Abstract

Previous work has shown that use of a passive enhancement cavity designed for ultrashort pulses can enable the up-conversion of the fs frequency comb into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral region utilizing the highly nonlinear process of high harmonic generation. This promising approach for an efficient source of highly coherent light in this difficult to reach spectral region promises to be a unique tool for precision spectroscopy and temporally resolved measurements. Yet to date, this approach has not been extensively utilized due in part to the low powers so far achieved and in part due to the challenges in directly probing electronic transitions with the frequency comb itself. We report on a dramatically improved XUV frequency comb producing record power levels to date in the 50–150nm spectral region based on intracavity high harmonic generation. We measure up to 77 μW at the 11th harmonic of the fundamental (72nm) with μW levels down to the 15th harmonic (53nm). Phase-matching and related design considerations unique to intracavity high harmonic generation are discussed, guided by numerical simulations which provide insight into the role played by intracavity ionization dynamics. We further propose and analyze dual-comb spectroscopy in the XUV and show that the power levels reported here permit this approach for the first time. Dual-comb spectroscopy in this physically rich spectral region promises to enable the study of a significantly broader range of atomic and molecular spectra with unprecedented precision and accuracy.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Fischer, N. Kolachevsky, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, M. Abgrall, J. Grunert, I. Maksimovic, S. Bize, H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Laurent, A. Clairon, C. Salomon, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, and C. H. Keitel, “New limits on the drift of fundamental constants from laboratory measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. G. Rellergert, D. DeMille, R. R. Greco, M. P. Hehlen, J. R. Torgerson, and E. R. Hudson, “Constraining the evolution of the fundamental constants with a solid-state optical frequency reference based on the th-229 nucleus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 4 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. R. Beck, J. A. Becker, P. Beiersdorfer, G. V. Brown, K. J. Moody, J. B. Wilhelmy, F. S. Porter, C. A. Kilbourne, and R. L. Kelley, “Energy splitting of the ground-state doublet in the nucleus th-229,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 4 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Agaker, J. Andersson, J. C. Englund, J. Rausch, J. E. Rubensson, and J. Nordgren, “Spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet,” Nature Photon. 5, 248 (2011).
  6. N. de Oliveira, M. Roudjane, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, J. C. Rodier, and L. Nahon, “High-resolution broad-bandwidth fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy in the vuv range down to 40 nm,” Nature Photon. 5, 149 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Eramo, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and M. Bellini, “Method for high-resolution frequency measurements in the extreme ultraviolet regime: Random-sampling ramsey spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213003 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Z. Kandula, C. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 4 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. J. Jones and J. Ye, “Femtosecond pulse amplification by coherent addition in a passive optical cavity,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1848 (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct Frequency Comb Spectroscopy in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” arXiv:1109.1871v1 (2011).
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  18. S. Schiller, “Spectrometry with frequency combs,” Optics Letters 27, 766 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902, (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tunnermann, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2052 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nature Photon.s 2, 355 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. Paul, J. Johnson, J. Lee, and R. J. Jones, “Generation of high-power frequency combs from injection-locked femtosecond amplification cavities,” Optics Letters 33, 2482 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. L’Huillier, X. Li, and L. L.A., “Propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. B 7 (1990).
  25. Fluid flow simulations provided by David Jones and TJ Hammond of University of British Columbia. .
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, F. Sarto, M. Trovo’, and M. Danailov, “Synchrotron radiation induced damages in optical materials,” SPIE 4932, 366 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Output coupling methods for cavity-based high-harmonic generation,” Optics Express 14, 8189 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. Ozawa, A. Vernaleken, W. Schneider, I. Gotlibovych, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Non-collinear high harmonic generation: a promising outcoupling method for cavity-assisted xuv generation,” Optics Express 16, 6233 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. P. Balcou and A. Lhuillier, “Phase-matching effects in strong-field harmonic-generation,” Physical Review A 47, 1447 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nature Physics 5, 815 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. Hammond, A. K. Mills, and D. J. Jones, “Near-threshold harmonics from a femtosecond enhancement cavity-based euv source: Effects of multiple quantum pathways on spatial profile and yield,” (Submitted for publication).
  33. E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. Weitenberg, P. Russbuldt, T. Eidam, and I. Pupeza, “Transverse mode tailoring in a quasi-imaging high-finesse femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Optics Express 19, 9551 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Physical Review A 49, 2117 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Frequency comb vernier spectroscopy for broadband, high-resolution, high-sensitivity absorption and dispersion spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  38. S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. M. J. Thorpe and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” Applied Physics B-Lasers and Optics 91, 397 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  40. E. E. Eyler, D. E. Chieda, M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Prospects for precision measurements of atomic helium using direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” European Physical Journal D 48, 43 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  41. M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knunz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schussler, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1s–2s transition in singly ionized helium,” Physical Review A 79, 15 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  42. B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nature Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  43. N. R. Newbury, I. Coddington, and W. Swann, “Sensitivity of coherent dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18, 7929 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

