Abstract

By combining photonic crystal label-free biosensor imaging with photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence, it is possible to selectively enhance the fluorescence emission from regions of the PC surface based upon the density of immobilized capture molecules. A label-free image of the capture molecules enables determination of optimal coupling conditions of the laser used for fluorescence imaging of the photonic crystal surface on a pixel-by-pixel basis, allowing maximization of fluorescence enhancement factor from regions incorporating a biomolecule capture spot and minimization of background autofluorescence from areas between capture spots. This capability significantly improves the contrast of enhanced fluorescent images, and when applied to an antibody protein microarray, provides a substantial advantage over conventional fluorescence microscopy. Using the new approach, we demonstrate detection limits as low as 0.97 pg/ml for a representative protein biomarker in buffer.

© 2011 OSA

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  23. N. Ganesh and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic-crystal near-ultraviolet reflectance filters fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071110–071113 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  27. P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, “Employing two distinct photonic crystal resonances to improve fluorescence enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021111 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “A detection instrument for enhanced-fluorescence and label-free imaging on photonic crystal surfaces,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13222–13235 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, C. S. Huang, S. George, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photobleaching on photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence surfaces,” J. Fluoresc. 21(2), 707–714 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to a cytokine immunoassay,” Anal. Chem. 80(23), 9013–9020 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  34. B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. W. A. Challener, J. D. Edwards, R. W. McGowan, J. Skorjanec, and Z. Yang, “A multilayer grating-based evanescent wave sensing technique,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 71(1-2), 42–46 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. George, I. D. Block, S. I. Jones, P. C. Mathias, V. Chaudhery, P. Vuttipittayamongkol, H. Y. Wu, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free prehybridization DNA microarray imaging using photonic crystals for quantitative spot quality analysis,” Anal. Chem. 82(20), 8551–8557 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. C. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, “Angle-scanning photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence microscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. (Accepted).
  38. R. Zangar, R. Woodbury, and S. Varnum, “Development of a user-friendly microarray ELISA for the analysis of potential protein markers of breast cancer,” FASEB J. 17, A986–A986 (2003).
  39. R. L. Woodbury, S. M. Varnum, and R. C. Zangar, “Elevated HGF levels in sera from breast cancer patients detected using a protein microarray ELISA,” J. Proteome Res. 1(3), 233–237 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, C. L. Baird, K. D. Rodland, and R. C. Zangar, “Surface chemistries for antibody microarrays,” Front. Biosci. 12(8-12), 3956–3964 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. R. M. Gonzalez, S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, S. A. Crowley, M. Brown, G. S. Omenn, D. F. Hayes, and R. C. Zangar, “Development and validation of sandwich ELISA microarrays with minimal assay interference,” J. Proteome Res. 7(6), 2406–2414 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, A. M. White, S. L. Servoss, R. M. Tan, and J. R. Collett, “ProMAT calibrator: A tool for reducing experimental bias in antibody microarrays,” J. Proteome Res. 8(8), 3937–3943 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. S. M. Varnum, R. L. Woodbury, and R. C. Zangar, “A protein microarray ELISA for screening biological fluids,” Methods Mol. Biol. 264, 161–172 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  44. S. L. Servoss, R. Gonzalez, S. Varnum, and R. C. Zangar, “High-throughput analysis of serum antigens using sandwich ELISAs on microarrays,” Methods Mol. Biol. 520, 143–150 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, C. S. Huang, S. George, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photobleaching on photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence surfaces,” J. Fluoresc. 21(2), 707–714 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

S. George, I. D. Block, S. I. Jones, P. C. Mathias, V. Chaudhery, P. Vuttipittayamongkol, H. Y. Wu, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free prehybridization DNA microarray imaging using photonic crystals for quantitative spot quality analysis,” Anal. Chem. 82(20), 8551–8557 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence using a quartz substrate to reduce limits of detection,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24793–24808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Wu, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Magnification of photonic crystal fluorescence enhancement via TM resonance excitation and TE resonance extraction on a dielectric nanorod surface,” Nanotechnology 21(12), 125–203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

H. Jin and R. C. Zangar, “Protein modifications as potential biomarkers in breast cancer,” Biomark. Insights 4, 191–200 (2009).
[PubMed]

Y. Arima, Y. Teramura, H. Takiguchi, K. Kawano, H. Kotera, and H. Iwata, “Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers,” Methods Mol. Biol. 503, 3–20 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, “Employing two distinct photonic crystal resonances to improve fluorescence enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “A detection instrument for enhanced-fluorescence and label-free imaging on photonic crystal surfaces,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13222–13235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, A. M. White, S. L. Servoss, R. M. Tan, and J. R. Collett, “ProMAT calibrator: A tool for reducing experimental bias in antibody microarrays,” J. Proteome Res. 8(8), 3937–3943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Servoss, R. Gonzalez, S. Varnum, and R. C. Zangar, “High-throughput analysis of serum antigens using sandwich ELISAs on microarrays,” Methods Mol. Biol. 520, 143–150 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

