Abstract

The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) plasma characteristics are known to strongly dependent on the surrounding pressure. Six different samples (C, Ni, Cu, Sn, Al, Zn) are used to support the existence of a `soft spot’ in the vicinity of 1 torr where the maxima in plasma lifetime is observed. With pressure decrease, the elemental lifetimes of samples except for carbon increased until 1 torr and started to decline with continued pressure drop. The boiling point and electronegativity of the samples are amongst the physicochemical properties that are used to explain this peculiarity.

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  1. N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Rieder, T. Economou, H. Wänke, A. Turkevich, J. Crisp, J. Brückner, G. Dreibus, and H. Y. McSween., “The chemical composition of Martian soil and rocks returned by the mobile alpha proton X-ray spectrometer: preliminary results from the X-ray mode,” Science 278(5344), 1771–1774 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  4. G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, B. Ahlers, and F. Rull, “Combined Raman spectrometer / laser-induced breakdown spectrometer for the next ESA mission to Mars,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 68(4), 1023–1028 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (1)

A. J. Effenberger and J. R. Scott, “Effect of atmospheric conditions on LIBS spectra,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 10(5), 4907–4925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. S. Cowpe, R. D. Pilkington, J. S. Astin, and A. E. Hill, “The effect of ambient pressure on laser-induced silicon plasma temperature, density and morphology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(16), 165202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. S. Cowpe and R. D. Pilkington, “Swagelok Ultra-Torr based feed-through design for coupling optical fibre bundles into vacuum systems,” Vacuum 82(11), 1341–1343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, B. Ahlers, and F. Rull, “Combined Raman spectrometer / laser-induced breakdown spectrometer for the next ESA mission to Mars,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 68(4), 1023–1028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Dreyer, G. S. Mungas, P. Thanh, and J. G. Radziszewski, “Study of sub-mJ-excited laser-induced plasma combined with Raman spectroscopy under Mars atmosphere-simulated conditions,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62(12), 1448–1459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Yalcin, Y. Y. Tsui, and R. Fedosejevs, “Pressure dependence of emission intensity in femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 1295–1301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. S. Harilal, C. V. Bindhu, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Influence of ambient gas on the temperature and density of laser produced carbon plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(2), 167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Rieder, T. Economou, H. Wänke, A. Turkevich, J. Crisp, J. Brückner, G. Dreibus, and H. Y. McSween., “The chemical composition of Martian soil and rocks returned by the mobile alpha proton X-ray spectrometer: preliminary results from the X-ray mode,” Science 278(5344), 1771–1774 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahlers, B.

G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, B. Ahlers, and F. Rull, “Combined Raman spectrometer / laser-induced breakdown spectrometer for the next ESA mission to Mars,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 68(4), 1023–1028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Astin, J. S.

J. S. Cowpe, R. D. Pilkington, J. S. Astin, and A. E. Hill, “The effect of ambient pressure on laser-induced silicon plasma temperature, density and morphology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(16), 165202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bindhu, C. V.

S. S. Harilal, C. V. Bindhu, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Influence of ambient gas on the temperature and density of laser produced carbon plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(2), 167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brückner, J.

R. Rieder, T. Economou, H. Wänke, A. Turkevich, J. Crisp, J. Brückner, G. Dreibus, and H. Y. McSween., “The chemical composition of Martian soil and rocks returned by the mobile alpha proton X-ray spectrometer: preliminary results from the X-ray mode,” Science 278(5344), 1771–1774 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courreges-Lacoste, G. B.

G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, B. Ahlers, and F. Rull, “Combined Raman spectrometer / laser-induced breakdown spectrometer for the next ESA mission to Mars,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 68(4), 1023–1028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cowpe, J. S.

J. S. Cowpe, R. D. Pilkington, J. S. Astin, and A. E. Hill, “The effect of ambient pressure on laser-induced silicon plasma temperature, density and morphology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(16), 165202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Cowpe and R. D. Pilkington, “Swagelok Ultra-Torr based feed-through design for coupling optical fibre bundles into vacuum systems,” Vacuum 82(11), 1341–1343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crisp, J.

R. Rieder, T. Economou, H. Wänke, A. Turkevich, J. Crisp, J. Brückner, G. Dreibus, and H. Y. McSween., “The chemical composition of Martian soil and rocks returned by the mobile alpha proton X-ray spectrometer: preliminary results from the X-ray mode,” Science 278(5344), 1771–1774 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

d’Uston, C.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dreibus, G.