J. Weitenberg, P. Russbuldt, T. Eidam, and I. Pupeza, “Transverse mode tailoring in a quasi-imaging high-finesse femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Optics Express 19, 9551 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Agaker, J. Andersson, J. C. Englund, J. Rausch, J. E. Rubensson, and J. Nordgren, “Spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet,” Nature Photon. 5, 248 (2011).

N. de Oliveira, M. Roudjane, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, J. C. Rodier, and L. Nahon, “High-resolution broad-bandwidth fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy in the vuv range down to 40 nm,” Nature Photon. 5, 149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Eramo, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and M. Bellini, “Method for high-resolution frequency measurements in the extreme ultraviolet regime: Random-sampling ramsey spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Carlson, J. Lee, J. Mongelli, E. Wright, and R. Jones, “Intracavity ionization and pulse formation in femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Optics Letters 36, 2991 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

W. G. Rellergert, D. DeMille, R. R. Greco, M. P. Hehlen, J. R. Torgerson, and E. R. Hudson, “Constraining the evolution of the fundamental constants with a solid-state optical frequency reference based on the th-229 nucleus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Kandula, C. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nature Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Newbury, I. Coddington, and W. Swann, “Sensitivity of coherent dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18, 7929 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tunnermann, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2052 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ruehl, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and I. Hartl, “80 W, 120 fs Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knunz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schussler, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1s–2s transition in singly ionized helium,” Physical Review A 79, 15 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nature Physics 5, 815 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (8)

A. Ozawa, A. Vernaleken, W. Schneider, I. Gotlibovych, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Non-collinear high harmonic generation: a promising outcoupling method for cavity-assisted xuv generation,” Optics Express 16, 6233 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Paul, J. Johnson, J. Lee, and R. J. Jones, “Generation of high-power frequency combs from injection-locked femtosecond amplification cavities,” Optics Letters 33, 2482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Thorpe and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” Applied Physics B-Lasers and Optics 91, 397 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Eyler, D. E. Chieda, M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Prospects for precision measurements of atomic helium using direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” European Physical Journal D 48, 43 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902, (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nature Photon.s 2, 355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1099 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