R. M. Gonzalez, S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, S. A. Crowley, M. Brown, G. S. Omenn, D. F. Hayes, and R. C. Zangar, “Development and validation of sandwich ELISA microarrays with minimal assay interference,” J. Proteome Res. 7(6), 2406–2414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to a cytokine immunoassay,” Anal. Chem. 80(23), 9013–9020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Shtoyko, E. G. Matveeva, I.-F. Chang, Z. Gryczynski, E. Goldys, and I. Gryczynski, “Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver fractal-like structures,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 1962–1966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Large-Area submicron replica molding of porous low-k dielectric films and application to photonic crystal biosensor fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(4), 603–608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, C. L. Baird, K. D. Rodland, and R. C. Zangar, “Surface chemistries for antibody microarrays,” Front. Biosci. 12(8-12), 3956–3964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (7)

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal optical biosensor incorporating structured low-index porous dielectric,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(1), 187–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic-crystal near-ultraviolet reflectance filters fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071110–071113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, and A. M. White, “ELISA microarray technology as a high-throughput system for cancer biomarker validation,” Expert Rev. Proteomics 3(1), 37–44 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Kingsmore, “Multiplexed protein measurement: technologies and applications of protein and antibody arrays,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5(4), 310–321 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, “Enhanced fluorescence of Cy5-labeled DNA tethered to silver island films: fluorescence images and time-resolved studies using single-molecule spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 78(17), 6238–6245 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Sabanayagam and J. R. Lakowicz, “Increasing the sensitivity of DNA microarrays by metal-enhanced fluorescence using surface-bound silver nanoparticles,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(2), e13 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, “Enhanced fluorescence of Cy5-labeled DNA tethered to silver island films: fluorescence images and time-resolved studies using single-molecule spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 78(17), 6238–6245 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

R. C. Zangar, S. M. Varnum, and N. Bollinger, “Studying cellular processes and detecting disease with protein microarrays,” Drug Metab. Rev. 37(3), 473–487 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering 5: metal-enhanced fluorescence and plasmon emission,” Anal. Biochem. 337(2), 171–194 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Varnum, R. L. Woodbury, and R. C. Zangar, “A protein microarray ELISA for screening biological fluids,” Methods Mol. Biol. 264, 161–172 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003 (2)

R. Zangar, R. Woodbury, and S. Varnum, “Development of a user-friendly microarray ELISA for the analysis of potential protein markers of breast cancer,” FASEB J. 17, A986–A986 (2003).

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, D. Roll, M. J. Uddin, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 13(6), 453–457 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

R. L. Woodbury, S. M. Varnum, and R. C. Zangar, “Elevated HGF levels in sera from breast cancer patients detected using a protein microarray ELISA,” J. Proteome Res. 1(3), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

W. A. Challener, J. D. Edwards, R. W. McGowan, J. Skorjanec, and Z. Yang, “A multilayer grating-based evanescent wave sensing technique,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 71(1-2), 42–46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, “Printing proteins as microarrays for high-throughput function determination,” Science 289(5485), 1760–1763 (2000).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

K. Sokolov, G. Chumanov, and T. M. Cotton, “Enhancement of molecular fluorescence near the surface of colloidal metal films,” Anal. Chem. 70(18), 3898–3905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint Lithography with 25-Nanometer Resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Kümmerlen, A. Leitner, H. Brunner, F. R. Aussenegg, and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced dye fluorescence over silver island films: analysis of the distance dependence,” Mol. Phys. 80(5), 1031–1046 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arima, Y.

Y. Arima, Y. Teramura, H. Takiguchi, K. Kawano, H. Kotera, and H. Iwata, “Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers,” Methods Mol. Biol. 503, 3–20 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

J. Kümmerlen, A. Leitner, H. Brunner, F. R. Aussenegg, and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced dye fluorescence over silver island films: analysis of the distance dependence,” Mol. Phys. 80(5), 1031–1046 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baird, C.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baird, C. L.

S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, C. L. Baird, K. D. Rodland, and R. C. Zangar, “Surface chemistries for antibody microarrays,” Front. Biosci. 12(8-12), 3956–3964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashir, R.

Biswal, S.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, I. D.

S. George, I. D. Block, S. I. Jones, P. C. Mathias, V. Chaudhery, P. Vuttipittayamongkol, H. Y. Wu, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free prehybridization DNA microarray imaging using photonic crystals for quantitative spot quality analysis,” Anal. Chem. 82(20), 8551–8557 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “A detection instrument for enhanced-fluorescence and label-free imaging on photonic crystal surfaces,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13222–13235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Large-Area submicron replica molding of porous low-k dielectric films and application to photonic crystal biosensor fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(4), 603–608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal optical biosensor incorporating structured low-index porous dielectric,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(1), 187–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bollero, G.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bollinger, N.

R. C. Zangar, S. M. Varnum, and N. Bollinger, “Studying cellular processes and detecting disease with protein microarrays,” Drug Metab. Rev. 37(3), 473–487 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, M.

