Abstract

In this work, we develop a pulsed terahertz imaging system in reflection geometry, where due to scanning of the terahertz beam neither the sample nor the emitter and detector have to be moved. We use a two mirror galvanoscanner for deflecting the beam, in combination with a single rotationally symmetric focusing lens. In order to efficiently image planar structures, we develop an advanced scanning routine that resolves all bending effects of the imaging plane already during measurement. Thus, the measurement time is reduced, and efficient imaging of surfaces and interfaces becomes possible. We demonstrate the potential of this method in particular for a plastic-metal composite sample, for which non-destructive evaluation of an interface is performed.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (2)

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, H. Wang, M. Koch, and G. Zhao, “Terahertz spectroscopy on adhesive bonds,” Polym. Test. 30, 150–154 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Jepsen, D. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

M. Naftaly and R. Dudley, “Methodologies for determining the dynamic ranges and signal-to-noise ratios of terahertz time-domain spectrometers,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1213–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real-time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

2007 (3)

S. Wietzke, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. - Rapid 2, 07013–1–5 (2007).

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

S. Ariyoshi, C. Otani, A. Dobroiu, H. Sato, K. Kawase, H. M. Shimizu, T. Taino, and H. Matsuo, “Terahertz imaging with a direct detector based on superconducting tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203503–1–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu, J. Shen, N. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Zhang, L. Liang, and X. Xu, “Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 103104–1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhong, A. Redo-Sanchez, and X.-C. Zhang, “Identification and classification of chemicals using terahertz reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging system,” Opt. Express 14, 9130–9141 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

P. U. Jepsen and B. M. Fischer, “Dynamic range in terahertz time-domain transmission and reflection spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30, 29–31 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Lee and Q. Hu, “Real-time, continuous-wave terahertz imaging by use of a microbolometer focal-plane array,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2563–2565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054105–1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116–1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbot, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray computed tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1312–1314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

D. M. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, and M. Geva, “Noncontact semiconductor wafer characterization with the terahertz Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 16–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924–2926 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, R. H. Jacobsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulses from biased semiconductor antennas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2424–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma1, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, “Terahertz optical rectification from < 110 > zinc-blende crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324–1326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784–1786 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1975 (1)

D. H. Auston, “Picosecond optoelectronic switching and gating in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 101–103 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Abbot, D.

Abraham, E.

Alexander, M.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma1, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, “Terahertz optical rectification from < 110 > zinc-blende crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324–1326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Araki, T.

Ariyoshi, S.

S. Ariyoshi, C. Otani, A. Dobroiu, H. Sato, K. Kawase, H. M. Shimizu, T. Taino, and H. Matsuo, “Terahertz imaging with a direct detector based on superconducting tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203503–1–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, D. D.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auston, D. H.

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784–1786 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, “Picosecond optoelectronic switching and gating in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 101–103 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bachtler, S.

Bastian, M.

S. Wietzke, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. - Rapid 2, 07013–1–5 (2007).

Baudrit, B.

S. Wietzke, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. - Rapid 2, 07013–1–5 (2007).

Beigang, R.

Bliss, D.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma1, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, “Terahertz optical rectification from < 110 > zinc-blende crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324–1326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Böhler, W.

W. Böhler, M. Bordas Vicent, and A. Marbs, “Investigating laser scanner accuracy,” in Proc. of XIXth CIPA International Symposium (2003).

Bordas Vicent, M.

W. Böhler, M. Bordas Vicent, and A. Marbs, “Investigating laser scanner accuracy,” in Proc. of XIXth CIPA International Symposium (2003).

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G.

J. Xu and G. Cho, “A real-time terahertz wave imager,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CThN2, (2008).
[PubMed]

Cluff, J. A.

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, Edited by R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, Proc. SPIE, Volume 5070, (2003), pp. 44–52.

Cole, B. E.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116–1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, Edited by R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, Proc. SPIE, Volume 5070, (2003), pp. 44–52.

Cooke, D.

P. Jepsen, D. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real-time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

D. M. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, and M. Geva, “Noncontact semiconductor wafer characterization with the terahertz Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 16–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deibel, J.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ding, S.-H.

Dobroiu, A.

S. Ariyoshi, C. Otani, A. Dobroiu, H. Sato, K. Kawase, H. M. Shimizu, T. Taino, and H. Matsuo, “Terahertz imaging with a direct detector based on superconducting tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203503–1–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, R.

Duling, I.

D. Zimdars, G. Fichter, C. Megdanoff, M. Murdock, I. Duling, J. White, and S. L. Williamson, “Portable video rate time domain terahertz line imager for security and aerospace nondestructive examination,” in Terahertz Physics, Devices, and Systems IV: Advanced Applications in Industry and Defense, Proc. SPIE Vol. 7671, (2010), pp. 76710K–1–8.

