Abstract

Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is based upon the generation of an ultrasound pulse arising from subsurface tissue absorption due to pulsed laser excitation, and measurement of its surface time-of-arrival. Expensive and bulky pulsed lasers with high peak fluence powers may provide shortcomings for applications of PA imaging in medicine and biology. These limitations may be overcome with the frequency-domain PA measurements, which employ modulated rather than pulsed light to generate the acoustic wave. In this contribution, we model the single modulation frequency based PA pressures on the measurement plane through the diffraction approximation and then employ a convolution approach to reconstruct the sectional image slices. The results demonstrate that the proposed method with appropriate data post-processing is capable of recovering sectional images while suppressing the defocused noise resulting from the other sections.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Non-invasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional imaging of the brain in vivo,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional opto-acoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Sun and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: phantom studies in a spherical scanning geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(18), 5457–5467 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 503–509 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. F. Fedele, J. P. Laible, and M. J. Eppstein, “Coupled complex adjoint sensitivities for frequency-domain fluorescence tomography: theory and vectorized implementation,” J. Comput. Phys. 187(2), 597–619 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 74–82 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, “Light transport in biological tissue based on the simplified spherical harmonics equations,” J. Comput. Phys. 220(1), 441–470 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Lu, B. Zhu, H. Shen, J. C. Rasmussen, G. Wang, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “A parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4625–4645 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Petschke and P. J. La Rivière, “Comparison of intensity-modulated continuous-wave lasers with a chirped modulation frequency to pulsed lasers for photoacoustic imaging applications,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(4), 1188–1195 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, B. Zhu, H. Shen, J. C. Rasmussen, G. Wang, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “A parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4625–4645 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shen and G. Wang, “A tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulator,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(4), 947–962 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang and E. Y. Lam, “Edge-preserving sectional image reconstruction in optical scanning holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(7), 1630–1637 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lam, X. Zhang, H. Vo, T. C. Poon, and G. Indebetouw, “Three-dimensional microscopy and sectional image reconstruction using optical scanning holography,” Appl. Opt. 48(34), H113–H119 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Cox, S. R. Arridge, and P. C. Beard, “Estimating chromophore distributions from multiwavelength photoacoustic images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(2), 443–455 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional opto-acoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: phantom studies in a spherical scanning geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(18), 5457–5467 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Tutorial on photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 171–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Baddour, “Theory and analysis of frequency-domain photoacoustic tomography,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123(5), 2577–2590 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue with intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, E. Y. Lam, and T. C. Poon, “Reconstruction of sectional images in holography using inverse imaging,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17215–17226 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Z. Yuan, Q. Wang, and H. Jiang, “Reconstruction of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media by photoacoustic tomography coupled with diffusion equation based regularized Newton method,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18076–18081 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baluk, J. Fuxe, H. Hashizume, T. Romano, E. Lashnits, S. Butz, D. Vestweber, M. Corada, C. Molendini, E. Dejana, and D. M. McDonald, “Functionally specialized junctions between endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels,” J. Exp. Med. 204(10), 2349–2362 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, “Light transport in biological tissue based on the simplified spherical harmonics equations,” J. Comput. Phys. 220(1), 441–470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Non-invasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional imaging of the brain in vivo,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Fedele, J. P. Laible, and M. J. Eppstein, “Coupled complex adjoint sensitivities for frequency-domain fluorescence tomography: theory and vectorized implementation,” J. Comput. Phys. 187(2), 597–619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

U. Schnars and W. P. O. Jutner, “Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(9), R85–R101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, J. Leigh, S. Nioka, and M. Maris, “Quantitation of time- and frequency-resolved optical spectra for the determination of tissue oxygenation,” Anal. Biochem. 195(2), 330–351 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

Arridge, S. R.

Baddour, N.

N. Baddour, “Theory and analysis of frequency-domain photoacoustic tomography,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123(5), 2577–2590 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baluk, P.

P. Baluk, J. Fuxe, H. Hashizume, T. Romano, E. Lashnits, S. Butz, D. Vestweber, M. Corada, C. Molendini, E. Dejana, and D. M. McDonald, “Functionally specialized junctions between endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels,” J. Exp. Med. 204(10), 2349–2362 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beard, P. C.