R. M. Gonzalez, S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, S. A. Crowley, M. Brown, G. S. Omenn, D. F. Hayes, and R. C. Zangar, “Development and validation of sandwich ELISA microarrays with minimal assay interference,” J. Proteome Res. 7(6), 2406–2414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunner, H.

J. Kümmerlen, A. Leitner, H. Brunner, F. R. Aussenegg, and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced dye fluorescence over silver island films: analysis of the distance dependence,” Mol. Phys. 80(5), 1031–1046 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Challener, W. A.

W. A. Challener, J. D. Edwards, R. W. McGowan, J. Skorjanec, and Z. Yang, “A multilayer grating-based evanescent wave sensing technique,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 71(1-2), 42–46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chan, L. L.

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Large-Area submicron replica molding of porous low-k dielectric films and application to photonic crystal biosensor fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(4), 603–608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal optical biosensor incorporating structured low-index porous dielectric,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(1), 187–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, I.-F.

T. Shtoyko, E. G. Matveeva, I.-F. Chang, Z. Gryczynski, E. Goldys, and I. Gryczynski, “Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver fractal-like structures,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 1962–1966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaudhery, V.

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, C. S. Huang, S. George, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photobleaching on photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence surfaces,” J. Fluoresc. 21(2), 707–714 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence using a quartz substrate to reduce limits of detection,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24793–24808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. George, I. D. Block, S. I. Jones, P. C. Mathias, V. Chaudhery, P. Vuttipittayamongkol, H. Y. Wu, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free prehybridization DNA microarray imaging using photonic crystals for quantitative spot quality analysis,” Anal. Chem. 82(20), 8551–8557 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “A detection instrument for enhanced-fluorescence and label-free imaging on photonic crystal surfaces,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13222–13235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. C. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, “Angle-scanning photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence microscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. (Accepted).

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint Lithography with 25-Nanometer Resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chumanov, G.

K. Sokolov, G. Chumanov, and T. M. Cotton, “Enhancement of molecular fluorescence near the surface of colloidal metal films,” Anal. Chem. 70(18), 3898–3905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collett, J. R.

R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, A. M. White, S. L. Servoss, R. M. Tan, and J. R. Collett, “ProMAT calibrator: A tool for reducing experimental bias in antibody microarrays,” J. Proteome Res. 8(8), 3937–3943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cotton, T. M.

K. Sokolov, G. Chumanov, and T. M. Cotton, “Enhancement of molecular fluorescence near the surface of colloidal metal films,” Anal. Chem. 70(18), 3898–3905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowley, S. A.

R. M. Gonzalez, S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, S. A. Crowley, M. Brown, G. S. Omenn, D. F. Hayes, and R. C. Zangar, “Development and validation of sandwich ELISA microarrays with minimal assay interference,” J. Proteome Res. 7(6), 2406–2414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, B. T.

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, C. S. Huang, S. George, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photobleaching on photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence surfaces,” J. Fluoresc. 21(2), 707–714 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence using a quartz substrate to reduce limits of detection,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24793–24808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. George, I. D. Block, S. I. Jones, P. C. Mathias, V. Chaudhery, P. Vuttipittayamongkol, H. Y. Wu, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free prehybridization DNA microarray imaging using photonic crystals for quantitative spot quality analysis,” Anal. Chem. 82(20), 8551–8557 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Wu, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Magnification of photonic crystal fluorescence enhancement via TM resonance excitation and TE resonance extraction on a dielectric nanorod surface,” Nanotechnology 21(12), 125–203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, “Employing two distinct photonic crystal resonances to improve fluorescence enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “A detection instrument for enhanced-fluorescence and label-free imaging on photonic crystal surfaces,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13222–13235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to a cytokine immunoassay,” Anal. Chem. 80(23), 9013–9020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Large-Area submicron replica molding of porous low-k dielectric films and application to photonic crystal biosensor fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(4), 603–608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal optical biosensor incorporating structured low-index porous dielectric,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(1), 187–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic-crystal near-ultraviolet reflectance filters fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071110–071113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. C. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, “Angle-scanning photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence microscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. (Accepted).

Daly, D. S.

R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, A. M. White, S. L. Servoss, R. M. Tan, and J. R. Collett, “ProMAT calibrator: A tool for reducing experimental bias in antibody microarrays,” J. Proteome Res. 8(8), 3937–3943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, and A. M. White, “ELISA microarray technology as a high-throughput system for cancer biomarker validation,” Expert Rev. Proteomics 3(1), 37–44 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorvel, B. R.

Edwards, J. D.

W. A. Challener, J. D. Edwards, R. W. McGowan, J. Skorjanec, and Z. Yang, “A multilayer grating-based evanescent wave sensing technique,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 71(1-2), 42–46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fine, E.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, B. C.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, “Enhanced fluorescence of Cy5-labeled DNA tethered to silver island films: fluorescence images and time-resolved studies using single-molecule spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 78(17), 6238–6245 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, “Enhanced fluorescence of Cy5-labeled DNA tethered to silver island films: fluorescence images and time-resolved studies using single-molecule spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 78(17), 6238–6245 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabrielson, E.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganesh, N.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “A detection instrument for enhanced-fluorescence and label-free imaging on photonic crystal surfaces,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13222–13235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to a cytokine immunoassay,” Anal. Chem. 80(23), 9013–9020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic-crystal near-ultraviolet reflectance filters fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071110–071113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, J. G.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geddes, C. D.