Duling, I. N.

I. N. Duling, J. White, and S. Williamson, “High speed imaging with time domain terahertz,” in 35th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), (2010), p. 1.

Ezdi, K.

K. Ezdi, B. Heinen, C. Jördens, N. Vieweg, N. Krumbholz, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, S. Katletz, and M. Koch, “Pulsed THz antennas – a time-domain approach,” in Proc. IRMMW-THz 2009 in Busan, South Korea, (2009).

Fattinger, C.

Ferguson, B.

Fichter, G.

D. Zimdars, G. Fichter, C. Megdanoff, M. Murdock, I. Duling, J. White, and S. L. Williamson, “Portable video rate time domain terahertz line imager for security and aerospace nondestructive examination,” in Terahertz Physics, Devices, and Systems IV: Advanced Applications in Industry and Defense, Proc. SPIE Vol. 7671, (2010), pp. 76710K–1–8.

Fischer, B. M.

Fitzgerald, A. J.

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, Edited by R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, Proc. SPIE, Volume 5070, (2003), pp. 44–52.

Freese, W.

Geva, M.

D. M. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, and M. Geva, “Noncontact semiconductor wafer characterization with the terahertz Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 16–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D.

Grischkowsky, D.

Hashimoto, M.

Heinen, B.

K. Ezdi, B. Heinen, C. Jördens, N. Vieweg, N. Krumbholz, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, S. Katletz, and M. Koch, “Pulsed THz antennas – a time-domain approach,” in Proc. IRMMW-THz 2009 in Busan, South Korea, (2009).

Herrmann, M.

Hewitt, T. D.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hochrein, T.

Hu, B. B.

Hu, D.

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real-time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

Hwang, J.-S.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054105–1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ihara, A.

Jacobsen, R. H.

Jansen, C.

Jepsen, P.

P. Jepsen, D. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

Jiang, Z.

Jin, Y.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma1, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, “Terahertz optical rectification from < 110 > zinc-blende crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324–1326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jonuscheit, J.

Jördens, C.

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49, E48–E57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47, 037003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Wietzke, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. - Rapid 2, 07013–1–5 (2007).

K. Ezdi, B. Heinen, C. Jördens, N. Vieweg, N. Krumbholz, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, S. Katletz, and M. Koch, “Pulsed THz antennas – a time-domain approach,” in Proc. IRMMW-THz 2009 in Busan, South Korea, (2009).

Karpowicz, N.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054105–1–3 (2005).
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K. Ezdi, B. Heinen, C. Jördens, N. Vieweg, N. Krumbholz, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, S. Katletz, and M. Koch, “Pulsed THz antennas – a time-domain approach,” in Proc. IRMMW-THz 2009 in Busan, South Korea, (2009).

Kawase, K.

S. Ariyoshi, C. Otani, A. Dobroiu, H. Sato, K. Kawase, H. M. Shimizu, T. Taino, and H. Matsuo, “Terahertz imaging with a direct detector based on superconducting tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203503–1–3 (2006).
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K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, and Y. Watanabe, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral finger-prints,” Opt. Express 11, 2549–2554 (2003).
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Keiding, S. R.

Kemp, M. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116–1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, Edited by R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, Proc. SPIE, Volume 5070, (2003), pp. 44–52.

Kitaoka, Y.

K. Serita, S. Mizuno, H. Murakami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, Y. Takahashi, M. Yoshimura, Y. Kitaoka, and Y. Mori, “Development of laser scanning terahertz imaging system using organic nonlinear optical crystal,” in 35th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, (IRMMW-THz), (2010).
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Koch, M.

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C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, H. Wang, M. Koch, and G. Zhao, “Terahertz spectroscopy on adhesive bonds,” Polym. Test. 30, 150–154 (2011).
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M. A. Salhi, I. Pupeza, and M. Koch, “Confocal thz laser microscope,” J. Infrared Millim. Te. 31, 358–366 (2010).

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49, E48–E57 (2010).
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S. Wietzke, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. - Rapid 2, 07013–1–5 (2007).

K. Ezdi, B. Heinen, C. Jördens, N. Vieweg, N. Krumbholz, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, S. Katletz, and M. Koch, “Pulsed THz antennas – a time-domain approach,” in Proc. IRMMW-THz 2009 in Busan, South Korea, (2009).

Krumbholz, N.

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49, E48–E57 (2010).
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S. Wietzke, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. - Rapid 2, 07013–1–5 (2007).

K. Ezdi, B. Heinen, C. Jördens, N. Vieweg, N. Krumbholz, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, S. Katletz, and M. Koch, “Pulsed THz antennas – a time-domain approach,” in Proc. IRMMW-THz 2009 in Busan, South Korea, (2009).