Brecht, H. P.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional opto-acoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butz, S.

P. Baluk, J. Fuxe, H. Hashizume, T. Romano, E. Lashnits, S. Butz, D. Vestweber, M. Corada, C. Molendini, E. Dejana, and D. M. McDonald, “Functionally specialized junctions between endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels,” J. Exp. Med. 204(10), 2349–2362 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, J. Leigh, S. Nioka, and M. Maris, “Quantitation of time- and frequency-resolved optical spectra for the determination of tissue oxygenation,” Anal. Biochem. 195(2), 330–351 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 28(12), 2331–2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conjusteau, A.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional opto-acoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corada, M.

P. Baluk, J. Fuxe, H. Hashizume, T. Romano, E. Lashnits, S. Butz, D. Vestweber, M. Corada, C. Molendini, E. Dejana, and D. M. McDonald, “Functionally specialized junctions between endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels,” J. Exp. Med. 204(10), 2349–2362 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, B. T.

B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Cox, S. R. Arridge, and P. C. Beard, “Estimating chromophore distributions from multiwavelength photoacoustic images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(2), 443–455 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dejana, E.

P. Baluk, J. Fuxe, H. Hashizume, T. Romano, E. Lashnits, S. Butz, D. Vestweber, M. Corada, C. Molendini, E. Dejana, and D. M. McDonald, “Functionally specialized junctions between endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels,” J. Exp. Med. 204(10), 2349–2362 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Distel, M.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eppstein, M. J.

F. Fedele, J. P. Laible, and M. J. Eppstein, “Coupled complex adjoint sensitivities for frequency-domain fluorescence tomography: theory and vectorized implementation,” J. Comput. Phys. 187(2), 597–619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ermilov, S. A.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional opto-acoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedele, F.

F. Fedele, J. P. Laible, and M. J. Eppstein, “Coupled complex adjoint sensitivities for frequency-domain fluorescence tomography: theory and vectorized implementation,” J. Comput. Phys. 187(2), 597–619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fife, C. E.

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fronheiser, M.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional opto-acoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuxe, J.

P. Baluk, J. Fuxe, H. Hashizume, T. Romano, E. Lashnits, S. Butz, D. Vestweber, M. Corada, C. Molendini, E. Dejana, and D. M. McDonald, “Functionally specialized junctions between endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels,” J. Exp. Med. 204(10), 2349–2362 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, F.

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hashizume, H.

P. Baluk, J. Fuxe, H. Hashizume, T. Romano, E. Lashnits, S. Butz, D. Vestweber, M. Corada, C. Molendini, E. Dejana, and D. M. McDonald, “Functionally specialized junctions between endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels,” J. Exp. Med. 204(10), 2349–2362 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Indebetouw, G.

Jiang, H.

Jutner, W. P. O.

U. Schnars and W. P. O. Jutner, “Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(9), R85–R101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klose, A. D.

A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, “Light transport in biological tissue based on the simplified spherical harmonics equations,” J. Comput. Phys. 220(1), 441–470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Köster, R. W.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ku, G.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Non-invasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional imaging of the brain in vivo,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

La Rivière, P. J.

Laible, J. P.

F. Fedele, J. P. Laible, and M. J. Eppstein, “Coupled complex adjoint sensitivities for frequency-domain fluorescence tomography: theory and vectorized implementation,” J. Comput. Phys. 187(2), 597–619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lam, E. Y.

Larsen, E. W.

A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, “Light transport in biological tissue based on the simplified spherical harmonics equations,” J. Comput. Phys. 220(1), 441–470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lashnits, E.

P. Baluk, J. Fuxe, H. Hashizume, T. Romano, E. Lashnits, S. Butz, D. Vestweber, M. Corada, C. Molendini, E. Dejana, and D. M. McDonald, “Functionally specialized junctions between endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels,” J. Exp. Med. 204(10), 2349–2362 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leigh, J.

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, J. Leigh, S. Nioka, and M. Maris, “Quantitation of time- and frequency-resolved optical spectra for the determination of tissue oxygenation,” Anal. Biochem. 195(2), 330–351 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, B. Zhu, H. Shen, J. C. Rasmussen, G. Wang, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “A parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4625–4645 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, R.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maris, M.