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, D. Roll, M. J. Uddin, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 13(6), 453–457 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genick, C.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geoghegan, J.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

George, S.

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, C. S. Huang, S. George, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photobleaching on photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence surfaces,” J. Fluoresc. 21(2), 707–714 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. George, I. D. Block, S. I. Jones, P. C. Mathias, V. Chaudhery, P. Vuttipittayamongkol, H. Y. Wu, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free prehybridization DNA microarray imaging using photonic crystals for quantitative spot quality analysis,” Anal. Chem. 82(20), 8551–8557 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Germino, G.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerstenmaier, J.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldys, E.

T. Shtoyko, E. G. Matveeva, I.-F. Chang, Z. Gryczynski, E. Goldys, and I. Gryczynski, “Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver fractal-like structures,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 1962–1966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, D. O.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, R.

S. L. Servoss, R. Gonzalez, S. Varnum, and R. C. Zangar, “High-throughput analysis of serum antigens using sandwich ELISAs on microarrays,” Methods Mol. Biol. 520, 143–150 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, R. M.

R. M. Gonzalez, S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, S. A. Crowley, M. Brown, G. S. Omenn, D. F. Hayes, and R. C. Zangar, “Development and validation of sandwich ELISA microarrays with minimal assay interference,” J. Proteome Res. 7(6), 2406–2414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffin, C.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, I.

T. Shtoyko, E. G. Matveeva, I.-F. Chang, Z. Gryczynski, E. Goldys, and I. Gryczynski, “Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver fractal-like structures,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 1962–1966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, Z.

T. Shtoyko, E. G. Matveeva, I.-F. Chang, Z. Gryczynski, E. Goldys, and I. Gryczynski, “Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver fractal-like structures,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 1962–1966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayes, D. F.

R. M. Gonzalez, S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, S. A. Crowley, M. Brown, G. S. Omenn, D. F. Hayes, and R. C. Zangar, “Development and validation of sandwich ELISA microarrays with minimal assay interference,” J. Proteome Res. 7(6), 2406–2414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilmer, S. C.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, E.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C. S.

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, C. S. Huang, S. George, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photobleaching on photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence surfaces,” J. Fluoresc. 21(2), 707–714 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C.-S.

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence using a quartz substrate to reduce limits of detection,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24793–24808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hugh, B.

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Irizarry, R. A.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwata, H.

Y. Arima, Y. Teramura, H. Takiguchi, K. Kawano, H. Kotera, and H. Iwata, “Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers,” Methods Mol. Biol. 503, 3–20 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jedlicka, A. E.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, H.

H. Jin and R. C. Zangar, “Protein modifications as potential biomarkers in breast cancer,” Biomark. Insights 4, 191–200 (2009).
[PubMed]

Jones, S. I.

S. George, I. D. Block, S. I. Jones, P. C. Mathias, V. Chaudhery, P. Vuttipittayamongkol, H. Y. Wu, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free prehybridization DNA microarray imaging using photonic crystals for quantitative spot quality analysis,” Anal. Chem. 82(20), 8551–8557 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “A detection instrument for enhanced-fluorescence and label-free imaging on photonic crystal surfaces,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13222–13235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawano, K.

Y. Arima, Y. Teramura, H. Takiguchi, K. Kawano, H. Kotera, and H. Iwata, “Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers,” Methods Mol. Biol. 503, 3–20 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawasaki, E.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, I. F.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kingsmore, S. F.

S. F. Kingsmore, “Multiplexed protein measurement: technologies and applications of protein and antibody arrays,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5(4), 310–321 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotera, H.

Y. Arima, Y. Teramura, H. Takiguchi, K. Kawano, H. Kotera, and H. Iwata, “Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers,” Methods Mol. Biol. 503, 3–20 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, P. R.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint Lithography with 25-Nanometer Resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kümmerlen, J.

J. Kümmerlen, A. Leitner, H. Brunner, F. R. Aussenegg, and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced dye fluorescence over silver island films: analysis of the distance dependence,” Mol. Phys. 80(5), 1031–1046 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Laing, L.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakowicz, J. R.

C. R. Sabanayagam and J. R. Lakowicz, “Increasing the sensitivity of DNA microarrays by metal-enhanced fluorescence using surface-bound silver nanoparticles,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(2), e13 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, “Enhanced fluorescence of Cy5-labeled DNA tethered to silver island films: fluorescence images and time-resolved studies using single-molecule spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 78(17), 6238–6245 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, “Enhanced fluorescence of Cy5-labeled DNA tethered to silver island films: fluorescence images and time-resolved studies using single-molecule spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 78(17), 6238–6245 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering 5: metal-enhanced fluorescence and plasmon emission,” Anal. Biochem. 337(2), 171–194 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, D. Roll, M. J. Uddin, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 13(6), 453–457 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitner, A.