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A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma1, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, “Terahertz optical rectification from < 110 > zinc-blende crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324–1326 (1994).
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Lee, A. W.

Li, N.

M. Lu, J. Shen, N. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Zhang, L. Liang, and X. Xu, “Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 103104–1–5 (2006).
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Li, Q.

Liang, L.

M. Lu, J. Shen, N. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Zhang, L. Liang, and X. Xu, “Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 103104–1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K.-I.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054105–1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
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Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924–2926 (1996).
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Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116–1–3 (2005).
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M. Lu, J. Shen, N. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Zhang, L. Liang, and X. Xu, “Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 103104–1–5 (2006).
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A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma1, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, “Terahertz optical rectification from < 110 > zinc-blende crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324–1326 (1994).
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S. Ariyoshi, C. Otani, A. Dobroiu, H. Sato, K. Kawase, H. M. Shimizu, T. Taino, and H. Matsuo, “Terahertz imaging with a direct detector based on superconducting tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203503–1–3 (2006).
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Megdanoff, C.

D. Zimdars, G. Fichter, C. Megdanoff, M. Murdock, I. Duling, J. White, and S. L. Williamson, “Portable video rate time domain terahertz line imager for security and aerospace nondestructive examination,” in Terahertz Physics, Devices, and Systems IV: Advanced Applications in Industry and Defense, Proc. SPIE Vol. 7671, (2010), pp. 76710K–1–8.

Mikulics, M.

K. Ezdi, B. Heinen, C. Jördens, N. Vieweg, N. Krumbholz, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, S. Katletz, and M. Koch, “Pulsed THz antennas – a time-domain approach,” in Proc. IRMMW-THz 2009 in Busan, South Korea, (2009).

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Mori, Y.

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K. Serita, S. Mizuno, H. Murakami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, Y. Takahashi, M. Yoshimura, Y. Kitaoka, and Y. Mori, “Development of laser scanning terahertz imaging system using organic nonlinear optical crystal,” in 35th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, (IRMMW-THz), (2010).
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D. Zimdars, G. Fichter, C. Megdanoff, M. Murdock, I. Duling, J. White, and S. L. Williamson, “Portable video rate time domain terahertz line imager for security and aerospace nondestructive examination,” in Terahertz Physics, Devices, and Systems IV: Advanced Applications in Industry and Defense, Proc. SPIE Vol. 7671, (2010), pp. 76710K–1–8.

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D. M. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, and M. Geva, “Noncontact semiconductor wafer characterization with the terahertz Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 16–18 (1997).
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R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
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Pradarutti, B.

Pupeza, I.

M. A. Salhi, I. Pupeza, and M. Koch, “Confocal thz laser microscope,” J. Infrared Millim. Te. 31, 358–366 (2010).

Pye, R. J.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
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Reid, C.

Rice, A.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma1, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, “Terahertz optical rectification from < 110 > zinc-blende crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324–1326 (1994).
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Salhi, M.

Salhi, M. A.

M. A. Salhi, I. Pupeza, and M. Koch, “Confocal thz laser microscope,” J. Infrared Millim. Te. 31, 358–366 (2010).

Sato, H.

S. Ariyoshi, C. Otani, A. Dobroiu, H. Sato, K. Kawase, H. M. Shimizu, T. Taino, and H. Matsuo, “Terahertz imaging with a direct detector based on superconducting tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203503–1–3 (2006).
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K. Serita, S. Mizuno, H. Murakami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, Y. Takahashi, M. Yoshimura, Y. Kitaoka, and Y. Mori, “Development of laser scanning terahertz imaging system using organic nonlinear optical crystal,” in 35th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, (IRMMW-THz), (2010).
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M. Lu, J. Shen, N. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Zhang, L. Liang, and X. Xu, “Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 103104–1–5 (2006).
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Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116–1–3 (2005).
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S. Ariyoshi, C. Otani, A. Dobroiu, H. Sato, K. Kawase, H. M. Shimizu, T. Taino, and H. Matsuo, “Terahertz imaging with a direct detector based on superconducting tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203503–1–3 (2006).
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X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real-time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4683–4687 (2009).
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Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116–1–3 (2005).
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M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, Edited by R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, Proc. SPIE, Volume 5070, (2003), pp. 44–52.

Taino, T.

S. Ariyoshi, C. Otani, A. Dobroiu, H. Sato, K. Kawase, H. M. Shimizu, T. Taino, and H. Matsuo, “Terahertz imaging with a direct detector based on superconducting tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203503–1–3 (2006).
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K. Serita, S. Mizuno, H. Murakami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, Y. Takahashi, M. Yoshimura, Y. Kitaoka, and Y. Mori, “Development of laser scanning terahertz imaging system using organic nonlinear optical crystal,” in 35th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, (IRMMW-THz), (2010).
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Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116–1–3 (2005).
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M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, Edited by R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, Proc. SPIE, Volume 5070, (2003), pp. 44–52.