B. R. Beck, J. A. Becker, P. Beiersdorfer, G. V. Brown, K. J. Moody, J. B. Wilhelmy, F. S. Porter, C. A. Kilbourne, and R. L. Kelley, “Energy splitting of the ground-state doublet in the nucleus th-229,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Frequency comb vernier spectroscopy for broadband, high-resolution, high-sensitivity absorption and dispersion spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Output coupling methods for cavity-based high-harmonic generation,” Optics Express 14, 8189 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Nonlinear dynamics inside femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Optics Express 13, 1672 (2005). 1094–4087.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. Fischer, N. Kolachevsky, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, M. Abgrall, J. Grunert, I. Maksimovic, S. Bize, H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Laurent, A. Clairon, C. Salomon, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, and C. H. Keitel, “New limits on the drift of fundamental constants from laboratory measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones and J. Ye, “High-repetition-rate coherent femtosecond pulse amplification with an external passive optical cavity,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2812 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, F. Sarto, M. Trovo’, and M. Danailov, “Synchrotron radiation induced damages in optical materials,” SPIE 4932, 366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Schiller, “Spectrometry with frequency combs,” Optics Letters 27, 766 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Physical Review A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Balcou and A. Lhuillier, “Phase-matching effects in strong-field harmonic-generation,” Physical Review A 47, 1447 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

A. L’Huillier, X. Li, and L. L.A., “Propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. B 7 (1990).

Abgrall, M.

M. Fischer, N. Kolachevsky, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, M. Abgrall, J. Grunert, I. Maksimovic, S. Bize, H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Laurent, A. Clairon, C. Salomon, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, and C. H. Keitel, “New limits on the drift of fundamental constants from laboratory measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agaker, M.

M. Agaker, J. Andersson, J. C. Englund, J. Rausch, J. E. Rubensson, and J. Nordgren, “Spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet,” Nature Photon. 5, 248 (2011).

Agostini, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alahmed, Z. A.

Allison, T.

T. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Cavity extreme nonlinear optics,” arXiv:1105.4195v1 (2011).

Allison, T. K.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct Frequency Comb Spectroscopy in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” arXiv:1109.1871v1 (2011).

Andersson, J.

M. Agaker, J. Andersson, J. C. Englund, J. Rausch, J. E. Rubensson, and J. Nordgren, “Spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet,” Nature Photon. 5, 248 (2011).

Apolonski, A.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tunnermann, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2052 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Physical Review A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Balcou and A. Lhuillier, “Phase-matching effects in strong-field harmonic-generation,” Physical Review A 47, 1447 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Batteiger, V.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knunz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schussler, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1s–2s transition in singly ionized helium,” Physical Review A 79, 15 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beck, B. R.

B. R. Beck, J. A. Becker, P. Beiersdorfer, G. V. Brown, K. J. Moody, J. B. Wilhelmy, F. S. Porter, C. A. Kilbourne, and R. L. Kelley, “Energy splitting of the ground-state doublet in the nucleus th-229,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Becker, J. A.

B. R. Beck, J. A. Becker, P. Beiersdorfer, G. V. Brown, K. J. Moody, J. B. Wilhelmy, F. S. Porter, C. A. Kilbourne, and R. L. Kelley, “Energy splitting of the ground-state doublet in the nucleus th-229,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beiersdorfer, P.

B. R. Beck, J. A. Becker, P. Beiersdorfer, G. V. Brown, K. J. Moody, J. B. Wilhelmy, F. S. Porter, C. A. Kilbourne, and R. L. Kelley, “Energy splitting of the ground-state doublet in the nucleus th-229,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bellini, M.

R. Eramo, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and M. Bellini, “Method for high-resolution frequency measurements in the extreme ultraviolet regime: Random-sampling ramsey spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernhardt, B.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nature Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tunnermann, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2052 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bize, S.

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C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234 (2005).
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I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tunnermann, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2052 (2010).
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A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, A. Vernaleken, W. Schneider, I. Gotlibovych, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Non-collinear high harmonic generation: a promising outcoupling method for cavity-assisted xuv generation,” Optics Express 16, 6233 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Frequency comb vernier spectroscopy for broadband, high-resolution, high-sensitivity absorption and dispersion spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fischer, N. Kolachevsky, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, M. Abgrall, J. Grunert, I. Maksimovic, S. Bize, H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Laurent, A. Clairon, C. Salomon, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, and C. H. Keitel, “New limits on the drift of fundamental constants from laboratory measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Ruehl, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and I. Hartl, “80 W, 120 fs Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nature Photon.s 2, 355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct Frequency Comb Spectroscopy in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” arXiv:1109.1871v1 (2011).