J. Kümmerlen, A. Leitner, H. Brunner, F. R. Aussenegg, and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced dye fluorescence over silver island films: analysis of the distance dependence,” Mol. Phys. 80(5), 1031–1046 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, C. S. Huang, S. George, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photobleaching on photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence surfaces,” J. Fluoresc. 21(2), 707–714 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence using a quartz substrate to reduce limits of detection,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24793–24808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. C. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, “Angle-scanning photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence microscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. (Accepted).

MacBeath, G.

G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, “Printing proteins as microarrays for high-throughput function determination,” Science 289(5485), 1760–1763 (2000).
[PubMed]

Malyarchuk, V.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martínez-Murillo, F.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathias, P. C.

H. Y. Wu, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Magnification of photonic crystal fluorescence enhancement via TM resonance excitation and TE resonance extraction on a dielectric nanorod surface,” Nanotechnology 21(12), 125–203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. George, I. D. Block, S. I. Jones, P. C. Mathias, V. Chaudhery, P. Vuttipittayamongkol, H. Y. Wu, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free prehybridization DNA microarray imaging using photonic crystals for quantitative spot quality analysis,” Anal. Chem. 82(20), 8551–8557 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, “Employing two distinct photonic crystal resonances to improve fluorescence enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “A detection instrument for enhanced-fluorescence and label-free imaging on photonic crystal surfaces,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13222–13235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to a cytokine immunoassay,” Anal. Chem. 80(23), 9013–9020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matveeva, E. G.

T. Shtoyko, E. G. Matveeva, I.-F. Chang, Z. Gryczynski, E. Goldys, and I. Gryczynski, “Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver fractal-like structures,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 1962–1966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGowan, R. W.

W. A. Challener, J. D. Edwards, R. W. McGowan, J. Skorjanec, and Z. Yang, “A multilayer grating-based evanescent wave sensing technique,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 71(1-2), 42–46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morsberger, L.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omenn, G. S.

R. M. Gonzalez, S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, S. A. Crowley, M. Brown, G. S. Omenn, D. F. Hayes, and R. C. Zangar, “Development and validation of sandwich ELISA microarrays with minimal assay interference,” J. Proteome Res. 7(6), 2406–2414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parfenov, A.

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, D. Roll, M. J. Uddin, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 13(6), 453–457 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pepper, J.

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, D.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pokhriyal, A.

A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence using a quartz substrate to reduce limits of detection,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24793–24808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. C. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, “Angle-scanning photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence microscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. (Accepted).

Qiu, J.

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Quackenbush, J.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renstrom, P. J.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint Lithography with 25-Nanometer Resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rodland, K. D.

S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, C. L. Baird, K. D. Rodland, and R. C. Zangar, “Surface chemistries for antibody microarrays,” Front. Biosci. 12(8-12), 3956–3964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roll, D.

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, D. Roll, M. J. Uddin, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 13(6), 453–457 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabanayagam, C. R.

C. R. Sabanayagam and J. R. Lakowicz, “Increasing the sensitivity of DNA microarrays by metal-enhanced fluorescence using surface-bound silver nanoparticles,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(2), e13 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreiber, S. L.

G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, “Printing proteins as microarrays for high-throughput function determination,” Science 289(5485), 1760–1763 (2000).
[PubMed]

Schulz, S.

A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence using a quartz substrate to reduce limits of detection,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24793–24808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, S. C.

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. C. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, “Angle-scanning photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence microscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. (Accepted).

Scott, A.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Servoss, S. L.

S. L. Servoss, R. Gonzalez, S. Varnum, and R. C. Zangar, “High-throughput analysis of serum antigens using sandwich ELISAs on microarrays,” Methods Mol. Biol. 520, 143–150 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, A. M. White, S. L. Servoss, R. M. Tan, and J. R. Collett, “ProMAT calibrator: A tool for reducing experimental bias in antibody microarrays,” J. Proteome Res. 8(8), 3937–3943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seurynck-Servoss, S. L.

R. M. Gonzalez, S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, S. A. Crowley, M. Brown, G. S. Omenn, D. F. Hayes, and R. C. Zangar, “Development and validation of sandwich ELISA microarrays with minimal assay interference,” J. Proteome Res. 7(6), 2406–2414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, C. L. Baird, K. D. Rodland, and R. C. Zangar, “Surface chemistries for antibody microarrays,” Front. Biosci. 12(8-12), 3956–3964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shtoyko, T.

T. Shtoyko, E. G. Matveeva, I.-F. Chang, Z. Gryczynski, E. Goldys, and I. Gryczynski, “Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver fractal-like structures,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 1962–1966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skorjanec, J.

