Abstract

We develop a technique for optimizing the phase of broad spectrally-separated frequency sidebands—a “holey” spectrum. We use a source of multiple-order coherent Raman sidebands, obtained by crossing femtosecond pump and Stokes beams in synthetic single-crystal diamond. We combine the sidebands into a single beam and show the phase coherence among the sidebands by investigating the interference between them in groups of three while varying one sideband phase by an acousto-optics pulse shaper. We then show how we optimize the broad “holey” spectrum by overcoming the limited temporal shaping window of the pulse shaper. We also explore how the resultant second harmonic/sum frequency generation of the full combined broadband spectrum varies as we vary different sideband phases. This step-by-step phase optimization of the “holey” spectrum can be applied to sidebands with similar structure to synthesize arbitrary optical waveforms.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. A. V. Sokolov and S. E. Harris, “Ultrashort pulse generation by molecular modulation,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5, R1–R26 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband coherent light generation in a Raman-active crystal driven by two-color femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2251–2253 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Zhi, X. Wang, and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband coherent light generation in diamond driven by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 12139–12147 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Chan, Z. Hsieh, W. Liang, A. H. Kung, C. Lee, C. Lai, R. Pan, and L. Peng, “Synthesis and Measurement of Ultrafast Waveforms from Five Discrete Optical Harmonics,” Science 331, 1165–1168 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Zhi, K Wang, X. Hua, and A. V. Sokolov, “Pulse-shaper-assisted phase control of a coherent broadband spectrum of Raman sidebands,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4032–4034 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Keusters, H. Tan, P. OŚhea, E. Zeek, R. Trebino, and W. S. Warren, “Relative-phase ambiguities in measurements of ultrashort pulses with well-separated multiple frequency components,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2226–2237 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. W. Hänsch, “A proposed sub-femtosecond pulse synthesizer using separate phase-locked laser oscillators,” Opt. Commun. 80, 71–75 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Hsieh, C. Lai, H. Chan, S. Wu, C. Lee, W. Chen, C. Pan, F. Yee, and A. H. Kung, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of Raman-Generated periodic waveforms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213902 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband generation in a Raman crystal driven by a pair of time-delayed linearly chirped pulses,” New J. Phys. 10, 025032 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Matsubara, Y. Kawamoto, T. Sekikawa, and M. Yamashita, “Generation of ultrashort optical pulses in the 10 fs regime using multicolor Raman sidebands in KTaO3,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1837–1839 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. Forget, V. Crozatier, and T. Oksenhendler, “Pulse-measurement techniques using a single amplitude and phase spectral shaper,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 742–756 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. L. Cousin, N. Forget, A. Grün, P. K. Bates, D. R. Austin, and J. Biegert, “Few-cycle pulse characterization with an acousto-optic pulse shaper,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2803–2805 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Toward single-cycle pulse generation in Raman-active crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. in press.
  15. D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, M. Y. Shverdin, G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “A Quasiperiodic Approach to Ultrashort Pulses,” Opt. Photon. News 14, 46–51 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. T. Cundiff and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nature Photon. 4, 760–766 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

E. Matsubara, Y. Kawamoto, T. Sekikawa, and M. Yamashita, “Generation of ultrashort optical pulses in the 10 fs regime using multicolor Raman sidebands in KTaO3,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1837–1839 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Hsieh, C. Lai, H. Chan, S. Wu, C. Lee, W. Chen, C. Pan, F. Yee, and A. H. Kung, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of Raman-Generated periodic waveforms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband generation in a Raman crystal driven by a pair of time-delayed linearly chirped pulses,” New J. Phys. 10, 025032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhi, X. Wang, and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband coherent light generation in diamond driven by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 12139–12147 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

A. V. Sokolov and S. E. Harris, “Ultrashort pulse generation by molecular modulation,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5, R1–R26 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Keusters, H. Tan, P. OŚhea, E. Zeek, R. Trebino, and W. S. Warren, “Relative-phase ambiguities in measurements of ultrashort pulses with well-separated multiple frequency components,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2226–2237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, M. Y. Shverdin, G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “A Quasiperiodic Approach to Ultrashort Pulses,” Opt. Photon. News 14, 46–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. W. Hänsch, “A proposed sub-femtosecond pulse synthesizer using separate phase-locked laser oscillators,” Opt. Commun. 80, 71–75 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Austin, D. R.

Bates, P. K.

Biegert, J.

Burzo, A. M.

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H.