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W. G. Rellergert, D. DeMille, R. R. Greco, M. P. Hehlen, J. R. Torgerson, and E. R. Hudson, “Constraining the evolution of the fundamental constants with a solid-state optical frequency reference based on the th-229 nucleus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knunz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schussler, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1s–2s transition in singly ionized helium,” Physical Review A 79, 15 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234 (2005).
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Holzwarth, R.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nature Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fischer, N. Kolachevsky, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, M. Abgrall, J. Grunert, I. Maksimovic, S. Bize, H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Laurent, A. Clairon, C. Salomon, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, and C. H. Keitel, “New limits on the drift of fundamental constants from laboratory measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nature Physics 5, 815 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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W. G. Rellergert, D. DeMille, R. R. Greco, M. P. Hehlen, J. R. Torgerson, and E. R. Hudson, “Constraining the evolution of the fundamental constants with a solid-state optical frequency reference based on the th-229 nucleus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Physical Review A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nature Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jacquey, M.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nature Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
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M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knunz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schussler, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1s–2s transition in singly ionized helium,” Physical Review A 79, 15 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fischer, N. Kolachevsky, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, M. Abgrall, J. Grunert, I. Maksimovic, S. Bize, H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Laurent, A. Clairon, C. Salomon, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, and C. H. Keitel, “New limits on the drift of fundamental constants from laboratory measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (2004).
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J. Paul, J. Johnson, J. Lee, and R. J. Jones, “Generation of high-power frequency combs from injection-locked femtosecond amplification cavities,” Optics Letters 33, 2482 (2008).
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S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hammond, A. K. Mills, and D. J. Jones, “Near-threshold harmonics from a femtosecond enhancement cavity-based euv source: Effects of multiple quantum pathways on spatial profile and yield,” (Submitted for publication).

Jones, R.

D. Carlson, J. Lee, J. Mongelli, E. Wright, and R. Jones, “Intracavity ionization and pulse formation in femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Optics Letters 36, 2991 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R. J.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schussler, H. A.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knunz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schussler, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1s–2s transition in singly ionized helium,” Physical Review A 79, 15 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stein, B.

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Frequency comb vernier spectroscopy for broadband, high-resolution, high-sensitivity absorption and dispersion spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, M. C.

E. E. Eyler, D. E. Chieda, M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Prospects for precision measurements of atomic helium using direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” European Physical Journal D 48, 43 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W.

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902, (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tate, J. L.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nature Physics 5, 815 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thorpe, M. J.

E. E. Eyler, D. E. Chieda, M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Prospects for precision measurements of atomic helium using direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” European Physical Journal D 48, 43 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Thorpe and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” Applied Physics B-Lasers and Optics 91, 397 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torgerson, J. R.

W. G. Rellergert, D. DeMille, R. R. Greco, M. P. Hehlen, J. R. Torgerson, and E. R. Hudson, “Constraining the evolution of the fundamental constants with a solid-state optical frequency reference based on the th-229 nucleus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trovo’, M.

A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, F. Sarto, M. Trovo’, and M. Danailov, “Synchrotron radiation induced damages in optical materials,” SPIE 4932, 366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

Ubachs, W.

D. Z. Kandula, C. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tunnermann, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2052 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nature Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knunz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schussler, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1s–2s transition in singly ionized helium,” Physical Review A 79, 15 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, A. Vernaleken, W. Schneider, I. Gotlibovych, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Non-collinear high harmonic generation: a promising outcoupling method for cavity-assisted xuv generation,” Optics Express 16, 6233 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Frequency comb vernier spectroscopy for broadband, high-resolution, high-sensitivity absorption and dispersion spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fischer, N. Kolachevsky, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, M. Abgrall, J. Grunert, I. Maksimovic, S. Bize, H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Laurent, A. Clairon, C. Salomon, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, and C. H. Keitel, “New limits on the drift of fundamental constants from laboratory measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vernaleken, A.