W. A. Challener, J. D. Edwards, R. W. McGowan, J. Skorjanec, and Z. Yang, “A multilayer grating-based evanescent wave sensing technique,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 71(1-2), 42–46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. D.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soares, J. A. N. T.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

K. Sokolov, G. Chumanov, and T. M. Cotton, “Enhancement of molecular fluorescence near the surface of colloidal metal films,” Anal. Chem. 70(18), 3898–3905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spencer, F.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takiguchi, H.

Y. Arima, Y. Teramura, H. Takiguchi, K. Kawano, H. Kotera, and H. Iwata, “Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers,” Methods Mol. Biol. 503, 3–20 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, R.

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, R. M.

R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, A. M. White, S. L. Servoss, R. M. Tan, and J. R. Collett, “ProMAT calibrator: A tool for reducing experimental bias in antibody microarrays,” J. Proteome Res. 8(8), 3937–3943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teramura, Y.

Y. Arima, Y. Teramura, H. Takiguchi, K. Kawano, H. Kotera, and H. Iwata, “Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers,” Methods Mol. Biol. 503, 3–20 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uddin, M. J.

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, D. Roll, M. J. Uddin, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 13(6), 453–457 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varnum, S.

S. L. Servoss, R. Gonzalez, S. Varnum, and R. C. Zangar, “High-throughput analysis of serum antigens using sandwich ELISAs on microarrays,” Methods Mol. Biol. 520, 143–150 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zangar, R. Woodbury, and S. Varnum, “Development of a user-friendly microarray ELISA for the analysis of potential protein markers of breast cancer,” FASEB J. 17, A986–A986 (2003).

Varnum, S. M.

R. C. Zangar, S. M. Varnum, and N. Bollinger, “Studying cellular processes and detecting disease with protein microarrays,” Drug Metab. Rev. 37(3), 473–487 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Varnum, R. L. Woodbury, and R. C. Zangar, “A protein microarray ELISA for screening biological fluids,” Methods Mol. Biol. 264, 161–172 (2004).
[PubMed]

R. L. Woodbury, S. M. Varnum, and R. C. Zangar, “Elevated HGF levels in sera from breast cancer patients detected using a protein microarray ELISA,” J. Proteome Res. 1(3), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vodkin, L. O.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. George, I. D. Block, S. I. Jones, P. C. Mathias, V. Chaudhery, P. Vuttipittayamongkol, H. Y. Wu, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free prehybridization DNA microarray imaging using photonic crystals for quantitative spot quality analysis,” Anal. Chem. 82(20), 8551–8557 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “A detection instrument for enhanced-fluorescence and label-free imaging on photonic crystal surfaces,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13222–13235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vuttipittayamongkol, P.

S. George, I. D. Block, S. I. Jones, P. C. Mathias, V. Chaudhery, P. Vuttipittayamongkol, H. Y. Wu, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free prehybridization DNA microarray imaging using photonic crystals for quantitative spot quality analysis,” Anal. Chem. 82(20), 8551–8557 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, D.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, A. M.

R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, A. M. White, S. L. Servoss, R. M. Tan, and J. R. Collett, “ProMAT calibrator: A tool for reducing experimental bias in antibody microarrays,” J. Proteome Res. 8(8), 3937–3943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, and A. M. White, “ELISA microarray technology as a high-throughput system for cancer biomarker validation,” Expert Rev. Proteomics 3(1), 37–44 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, M.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wokaun, A.

J. Kümmerlen, A. Leitner, H. Brunner, F. R. Aussenegg, and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced dye fluorescence over silver island films: analysis of the distance dependence,” Mol. Phys. 80(5), 1031–1046 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Woodbury, R.

R. Zangar, R. Woodbury, and S. Varnum, “Development of a user-friendly microarray ELISA for the analysis of potential protein markers of breast cancer,” FASEB J. 17, A986–A986 (2003).

Woodbury, R. L.

S. M. Varnum, R. L. Woodbury, and R. C. Zangar, “A protein microarray ELISA for screening biological fluids,” Methods Mol. Biol. 264, 161–172 (2004).
[PubMed]

R. L. Woodbury, S. M. Varnum, and R. C. Zangar, “Elevated HGF levels in sera from breast cancer patients detected using a protein microarray ELISA,” J. Proteome Res. 1(3), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, H. Y.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. George, I. D. Block, S. I. Jones, P. C. Mathias, V. Chaudhery, P. Vuttipittayamongkol, H. Y. Wu, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free prehybridization DNA microarray imaging using photonic crystals for quantitative spot quality analysis,” Anal. Chem. 82(20), 8551–8557 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Wu, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Magnification of photonic crystal fluorescence enhancement via TM resonance excitation and TE resonance extraction on a dielectric nanorod surface,” Nanotechnology 21(12), 125–203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, H.-Y.

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, “Employing two distinct photonic crystal resonances to improve fluorescence enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, F.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.

W. A. Challener, J. D. Edwards, R. W. McGowan, J. Skorjanec, and Z. Yang, “A multilayer grating-based evanescent wave sensing technique,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 71(1-2), 42–46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ye, S. Q.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, W.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zangar, R.