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, J. Leigh, S. Nioka, and M. Maris, “Quantitation of time- and frequency-resolved optical spectra for the determination of tissue oxygenation,” Anal. Biochem. 195(2), 330–351 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, M. V.

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

K. Maslov and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue with intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonald, D. M.

P. Baluk, J. Fuxe, H. Hashizume, T. Romano, E. Lashnits, S. Butz, D. Vestweber, M. Corada, C. Molendini, E. Dejana, and D. M. McDonald, “Functionally specialized junctions between endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels,” J. Exp. Med. 204(10), 2349–2362 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molendini, C.

P. Baluk, J. Fuxe, H. Hashizume, T. Romano, E. Lashnits, S. Butz, D. Vestweber, M. Corada, C. Molendini, E. Dejana, and D. M. McDonald, “Functionally specialized junctions between endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels,” J. Exp. Med. 204(10), 2349–2362 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nioka, S.

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, J. Leigh, S. Nioka, and M. Maris, “Quantitation of time- and frequency-resolved optical spectra for the determination of tissue oxygenation,” Anal. Biochem. 195(2), 330–351 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oraevsky, A. A.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional opto-acoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Non-invasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional imaging of the brain in vivo,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Perrimon, N.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petschke, A.

Poon, T. C.

Rasmussen, J. C.

Y. Lu, B. Zhu, H. Shen, J. C. Rasmussen, G. Wang, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “A parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4625–4645 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Razansky, D.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Romano, T.

P. Baluk, J. Fuxe, H. Hashizume, T. Romano, E. Lashnits, S. Butz, D. Vestweber, M. Corada, C. Molendini, E. Dejana, and D. M. McDonald, “Functionally specialized junctions between endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels,” J. Exp. Med. 204(10), 2349–2362 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnars, U.

U. Schnars and W. P. O. Jutner, “Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(9), R85–R101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sevick, E. M.

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, J. Leigh, S. Nioka, and M. Maris, “Quantitation of time- and frequency-resolved optical spectra for the determination of tissue oxygenation,” Anal. Biochem. 195(2), 330–351 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

Y. Lu, B. Zhu, H. Shen, J. C. Rasmussen, G. Wang, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “A parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4625–4645 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, H.

H. Shen and G. Wang, “A tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulator,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(4), 947–962 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, B. Zhu, H. Shen, J. C. Rasmussen, G. Wang, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “A parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4625–4645 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, K. H.

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Non-invasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional imaging of the brain in vivo,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, R.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional opto-acoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: phantom studies in a spherical scanning geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(18), 5457–5467 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, I. C.

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treeby, B. E.

B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vestweber, D.

P. Baluk, J. Fuxe, H. Hashizume, T. Romano, E. Lashnits, S. Butz, D. Vestweber, M. Corada, C. Molendini, E. Dejana, and D. M. McDonald, “Functionally specialized junctions between endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels,” J. Exp. Med. 204(10), 2349–2362 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinegoni, C.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vo, H.

Wang, G.

Y. Lu, B. Zhu, H. Shen, J. C. Rasmussen, G. Wang, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “A parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4625–4645 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shen and G. Wang, “A tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulator,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(4), 947–962 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Tutorial on photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 171–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue with intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Non-invasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional imaging of the brain in vivo,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Non-invasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional imaging of the brain in vivo,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Wu, C.

Xie, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Non-invasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional imaging of the brain in vivo,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z.

Zhang, X.

Zhao, H.

Zhu, B.