H. Chan, Z. Hsieh, W. Liang, A. H. Kung, C. Lee, C. Lai, R. Pan, and L. Peng, “Synthesis and Measurement of Ultrafast Waveforms from Five Discrete Optical Harmonics,” Science 331, 1165–1168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Hsieh, C. Lai, H. Chan, S. Wu, C. Lee, W. Chen, C. Pan, F. Yee, and A. H. Kung, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of Raman-Generated periodic waveforms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Z. Hsieh, C. Lai, H. Chan, S. Wu, C. Lee, W. Chen, C. Pan, F. Yee, and A. H. Kung, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of Raman-Generated periodic waveforms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cousin, S. L.

Crozatier, V.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nature Photon. 4, 760–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Forget, N.

Grün, A.

Hänsch, T. W.

T. W. Hänsch, “A proposed sub-femtosecond pulse synthesizer using separate phase-locked laser oscillators,” Opt. Commun. 80, 71–75 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sokolov and S. E. Harris, “Ultrashort pulse generation by molecular modulation,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5, R1–R26 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, M. Y. Shverdin, G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “A Quasiperiodic Approach to Ultrashort Pulses,” Opt. Photon. News 14, 46–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, Z.

H. Chan, Z. Hsieh, W. Liang, A. H. Kung, C. Lee, C. Lai, R. Pan, and L. Peng, “Synthesis and Measurement of Ultrafast Waveforms from Five Discrete Optical Harmonics,” Science 331, 1165–1168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Hsieh, C. Lai, H. Chan, S. Wu, C. Lee, W. Chen, C. Pan, F. Yee, and A. H. Kung, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of Raman-Generated periodic waveforms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, X.

Kawamoto, Y.

Keusters, D.

Kung, A. H.

H. Chan, Z. Hsieh, W. Liang, A. H. Kung, C. Lee, C. Lai, R. Pan, and L. Peng, “Synthesis and Measurement of Ultrafast Waveforms from Five Discrete Optical Harmonics,” Science 331, 1165–1168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Hsieh, C. Lai, H. Chan, S. Wu, C. Lee, W. Chen, C. Pan, F. Yee, and A. H. Kung, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of Raman-Generated periodic waveforms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, C.

H. Chan, Z. Hsieh, W. Liang, A. H. Kung, C. Lee, C. Lai, R. Pan, and L. Peng, “Synthesis and Measurement of Ultrafast Waveforms from Five Discrete Optical Harmonics,” Science 331, 1165–1168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Hsieh, C. Lai, H. Chan, S. Wu, C. Lee, W. Chen, C. Pan, F. Yee, and A. H. Kung, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of Raman-Generated periodic waveforms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C.

H. Chan, Z. Hsieh, W. Liang, A. H. Kung, C. Lee, C. Lai, R. Pan, and L. Peng, “Synthesis and Measurement of Ultrafast Waveforms from Five Discrete Optical Harmonics,” Science 331, 1165–1168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Hsieh, C. Lai, H. Chan, S. Wu, C. Lee, W. Chen, C. Pan, F. Yee, and A. H. Kung, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of Raman-Generated periodic waveforms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, W.

H. Chan, Z. Hsieh, W. Liang, A. H. Kung, C. Lee, C. Lai, R. Pan, and L. Peng, “Synthesis and Measurement of Ultrafast Waveforms from Five Discrete Optical Harmonics,” Science 331, 1165–1168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsubara, E.

Oksenhendler, T.

OShea, P.

Pan, C.

Z. Hsieh, C. Lai, H. Chan, S. Wu, C. Lee, W. Chen, C. Pan, F. Yee, and A. H. Kung, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of Raman-Generated periodic waveforms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, R.

H. Chan, Z. Hsieh, W. Liang, A. H. Kung, C. Lee, C. Lai, R. Pan, and L. Peng, “Synthesis and Measurement of Ultrafast Waveforms from Five Discrete Optical Harmonics,” Science 331, 1165–1168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, L.

H. Chan, Z. Hsieh, W. Liang, A. H. Kung, C. Lee, C. Lai, R. Pan, and L. Peng, “Synthesis and Measurement of Ultrafast Waveforms from Five Discrete Optical Harmonics,” Science 331, 1165–1168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekikawa, T.

Shverdin, M. Y.

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, M. Y. Shverdin, G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “A Quasiperiodic Approach to Ultrashort Pulses,” Opt. Photon. News 14, 46–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, A. V.

M. Zhi, K Wang, X. Hua, and A. V. Sokolov, “Pulse-shaper-assisted phase control of a coherent broadband spectrum of Raman sidebands,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4032–4034 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zhi, X. Wang, and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband coherent light generation in diamond driven by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 12139–12147 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband generation in a Raman crystal driven by a pair of time-delayed linearly chirped pulses,” New J. Phys. 10, 025032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband coherent light generation in a Raman-active crystal driven by two-color femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2251–2253 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sokolov and S. E. Harris, “Ultrashort pulse generation by molecular modulation,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5, R1–R26 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Toward single-cycle pulse generation in Raman-active crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. in press.