R. Zangar, R. Woodbury, and S. Varnum, “Development of a user-friendly microarray ELISA for the analysis of potential protein markers of breast cancer,” FASEB J. 17, A986–A986 (2003).

Zangar, R. C.

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, A. M. White, S. L. Servoss, R. M. Tan, and J. R. Collett, “ProMAT calibrator: A tool for reducing experimental bias in antibody microarrays,” J. Proteome Res. 8(8), 3937–3943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Servoss, R. Gonzalez, S. Varnum, and R. C. Zangar, “High-throughput analysis of serum antigens using sandwich ELISAs on microarrays,” Methods Mol. Biol. 520, 143–150 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jin and R. C. Zangar, “Protein modifications as potential biomarkers in breast cancer,” Biomark. Insights 4, 191–200 (2009).
[PubMed]

R. M. Gonzalez, S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, S. A. Crowley, M. Brown, G. S. Omenn, D. F. Hayes, and R. C. Zangar, “Development and validation of sandwich ELISA microarrays with minimal assay interference,” J. Proteome Res. 7(6), 2406–2414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, C. L. Baird, K. D. Rodland, and R. C. Zangar, “Surface chemistries for antibody microarrays,” Front. Biosci. 12(8-12), 3956–3964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, and A. M. White, “ELISA microarray technology as a high-throughput system for cancer biomarker validation,” Expert Rev. Proteomics 3(1), 37–44 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Zangar, S. M. Varnum, and N. Bollinger, “Studying cellular processes and detecting disease with protein microarrays,” Drug Metab. Rev. 37(3), 473–487 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Varnum, R. L. Woodbury, and R. C. Zangar, “A protein microarray ELISA for screening biological fluids,” Methods Mol. Biol. 264, 161–172 (2004).
[PubMed]

R. L. Woodbury, S. M. Varnum, and R. C. Zangar, “Elevated HGF levels in sera from breast cancer patients detected using a protein microarray ELISA,” J. Proteome Res. 1(3), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

H. Y. Wu, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Magnification of photonic crystal fluorescence enhancement via TM resonance excitation and TE resonance extraction on a dielectric nanorod surface,” Nanotechnology 21(12), 125–203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering 5: metal-enhanced fluorescence and plasmon emission,” Anal. Biochem. 337(2), 171–194 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (8)

K. Sokolov, G. Chumanov, and T. M. Cotton, “Enhancement of molecular fluorescence near the surface of colloidal metal films,” Anal. Chem. 70(18), 3898–3905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, “Enhanced fluorescence of Cy5-labeled DNA tethered to silver island films: fluorescence images and time-resolved studies using single-molecule spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 78(17), 6238–6245 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shtoyko, E. G. Matveeva, I.-F. Chang, Z. Gryczynski, E. Goldys, and I. Gryczynski, “Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver fractal-like structures,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 1962–1966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, “Enhanced fluorescence of Cy5-labeled DNA tethered to silver island films: fluorescence images and time-resolved studies using single-molecule spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 78(17), 6238–6245 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to a cytokine immunoassay,” Anal. Chem. 80(23), 9013–9020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. George, I. D. Block, S. I. Jones, P. C. Mathias, V. Chaudhery, P. Vuttipittayamongkol, H. Y. Wu, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free prehybridization DNA microarray imaging using photonic crystals for quantitative spot quality analysis,” Anal. Chem. 82(20), 8551–8557 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

N. Ganesh and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic-crystal near-ultraviolet reflectance filters fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071110–071113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, “Employing two distinct photonic crystal resonances to improve fluorescence enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomark. Insights (1)

H. Jin and R. C. Zangar, “Protein modifications as potential biomarkers in breast cancer,” Biomark. Insights 4, 191–200 (2009).
[PubMed]

Drug Metab. Rev. (1)

R. C. Zangar, S. M. Varnum, and N. Bollinger, “Studying cellular processes and detecting disease with protein microarrays,” Drug Metab. Rev. 37(3), 473–487 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Expert Rev. Proteomics (1)

R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, and A. M. White, “ELISA microarray technology as a high-throughput system for cancer biomarker validation,” Expert Rev. Proteomics 3(1), 37–44 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

FASEB J. (1)

R. Zangar, R. Woodbury, and S. Varnum, “Development of a user-friendly microarray ELISA for the analysis of potential protein markers of breast cancer,” FASEB J. 17, A986–A986 (2003).