A. Ozawa, A. Vernaleken, W. Schneider, I. Gotlibovych, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Non-collinear high harmonic generation: a promising outcoupling method for cavity-assisted xuv generation,” Optics Express 16, 6233 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, D. R.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitenberg, J.

J. Weitenberg, P. Russbuldt, T. Eidam, and I. Pupeza, “Transverse mode tailoring in a quasi-imaging high-finesse femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Optics Express 19, 9551 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilhelmy, J. B.

B. R. Beck, J. A. Becker, P. Beiersdorfer, G. V. Brown, K. J. Moody, J. B. Wilhelmy, F. S. Porter, C. A. Kilbourne, and R. L. Kelley, “Energy splitting of the ground-state doublet in the nucleus th-229,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, E.

D. Carlson, J. Lee, J. Mongelli, E. Wright, and R. Jones, “Intracavity ionization and pulse formation in femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Optics Letters 36, 2991 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nature Physics 5, 815 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1099 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Thorpe and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” Applied Physics B-Lasers and Optics 91, 397 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Eyler, D. E. Chieda, M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Prospects for precision measurements of atomic helium using direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” European Physical Journal D 48, 43 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nature Photon.s 2, 355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Output coupling methods for cavity-based high-harmonic generation,” Optics Express 14, 8189 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Nonlinear dynamics inside femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Optics Express 13, 1672 (2005). 1094–4087.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones and J. Ye, “High-repetition-rate coherent femtosecond pulse amplification with an external passive optical cavity,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2812 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones and J. Ye, “Femtosecond pulse amplification by coherent addition in a passive optical cavity,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1848 (2002).

T. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Cavity extreme nonlinear optics,” arXiv:1105.4195v1 (2011).

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct Frequency Comb Spectroscopy in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” arXiv:1109.1871v1 (2011).

Yost, D. C.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nature Physics 5, 815 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1099 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nature Photon.s 2, 355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Cavity extreme nonlinear optics,” arXiv:1105.4195v1 (2011).

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct Frequency Comb Spectroscopy in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” arXiv:1109.1871v1 (2011).

Zimmermann, M.

M. Fischer, N. Kolachevsky, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, M. Abgrall, J. Grunert, I. Maksimovic, S. Bize, H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Laurent, A. Clairon, C. Salomon, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, and C. H. Keitel, “New limits on the drift of fundamental constants from laboratory measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applied Physics B-Lasers and Optics (1)

M. J. Thorpe and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” Applied Physics B-Lasers and Optics 91, 397 (2008).
[CrossRef]

European Physical Journal D (1)

E. E. Eyler, D. E. Chieda, M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Prospects for precision measurements of atomic helium using direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” European Physical Journal D 48, 43 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. B (1)

A. L’Huillier, X. Li, and L. L.A., “Propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. B 7 (1990).

Nature (2)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photon. (3)

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nature Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Agaker, J. Andersson, J. C. Englund, J. Rausch, J. E. Rubensson, and J. Nordgren, “Spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet,” Nature Photon. 5, 248 (2011).

N. de Oliveira, M. Roudjane, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, J. C. Rodier, and L. Nahon, “High-resolution broad-bandwidth fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy in the vuv range down to 40 nm,” Nature Photon. 5, 149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photon.s (1)

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nature Photon.s 2, 355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature Physics (1)

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nature Physics 5, 815 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Optics Express (4)

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Output coupling methods for cavity-based high-harmonic generation,” Optics Express 14, 8189 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, A. Vernaleken, W. Schneider, I. Gotlibovych, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Non-collinear high harmonic generation: a promising outcoupling method for cavity-assisted xuv generation,” Optics Express 16, 6233 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Nonlinear dynamics inside femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Optics Express 13, 1672 (2005). 1094–4087.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Weitenberg, P. Russbuldt, T. Eidam, and I. Pupeza, “Transverse mode tailoring in a quasi-imaging high-finesse femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Optics Express 19, 9551 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Optics Letters (3)

