaN epilayer to confine a maximum number of silica nanospheres (SNs). We found that the light is predominantly directed vertically by scattering and geometrical effect in SNSL embedded LEDs. Consequently, the light output power is enhanced by 2.7 times, which we attribute to the improvement in light extraction efficiency due to the multiple Mie scattering of light from the embedded SNSL. The experimental results are verified by simulation using finite difference time domain method (FDTD).

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

C.-Y. Huang, H.-M. Ku, C.-Z. Liao, and S. Chao, “MQWs InGaN/GaN LED with embedded micro-mirror array in the epitaxial-lateral-overgrowth gallium nitride for light extraction enhancement,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10674–10684 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-C. Lai, Y.-Y. Yang, L.-C. Peng, S.-W. Yang, Y.-R. Lin, and J.-K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Nunomura, A. Minowa, H. Sai, and M. Kondo, “Mie scattering enhanced near-infrared light response of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. S. Ferdous, X. Wang, M. N. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Effect of threading defects on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting didoes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, S.

Chhajed, S.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

Cho, J.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choe, Y. H.

Choi, J.

Choi, J.-H.

Fairchild, M. N.

M. S. Ferdous, X. Wang, M. N. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Effect of threading defects on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting didoes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferdous, M. S.

M. S. Ferdous, X. Wang, M. N. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Effect of threading defects on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting didoes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, M.

Han, N.

Hersee, S. D.

M. S. Ferdous, X. Wang, M. N. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Effect of threading defects on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting didoes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-H.

Huang, C.-Y.

Jang, J.

Jeong, H.

Jeong, M. S.

Kang, J. H.

Kim, H. K.

Kim, H. Y.

Kim, J.

Kim, J. K.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

Kim, S.-K.

Kondo, M.

S. Nunomura, A. Minowa, H. Sai, and M. Kondo, “Mie scattering enhanced near-infrared light response of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ku, H.-M.

Lai, W.-C.

W.-C. Lai, Y.-Y. Yang, L.-C. Peng, S.-W. Yang, Y.-R. Lin, and J.-K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Lee, J. S.

Lee, K.

Lee, K.-D.

Lee, W.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

Li, J.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-Z.

Lin, Y.-R.

W.-C. Lai, Y.-Y. Yang, L.-C. Peng, S.-W. Yang, Y.-R. Lin, and J.-K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Minowa, A.

S. Nunomura, A. Minowa, H. Sai, and M. Kondo, “Mie scattering enhanced near-infrared light response of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nunomura, S.

S. Nunomura, A. Minowa, H. Sai, and M. Kondo, “Mie scattering enhanced near-infrared light response of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

Peng, L.-C.

W.-C. Lai, Y.-Y. Yang, L.-C. Peng, S.-W. Yang, Y.-R. Lin, and J.-K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, J. H.

Sai, H.

S. Nunomura, A. Minowa, H. Sai, and M. Kondo, “Mie scattering enhanced near-infrared light response of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheu, J.-K.

W.-C. Lai, Y.-Y. Yang, L.-C. Peng, S.-W. Yang, Y.-R. Lin, and J.-K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Uthirakumar, P.

Wang, G.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

M. S. Ferdous, X. Wang, M. N. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Effect of threading defects on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting didoes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.-W.

W.-C. Lai, Y.-Y. Yang, L.-C. Peng, S.-W. Yang, Y.-R. Lin, and J.-K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.-Y.

W.-C. Lai, Y.-Y. Yang, L.-C. Peng, S.-W. Yang, Y.-R. Lin, and J.-K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Y.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Lai, Y.-Y. Yang, L.-C. Peng, S.-W. Yang, Y.-R. Lin, and J.-K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Nunomura, A. Minowa, H. Sai, and M. Kondo, “Mie scattering enhanced near-infrared light response of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Ferdous, X. Wang, M. N. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Effect of threading defects on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting didoes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Science

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid-State Electron.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic illustration of key steps for fabricating SNSL embedded LED: (a) SiO2 dot patterns on sapphire substrate. (b) formation of honeycomb-cone-shaped GaN by selective area growth. (c) self-assembled silica nanospheres on honeycomb cones. (d) the epilayer structure after the re-growth step.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) SEM images at different stages of SNSL embedded LED growth (a-c): (a) Top view image of the honeycomb cones. (b) cross-sectional view image of SNs stacked in honeycomb cone. (c) top view image of the surface of re-grown GaN. Inset is the cross-sectional view image. (d) I-V characteristics of three different LEDs studied.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) CSEM image showing spatial three-dimensional EL light emission from embedded SNSL. (b) cross-sectional view (x-z axis scan) of the CSEM image. (c) Poynting vector distribution at the half-wavelength surface away from the GaN/air interface. (d) diffuse reflectance spectra of the LEDs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) (a) beam profile. (b) the light intensity ratio (IR) at each angle (Iθ). (c) light output power-current characteristics of the LEDs.

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