Front. Biosci. (1)

S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, C. L. Baird, K. D. Rodland, and R. C. Zangar, “Surface chemistries for antibody microarrays,” Front. Biosci. 12(8-12), 3956–3964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. C. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, “Angle-scanning photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence microscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. (Accepted).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomol. Screen. (1)

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fluoresc. (2)

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, D. Roll, M. J. Uddin, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 13(6), 453–457 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, C. S. Huang, S. George, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photobleaching on photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence surfaces,” J. Fluoresc. 21(2), 707–714 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Proteome Res. (3)

R. L. Woodbury, S. M. Varnum, and R. C. Zangar, “Elevated HGF levels in sera from breast cancer patients detected using a protein microarray ELISA,” J. Proteome Res. 1(3), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Gonzalez, S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, S. A. Crowley, M. Brown, G. S. Omenn, D. F. Hayes, and R. C. Zangar, “Development and validation of sandwich ELISA microarrays with minimal assay interference,” J. Proteome Res. 7(6), 2406–2414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, A. M. White, S. L. Servoss, R. M. Tan, and J. R. Collett, “ProMAT calibrator: A tool for reducing experimental bias in antibody microarrays,” J. Proteome Res. 8(8), 3937–3943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Methods Mol. Biol. (3)

S. M. Varnum, R. L. Woodbury, and R. C. Zangar, “A protein microarray ELISA for screening biological fluids,” Methods Mol. Biol. 264, 161–172 (2004).
[PubMed]

S. L. Servoss, R. Gonzalez, S. Varnum, and R. C. Zangar, “High-throughput analysis of serum antigens using sandwich ELISAs on microarrays,” Methods Mol. Biol. 520, 143–150 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Arima, Y. Teramura, H. Takiguchi, K. Kawano, H. Kotera, and H. Iwata, “Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers,” Methods Mol. Biol. 503, 3–20 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Large-Area submicron replica molding of porous low-k dielectric films and application to photonic crystal biosensor fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(4), 603–608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys. (1)

J. Kümmerlen, A. Leitner, H. Brunner, F. R. Aussenegg, and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced dye fluorescence over silver island films: analysis of the distance dependence,” Mol. Phys. 80(5), 1031–1046 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

H. Y. Wu, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Magnification of photonic crystal fluorescence enhancement via TM resonance excitation and TE resonance extraction on a dielectric nanorod surface,” Nanotechnology 21(12), 125–203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. (1)

S. F. Kingsmore, “Multiplexed protein measurement: technologies and applications of protein and antibody arrays,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5(4), 310–321 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucleic Acids Res. (1)

C. R. Sabanayagam and J. R. Lakowicz, “Increasing the sensitivity of DNA microarrays by metal-enhanced fluorescence using surface-bound silver nanoparticles,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(2), e13 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Science (2)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint Lithography with 25-Nanometer Resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, “Printing proteins as microarrays for high-throughput function determination,” Science 289(5485), 1760–1763 (2000).
[PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (3)

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal optical biosensor incorporating structured low-index porous dielectric,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(1), 187–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Challener, J. D. Edwards, R. W. McGowan, J. Skorjanec, and Z. Yang, “A multilayer grating-based evanescent wave sensing technique,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 71(1-2), 42–46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Schena and R. W. Davis, “Genes, Genomes, and chips,” in DNA Microarrays: A Practical Approach, M. Schena, ed. (Oxford Press, New York, 1999).

R. Beneke, “Microarray detection with laser scanning device,” in Advanced Methods: DNA Microarrays, U. A. Nuber, ed. (Taylor & Francis Group, New York, 2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the PC surface. The grating structure is patterned on a quartz substrate with period and duty cycle of 400 nm and 50%, respectively. (b) Cross sectional SEM image of the PC. (c) A photograph of a full 1×3 in2 PC device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated dispersion diagram for the PC structure of Fig. 1. The plot shows minima in transmission efficiency (corresponding to on-resonant coupling) at λ=690 nm and λ=633 nm for particular angles of incidence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the PCEM using λ = 633 nm and λ = 690 nm lasers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Label-free image of the PC with a pattern of deposited 10 nm SiO2 film. The image clearly highlights the variation in resonance angle in the transparent and opaque areas of the pattern Our selection of a negative control region is highlighted with a white dashed box. (b) Transmission spectrum of the pattern showing the difference in angle of resonance (minima in transmission) for the areas with and without additional SiO2. More SiO2 gives a larger resonance angle. (c) Histogram showing the distribution of resonance angle versus the number of pixels used to make our selection of the threshold angle. The inset image shows the mask generated by using the threshold set by θTA = 1.28 °. The green region has a resonance angle above the threshold angle and the yellow region has a resonance angle below the threshold angle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Fluorescence images taken at single angle θ = 11.52 ° where the region with the SiO2 coating satisfying resonant condition (b) Fluorescence images taken at single angles θ = 11.9 ° where the region without SiO2 coating is satisfying the resonant condition. (c) Selectively enhanced “signal” fluorescence image showing superior contrast to (a). (d) Selectively enhanced “background” fluorescence image showing superior contrast to (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TNF-α detection performed on a PC using a sandwich ELISA assay. The antigen concentration decreases from left to right. (a) Label-free image of the PC surface showing the presence of capture antibody spots on the sensor. (b) Fluorescence detection at a single resonance angle of 10° after assay is completed. (c) Fluorescence detection using the masked detection for the same PC surface showing improved contrast, recognition and uniformly higher fluorescence output.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plot comparing the fluorescence intensities versus concentration of TNF-α for a measuremnet performed at a fixed angle of 10° and a scanned-angle measurement using the masked detection method.

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