Y. Lu, B. Zhu, H. Shen, J. C. Rasmussen, G. Wang, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “A parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4625–4645 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, J. Leigh, S. Nioka, and M. Maris, “Quantitation of time- and frequency-resolved optical spectra for the determination of tissue oxygenation,” Anal. Biochem. 195(2), 330–351 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. V. Wang, “Tutorial on photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 171–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

N. Baddour, “Theory and analysis of frequency-domain photoacoustic tomography,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123(5), 2577–2590 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

K. Maslov and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue with intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional opto-acoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comput. Phys. (2)

F. Fedele, J. P. Laible, and M. J. Eppstein, “Coupled complex adjoint sensitivities for frequency-domain fluorescence tomography: theory and vectorized implementation,” J. Comput. Phys. 187(2), 597–619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, “Light transport in biological tissue based on the simplified spherical harmonics equations,” J. Comput. Phys. 220(1), 441–470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Med. (1)

P. Baluk, J. Fuxe, H. Hashizume, T. Romano, E. Lashnits, S. Butz, D. Vestweber, M. Corada, C. Molendini, E. Dejana, and D. M. McDonald, “Functionally specialized junctions between endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels,” J. Exp. Med. 204(10), 2349–2362 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

U. Schnars and W. P. O. Jutner, “Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(9), R85–R101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Non-invasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional imaging of the brain in vivo,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

Y. Sun and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: phantom studies in a spherical scanning geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(18), 5457–5467 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, B. Zhu, H. Shen, J. C. Rasmussen, G. Wang, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “A parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4625–4645 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shen and G. Wang, “A tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulator,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(4), 947–962 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology (1)

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Coordinate system for the measurement plane and slab tissue.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of single frequency based photoacoustic tomography process, where “Re” represents the real part.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized amplitude and phase of complex photon fluence as a function of distance from the top surface of the slab tissue.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized amplitude (a) and phase (b) of photoacoustic wave on the measurement plane.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reconstructed sectional images of the blood vessels using convolution approach at two different depths: (a) z 16 =4.8 cm and (b) z 18 =4.9 cm. Their corresponding absorptive coefficient profiles through ζ=0.8 cm indicating the shifted initial optical absorption coefficient (blue dash line) and reconstruction (red solid line) are shown in (c) and (d), respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reconstructed sectional images of the blood vessels using convolution approach along with data post-processing at two different depths: (a) z 16 =4.8 cm and (b) z 18 =4.9 cm. Their corresponding absorptive coefficient profiles through ζ=0.8 cm indicating the shifted initial optical absorption coefficient (blue dash line) and reconstruction (red solid line) are shown in (c) and (d), respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reconstructed sectional image of the surrounding tissues using convolution approach along with data post-processing at depth   z 11 =4.55 cm (a). The corresponding absorptive coefficient profiles through ζ=0.8 cm indicating the shifted initial optical absorption coefficient (blue dash line) and reconstruction (red solid line) are shown in (b).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The C-scan or en face images of the reconstructed blood vessels (a) and its corresponding absorptive coefficient profiles through ζ=0.8 cm indicating the shifted initial optical absorption coefficient (blue dash line) and reconstruction (red solid line) (b).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Reconstructed sectional images of the blood vessels located at z 16 =4.8 cm (a) and lymphatic vessels located at z 18 =4.9 cm (b) using convolution approach along with data post-processing. Their corresponding absorptive coefficient profiles through ζ=0.8 cm indicating the shifted initial optical absorption coefficient (blue dash line) and reconstruction (red solid line) are shown in (c) and (d), respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The C-scan or en face images of the reconstructed blood and lymphatic vessels (a) and its corresponding absorptive coefficient profiles through ζ=0.8 cm indicating the shifted initial optical absorption coefficient (blue dash line) and reconstruction (red solid line) (b).

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 p( r ,ω )+ k 0 2 p( r ,ω )=i k 0 c 0 βΦ( r ) C p =AΦ( r )
·( DΨ )+kΨ=S on Ω
n ·( DΨ )+bΨ=0 on Ω
p( x,y,ω )= + AΦ( ζ,η,z )g( ζ,η,x,y,z )dζdηdz
g( ζ,η,x,y;z )= i λ exp[ i 2π λ z 2 + ( xζ ) 2 + ( yη ) 2 ] z 2 + ( xζ ) 2 + ( yη ) 2
p( x,y,ω )= m=1 M (AΦg)( x,y, z m )
(p g * )( ζ,η, z 1 )=AΦ( ζ,η, z 1 ) + m=2 M AΦ( ζ,η, z m ) g * ( ζ,η, z 1 )

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