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van Exter, M.

Vieweg, N.

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49, E48–E57 (2010).
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K. Ezdi, B. Heinen, C. Jördens, N. Vieweg, N. Krumbholz, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, S. Katletz, and M. Koch, “Pulsed THz antennas – a time-domain approach,” in Proc. IRMMW-THz 2009 in Busan, South Korea, (2009).

Wallace, V. P.

V. P. Wallace, E. MacPherson, A. J. Zeitler, and C. Reid, “Three-dimensional imaging of optically opaque materials using nonionizing terahertz radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 3120–3133 (2008).
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C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, H. Wang, M. Koch, and G. Zhao, “Terahertz spectroscopy on adhesive bonds,” Polym. Test. 30, 150–154 (2011).
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Wang, S.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real-time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4683–4687 (2009).
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Watanabe, Y.

White, J.

I. N. Duling, J. White, and S. Williamson, “High speed imaging with time domain terahertz,” in 35th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), (2010), p. 1.

D. Zimdars, G. Fichter, C. Megdanoff, M. Murdock, I. Duling, J. White, and S. L. Williamson, “Portable video rate time domain terahertz line imager for security and aerospace nondestructive examination,” in Terahertz Physics, Devices, and Systems IV: Advanced Applications in Industry and Defense, Proc. SPIE Vol. 7671, (2010), pp. 76710K–1–8.

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Wiesauer, K.

K. Ezdi, B. Heinen, C. Jördens, N. Vieweg, N. Krumbholz, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, S. Katletz, and M. Koch, “Pulsed THz antennas – a time-domain approach,” in Proc. IRMMW-THz 2009 in Busan, South Korea, (2009).

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C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, H. Wang, M. Koch, and G. Zhao, “Terahertz spectroscopy on adhesive bonds,” Polym. Test. 30, 150–154 (2011).
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C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49, E48–E57 (2010).
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S. Wietzke, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. - Rapid 2, 07013–1–5 (2007).

Wilk, R.

K. Ezdi, B. Heinen, C. Jördens, N. Vieweg, N. Krumbholz, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, S. Katletz, and M. Koch, “Pulsed THz antennas – a time-domain approach,” in Proc. IRMMW-THz 2009 in Busan, South Korea, (2009).

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I. N. Duling, J. White, and S. Williamson, “High speed imaging with time domain terahertz,” in 35th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), (2010), p. 1.

Williamson, S. L.

D. Zimdars, G. Fichter, C. Megdanoff, M. Murdock, I. Duling, J. White, and S. L. Williamson, “Portable video rate time domain terahertz line imager for security and aerospace nondestructive examination,” in Terahertz Physics, Devices, and Systems IV: Advanced Applications in Industry and Defense, Proc. SPIE Vol. 7671, (2010), pp. 76710K–1–8.

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R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
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Yasui, T.

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X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real-time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4683–4687 (2009).
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Zhang, C.

M. Lu, J. Shen, N. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Zhang, L. Liang, and X. Xu, “Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 103104–1–5 (2006).
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N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054105–1–3 (2005).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photo of a Böhler star, which is used as a resolution target. (b) Reconstruction of the sample surface, obtained from the time delay of the reflected THz pulse. The flat surface appears curved along one axis, which is an artefact due to scanning.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic drawing of the measurement setup. BS = non polarizing infrared beam splitter, OAPM = off-axis parabolic mirror, THzBS = THz beam splitter

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Time-domain traces for transmitted and reflected THz beam, averaged over 16 measurements. The transmitted signal is scaled by a factor 0.5. (b) Average of 16 specta, obtained by Fourier transform for the transmitted and reflected THz beams and scaled by their respective noise levels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Maximum dynamic range as a function of vertical and horizontal beam deflection calculated in frequency-domain.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Vertical and (b) horizontal cross-sectional depth scans of a planar surface. The vertical phase shift can be fitted by a second order polynomial (dashed line).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Position of the absolute maximum of the time signal from the sample in Fig. 1. The dashed circle indicates the limiting gray ring for determining the resolution. (b) Height profile from the solid and dashed cutlines in (a).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photo of the disassembled composite material sample. The white plastic plate is shown on the left hand side and is usually attached on top of the black ring of glue. The holes drilled into the adhesive layer are indicated by white arrows on the right hand side.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) and (c): THz amplitude images of a ring of adhesive layer between a plastic plate and a metal cylinder. Total acquisition time for (a) was about 18 hours, and 2 1 4 hours for (c). (b) and (d): Single en-face scans, each taking about 2 minutes. (a) and (b) are taken with intact glue, (c) and (d) ( Media 1) after two holes were drilled into the glue and the components reattached. All images are amplitude corrected along the vertical direction. An animation through the sequence of enface scans is available online.

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