R. Rieder, T. Economou, H. Wänke, A. Turkevich, J. Crisp, J. Brückner, G. Dreibus, and H. Y. McSween., “The chemical composition of Martian soil and rocks returned by the mobile alpha proton X-ray spectrometer: preliminary results from the X-ray mode,” Science 278(5344), 1771–1774 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreyer, C. B.

C. B. Dreyer, G. S. Mungas, P. Thanh, and J. G. Radziszewski, “Study of sub-mJ-excited laser-induced plasma combined with Raman spectroscopy under Mars atmosphere-simulated conditions,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62(12), 1448–1459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Economou, T.

R. Rieder, T. Economou, H. Wänke, A. Turkevich, J. Crisp, J. Brückner, G. Dreibus, and H. Y. McSween., “The chemical composition of Martian soil and rocks returned by the mobile alpha proton X-ray spectrometer: preliminary results from the X-ray mode,” Science 278(5344), 1771–1774 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Effenberger, A. J.

A. J. Effenberger and J. R. Scott, “Effect of atmospheric conditions on LIBS spectra,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 10(5), 4907–4925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedosejevs, R.

S. Yalcin, Y. Y. Tsui, and R. Fedosejevs, “Pressure dependence of emission intensity in femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 1295–1301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gasnault, O.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grande, M.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harilal, S. S.

S. S. Harilal, C. V. Bindhu, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Influence of ambient gas on the temperature and density of laser produced carbon plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(2), 167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hasebe, N.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hill, A. E.

J. S. Cowpe, R. D. Pilkington, J. S. Astin, and A. E. Hill, “The effect of ambient pressure on laser-induced silicon plasma temperature, density and morphology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(16), 165202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, K.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ishizaki, T.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.-N.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maurice, S.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McSween, H. Y.

R. Rieder, T. Economou, H. Wänke, A. Turkevich, J. Crisp, J. Brückner, G. Dreibus, and H. Y. McSween., “The chemical composition of Martian soil and rocks returned by the mobile alpha proton X-ray spectrometer: preliminary results from the X-ray mode,” Science 278(5344), 1771–1774 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyachi, T.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miyajima, M.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mungas, G. S.

C. B. Dreyer, G. S. Mungas, P. Thanh, and J. G. Radziszewski, “Study of sub-mJ-excited laser-induced plasma combined with Raman spectroscopy under Mars atmosphere-simulated conditions,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62(12), 1448–1459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nampoori, V. P. N.

S. S. Harilal, C. V. Bindhu, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Influence of ambient gas on the temperature and density of laser produced carbon plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(2), 167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okudaira, O.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pilkington, R. D.

J. S. Cowpe, R. D. Pilkington, J. S. Astin, and A. E. Hill, “The effect of ambient pressure on laser-induced silicon plasma temperature, density and morphology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(16), 165202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Cowpe and R. D. Pilkington, “Swagelok Ultra-Torr based feed-through design for coupling optical fibre bundles into vacuum systems,” Vacuum 82(11), 1341–1343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Radziszewski, J. G.

C. B. Dreyer, G. S. Mungas, P. Thanh, and J. G. Radziszewski, “Study of sub-mJ-excited laser-induced plasma combined with Raman spectroscopy under Mars atmosphere-simulated conditions,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62(12), 1448–1459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reedy, R.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rieder, R.

R. Rieder, T. Economou, H. Wänke, A. Turkevich, J. Crisp, J. Brückner, G. Dreibus, and H. Y. McSween., “The chemical composition of Martian soil and rocks returned by the mobile alpha proton X-ray spectrometer: preliminary results from the X-ray mode,” Science 278(5344), 1771–1774 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rull, F.

G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, B. Ahlers, and F. Rull, “Combined Raman spectrometer / laser-induced breakdown spectrometer for the next ESA mission to Mars,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 68(4), 1023–1028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, K.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. R.

A. J. Effenberger and J. R. Scott, “Effect of atmospheric conditions on LIBS spectra,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 10(5), 4907–4925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shibamura, E.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takashima, T.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thanh, P.