J. Paul, J. Johnson, J. Lee, and R. J. Jones, “Generation of high-power frequency combs from injection-locked femtosecond amplification cavities,” Optics Letters 33, 2482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Carlson, J. Lee, J. Mongelli, E. Wright, and R. Jones, “Intracavity ionization and pulse formation in femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Optics Letters 36, 2991 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schiller, “Spectrometry with frequency combs,” Optics Letters 27, 766 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (12)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902, (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Eramo, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and M. Bellini, “Method for high-resolution frequency measurements in the extreme ultraviolet regime: Random-sampling ramsey spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Z. Kandula, C. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fischer, N. Kolachevsky, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, M. Abgrall, J. Grunert, I. Maksimovic, S. Bize, H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Laurent, A. Clairon, C. Salomon, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, and C. H. Keitel, “New limits on the drift of fundamental constants from laboratory measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. G. Rellergert, D. DeMille, R. R. Greco, M. P. Hehlen, J. R. Torgerson, and E. R. Hudson, “Constraining the evolution of the fundamental constants with a solid-state optical frequency reference based on the th-229 nucleus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Beck, J. A. Becker, P. Beiersdorfer, G. V. Brown, K. J. Moody, J. B. Wilhelmy, F. S. Porter, C. A. Kilbourne, and R. L. Kelley, “Energy splitting of the ground-state doublet in the nucleus th-229,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Frequency comb vernier spectroscopy for broadband, high-resolution, high-sensitivity absorption and dispersion spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Physical Review A (3)

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knunz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schussler, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1s–2s transition in singly ionized helium,” Physical Review A 79, 15 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Physical Review A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Balcou and A. Lhuillier, “Phase-matching effects in strong-field harmonic-generation,” Physical Review A 47, 1447 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

SPIE (1)

A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, F. Sarto, M. Trovo’, and M. Danailov, “Synchrotron radiation induced damages in optical materials,” SPIE 4932, 366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Fluid flow simulations provided by David Jones and TJ Hammond of University of British Columbia. .

T. Hammond, A. K. Mills, and D. J. Jones, “Near-threshold harmonics from a femtosecond enhancement cavity-based euv source: Effects of multiple quantum pathways on spatial profile and yield,” (Submitted for publication).

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct Frequency Comb Spectroscopy in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” arXiv:1109.1871v1 (2011).

T. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Cavity extreme nonlinear optics,” arXiv:1105.4195v1 (2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental setup for generating XUV frequency comb. fsAC: fs amplification cavity; fsEC: fs enhancement cavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Detected high harmonic spectrum. (a) Theoretical grating efficiency and recorded harmonic power taken from (b) ccd image of phosphor screen.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of phase-matching and harmonic yield dependence on intracavity beam size. (a) Coherence (solid curves) and absorption (dashed curve) lengths versus pressure. (b) Relative on-axis power versus pressure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured power of the 11th harmonic and corresponding intracavity energy of the fundamental pulse versus backing pressure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Simulated intracavity power for two fsEC designs with different finesse and incident pulse energies. Steady-state profile and plasma density for (b) 1% input coupling fsEC versus (c) 0.1% input coupling fsEC given a gas target pressure of 20 Torr.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Estimated harmonic power coupled out of the fsEC. Stated error range due to uncertainty in detector responsivity and grating efficiency.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I q A q 2 l abs 2 ρ 2 1 + 4 π 2 [ l abs 2 / l c 2 ] × [ 1 + e l med l abs 2 cos ( π l med l coh ) e l med 2 l abs ] ,
SNR p m NEP 2 + 4 h ν P / η τ

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