Tan, H.

Trebino, R.

Walker, D. R.

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, M. Y. Shverdin, G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “A Quasiperiodic Approach to Ultrashort Pulses,” Opt. Photon. News 14, 46–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K

Wang, X.

Warren, W. S.

Weiner, A. M.

S. T. Cundiff and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nature Photon. 4, 760–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

Z. Hsieh, C. Lai, H. Chan, S. Wu, C. Lee, W. Chen, C. Pan, F. Yee, and A. H. Kung, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of Raman-Generated periodic waveforms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashita, M.

Yavuz, D. D.

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, M. Y. Shverdin, G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “A Quasiperiodic Approach to Ultrashort Pulses,” Opt. Photon. News 14, 46–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yee, F.

Z. Hsieh, C. Lai, H. Chan, S. Wu, C. Lee, W. Chen, C. Pan, F. Yee, and A. H. Kung, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of Raman-Generated periodic waveforms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, G.

D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, M. Y. Shverdin, G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “A Quasiperiodic Approach to Ultrashort Pulses,” Opt. Photon. News 14, 46–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G. Y.

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zeek, E.

Zhi, M.

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. (1)

A. V. Sokolov and S. E. Harris, “Ultrashort pulse generation by molecular modulation,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5, R1–R26 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature Photon. (1)

S. T. Cundiff and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nature Photon. 4, 760–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband generation in a Raman crystal driven by a pair of time-delayed linearly chirped pulses,” New J. Phys. 10, 025032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. W. Hänsch, “A proposed sub-femtosecond pulse synthesizer using separate phase-locked laser oscillators,” Opt. Commun. 80, 71–75 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, M. Y. Shverdin, G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “A Quasiperiodic Approach to Ultrashort Pulses,” Opt. Photon. News 14, 46–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Z. Hsieh, C. Lai, H. Chan, S. Wu, C. Lee, W. Chen, C. Pan, F. Yee, and A. H. Kung, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of Raman-Generated periodic waveforms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

H. Chan, Z. Hsieh, W. Liang, A. H. Kung, C. Lee, C. Lai, R. Pan, and L. Peng, “Synthesis and Measurement of Ultrafast Waveforms from Five Discrete Optical Harmonics,” Science 331, 1165–1168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Toward single-cycle pulse generation in Raman-active crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. in press.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematics of the experimental setup. (b) Spectrum of the pump beams and the first 7 sidebands; (c) Peak frequency of one pump pulse and 6 sidebands as a function of the external output angles. Insert: combined sidebands beam profile measured at 1m after the prism.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SHG of AS2 spectrum as a function of applied second-order phase on AS2 sideband. (b) SFG of AS1 and AS5 as a function of applied second-order phase on AS5. (c) SFG of AS1 and AS3. Zero delay between the sidebands is defined to coincide with the strongest SFG position.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SHG/SFG spectrum generated by (a) AS1, AS2 and AS3 sidebands in the BBO crystal, as we vary the AS3 phase; (c) AS2, AS3 and AS4 sidebands in the BBO crystal, as we vary the AS4 phase, and (d) AS3, AS4 and AS5 sidebands in the BBO crystal, as we vary the AS5 phase. Parts (b), (d) and (f) show the coherent beating across the dotted lines in (a), (c) and (e).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The SHG/SFG spectrum of the 5 sidebands after the BBO crystal as we vary the AS phase from 0 to 10π (with a step of 0.05π), after we adjust the relative phase among all sidebands to be equal. Subband A, C, G: SHG of AS1, AS2 and AS4, respectively; B: SFG of AS1&AS2; D: SFG of AS1&AS4, and SFG of AS2&AS3; E: SHG of AS3, SFG of AS1&AS5, and AS2&AS4; F: SFG of AS3&AS4. (b) The spectra of the frequency components from 3 different channels which are contributed to the center fringe.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The peak intensity of the SHG/SFG subbands as we vary the AS2 phase (a), AS3 phase (b) and AS1 phase (c) from 0 to 10π, after we adjust the relative phases among all sidebands to be equal. (d) The peak intensity of the subbands as we vary the AS2 phase from 0 to 10π when the sideband phases are not perfectly flat. Step size is 0.01 π in (d) and 0.05 π in (a), (b) and (c).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters used to adjust the phases of the 5 Raman sidebands to be flat

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