C. B. Dreyer, G. S. Mungas, P. Thanh, and J. G. Radziszewski, “Study of sub-mJ-excited laser-induced plasma combined with Raman spectroscopy under Mars atmosphere-simulated conditions,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62(12), 1448–1459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsui, Y. Y.

S. Yalcin, Y. Y. Tsui, and R. Fedosejevs, “Pressure dependence of emission intensity in femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 1295–1301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Turkevich, A.

R. Rieder, T. Economou, H. Wänke, A. Turkevich, J. Crisp, J. Brückner, G. Dreibus, and H. Y. McSween., “The chemical composition of Martian soil and rocks returned by the mobile alpha proton X-ray spectrometer: preliminary results from the X-ray mode,” Science 278(5344), 1771–1774 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallabhan, C. P. G.

S. S. Harilal, C. V. Bindhu, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Influence of ambient gas on the temperature and density of laser produced carbon plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(2), 167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wänke, H.

R. Rieder, T. Economou, H. Wänke, A. Turkevich, J. Crisp, J. Brückner, G. Dreibus, and H. Y. McSween., “The chemical composition of Martian soil and rocks returned by the mobile alpha proton X-ray spectrometer: preliminary results from the X-ray mode,” Science 278(5344), 1771–1774 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yalcin, S.

S. Yalcin, Y. Y. Tsui, and R. Fedosejevs, “Pressure dependence of emission intensity in femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 1295–1301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, H.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, N.

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

N. Hasebe, N. Yamashita, O. Okudaira, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto, T. Ishizaki, K. Hirano, K. Sakurai, T. Miyachi, M. Miyajima, M. Fujii, M.-N. Kobayashi, T. Takashima, E. Shibamura, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, C. d’Uston, R. Reedy, and M. Grande, “The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for lunar polar orbiter SELENE,” Adv. Space Res. 42(2), 323–330 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. S. Harilal, C. V. Bindhu, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Influence of ambient gas on the temperature and density of laser produced carbon plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(2), 167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (1)

S. Yalcin, Y. Y. Tsui, and R. Fedosejevs, “Pressure dependence of emission intensity in femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 1295–1301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

J. S. Cowpe, R. D. Pilkington, J. S. Astin, and A. E. Hill, “The effect of ambient pressure on laser-induced silicon plasma temperature, density and morphology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(16), 165202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. Rieder, T. Economou, H. Wänke, A. Turkevich, J. Crisp, J. Brückner, G. Dreibus, and H. Y. McSween., “The chemical composition of Martian soil and rocks returned by the mobile alpha proton X-ray spectrometer: preliminary results from the X-ray mode,” Science 278(5344), 1771–1774 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel Switzerland) (1)

A. J. Effenberger and J. R. Scott, “Effect of atmospheric conditions on LIBS spectra,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 10(5), 4907–4925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta, Part A (1)

G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, B. Ahlers, and F. Rull, “Combined Raman spectrometer / laser-induced breakdown spectrometer for the next ESA mission to Mars,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 68(4), 1023–1028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta, Part B (1)

C. B. Dreyer, G. S. Mungas, P. Thanh, and J. G. Radziszewski, “Study of sub-mJ-excited laser-induced plasma combined with Raman spectroscopy under Mars atmosphere-simulated conditions,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62(12), 1448–1459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

J. S. Cowpe and R. D. Pilkington, “Swagelok Ultra-Torr based feed-through design for coupling optical fibre bundles into vacuum systems,” Vacuum 82(11), 1341–1343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

http://www.nist.gov/pml/data/asd.cfm

C. Fabre, S. Maurice, R. Wiens, and V. Sautter, “ChemCam LIBS Instrument: Complete Characterization of the Onboard Calibration Silicate Targets (MSL Rover),” presented at the 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, No. 1533, 2010.

A. W. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): fundamentals and applications (Cambridge University Press, 2006).

K. Denbigh, The principles of chemical equilibrium (Cambridge University Press, 1968).

http://www.ptable.com/?lang=en

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Elemental lifetimes of neutral atoms in low pressure conditions (1 bar = 760 torr).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Elemental lifetimes of neutral carbon atom and C-N molecule.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Estimated boiling point of each element.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LIBS spectra of CN band and neutral carbon atom from graphite target according to gate delay at 760 torr.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Physicochemical properties of test samples [14]

Equations (1)

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T 2 = 1 ln( P 1 P 2 )( R Δh )+ 1 T 1

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